6 Insects That Affect Plants In ColoradoPresentation Transcript
Insects that Affect Plants in Colorado
Cabbage loopers and imported Cabbage worm
2 short tubes (stove pipes) projecting out of the abdomen
Green, pink, black. Gray or white fluffy
With or without wings
Suck sap from most small fruits, veges, ornamentals, fruit and shade trees
Cause leaf, bud and flower distortion
Can spread viral diseases
Eggs overwinter on woody stems
Spray woodies with dormant oil
Can use systemics or Malathion
Draw natural predators
Lady bird beetles
Aphid Apple Aphid
Aphid Curling & Distortion
Aphids on Geranium
Army Cutworm Euxoa auxiliaris
Adults: brown or gray moths
1 ½” wingspan
Larvae: fat, greasy looking gray or dull brown
Larvae 1-2” caterpillars with shiny heads
Larvae feed at night on veges and flowers
Cut at the soil line
Lay eggs May to June
Hatch 5-7 days, feed 3-5 weeks
Control: collars around transplants
Round-headed borers are larvae of long-horned beetles,
flat-headed borers are larvae of metallic wood-boring beetles
moth borers are wood chewing caterpillars
Their larvae bore through the bark and tunnel extensively in the wood
Roundheaded borers attack twigs and small branches as well as the trunk
Flat headed Wood Borers The adult beetles have hard shells with a metallic lustre. The heads of the larvae are expanded and flattened Spiral Swellings
Peach Tree Wood Borer
Boxelder bug Boisea trivittata
charcoal colored wings with red veins
Cause deformities on boxelder, ash and maple trees
Usually not serious damage
Can spray with pyrethrin
Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia ni
Adults gray moths with a silver spot in the middle of each forewing
1 ½ to 2” wingspan
Larvae green 1 ½” with 2 white lines
Eggs on undersides of leaves
Chew large holes in cabbage family plants
Moths emerge in May, feed 2-4 weeks
3-4 generations per year
Can use BT
Cabbageworm Artogeia rapae
Codling Moths Cydia pomonella
Gray brown moths
Pink or creamy white 7/8” caterpillars with brown heads
Larvae tunnel through apple, apricot cherry peach, pear and plum fruit, ruining them
Adults emerge when tree in flower
Larvae burrow into fruit core 3-5 weeks
Pupate under tree bark or in ground litter
2-3 generations per year, 5-8 weeks apart
Spray when 75% of petals have fallen
3 sprays in 1-2 week intervals
ID from photographs
Colorado Potato Beetles
Cooley spruce Gall Adelgids
Colorado Potato Beetle
Colorado Potato Beetle
Adults yellow striped about 1/3” long
Defoliate the plants
Eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes
Both adults and larvae chew leaves
Colorado Potato Beetle
1 or 2 generations
Overwinter as adults
Fall clean up
Lady bird beetles
Ground beetles and stink bugs
Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid
Two Hosts: Spruce and Douglas Fir
Immature females overwinter
Matures in Spring, lays 100s of eggs
Larvae migrate to the leaf bases on new growth
Emerge in June – July
Takes two years to complete the cycle
Cooley Spruce Gall
Usually beneficial by eating other insects
Chewing other insects, dead or alive
Like moisture and cracks
Lay eggs in the soil and protect them
20 different species in the US
1/100 of an inch long
2 pairs of legs
Considered plant parasites
Move around on wind, birds, flying insects
Not usually fatal to the plant
Eriophyid Mite damage Ash Flowers
Eriophyid damage on Aspen
Adults; brown, yellow or green
1-2” with leathery forewings and enlarged hind legs
Nymphs like adults but smaller
Eat any kind of vegetation
Eggs masses in the soil, hatch in spring
40-60 days until they molt to adults
Killed by cold weather
Pitch tubes are not always present
Pitch Tubes 1/5 inch long
Carries Blue Stain Fungus
Attacks all species of pine and spruce
Adults bore through the bark into the cambium
Blue Stain Fungus – Ceratocystis
Color change may occur in 2-4 weeks during the summer
Over several months during the winter
Egg to Adult
21-40 days = summer
Several months = winter
Burying infested portions
Beetle is dormant November to March
2 to 5 generations per year
Avoid damage to remaining trees Thin stands to maintain vigor (slash)
Late March – early April
Late July – early August
Timing is critical
Coverage is critical of trunk, large branches and ‘armpits’
Prevention of Spread
Inspect prior to digging
Treat prior to digging
Rootball – 1 foot/ each inch of caliper
Leaf cutter bees
Pearslug (Pear Sawfly)
Pine Tip Moth
Pinon pitch mass borers
Survey and Control of the Japanese Beetle in Mesa County. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Program Aid No. 1599
The Japanese Beetle Was First Introduced into the United States on Nursery Stock From Japan, in 1916. Attempts to control it failed. By 1932, populations were found as far west as St. Louis. New Jersey, 1916 USDA 1998 St. Louis, 1932
Japanese Beetles in Colorado (CSU)
The Most Likely Explanation for its Arrival is that it Came into the Valley on Nursery Stock
Because Mesa County is surrounded by mountains and deserts it is unlikely that the beetle emigrated by itself.
J.M. Moore Univ. of Georgia
What Damage is Done by the Adult Japanese Beetle?
Adults feed on the foliage of over 300 different plants, about 50 species are preferred.
Grape, cherry, peach, plum, raspberry, apple, rose, zinnia and corn are only a few of the preferred plants.
The Larva is Equally as Damaging as the Adult .
The grub of the Japanese Beetle causes extensive damage to the turf of lawns, parks, golf courses and pastures.
Losses due to larval activity: $234 million annually. Losses due to adults: $226 million annually.
White Grubs are the Larvae of a Variety of Beetles.
Japanese Beetles, False Japanese Beetles, May/June Beetles and The Masked Chafer Beetle all have larvae that are called “white grubs.”
Japanese Beetle False Japanese Beetle May/June Beetle Masked Chafer Beetle White Grub (University of Minn. Extension)
Check for The Grubs by Pulling the Grass Back Like a Piece of Carpet
Look for brown or dead areas, survey the edge of this area.
With a square spade remove a piece of turf 12 x 12 x 3 inches.
Counts over 10 grubs per sq. foot require treatment.
60 grub per square foot (HomeHarvest.com)
It May Be Necessary to Identify White Grubs in a Lawn to See if the Grub is the Normal Masked Chafer or the Newly Introduced Japanese Beetle.
Pick up the grub and analyze the setae arrangements on the raster.
X (Michigan State University Extension)
Comparison of White Grub Rasters.
(Michigan State University Extension)
The Masked Chafer as Compared to the Japanese Beetle.
The masked chafer larva is the white grub common to western Colorado.
Raster (Univ. of Minn. Extension)
Recognizing the Adult Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica Newman )
The adult beetle is about the size of women's little fingernail.
Approximately 3/8 to 5/8 inch in length.
Head, shoulders and body are shiny green and iridescent.
Back is brown or copper.
Five or six tufts of white hair can be seen from the side.
There are a few Beetles that Look Like the Japanese Beetle.
Only the Japanese Beetle has the five white spots on each side.
The False Japanese Beetle, Strigoderma arbicola is often mistaken for the true Japanese Beetle. It is not common in Colorado, but it has been found here.
Why has the Presence of the Japanese Beetle in Mesa County Created such Great Interest?
An established population of this pest would have great economic impact upon farms, orchards, parks, and golf courses as well as the lawns and landscape of the homeowner.
Its presence would influence nursery stock sold to other states.
Eradication is Possible With a Quick and Appropriate Response.
Early detection, isolation, and elimination of populations are considered to be the best strategies.
The Assembled Trap
Floral attractant: both males and females.
Pheromone lure: attracts only the male.
The Attractant Package
Floral attractant has a very sweet flower smell that attracts both males and females.
The pheromone lure contains the female pheromone that attracts only male Japanese beetles..
Calendar Year for the Japanese Beetle.
Larva spend about 10 months in the soil.
From November to March the larvae may be from 8 to 10 inches below the surface.
The best time to treat for the larvae is when they are actively feeding on the roots: preventive, May through July; rescue, August through September.
(Univ. of Minn. Extension)
Chemicals Recommended in the USDA Program Aid No. 1599.