6 Insects That Affect Plants In Colorado

  • 4,645 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,645
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Insects that Affect Plants in Colorado
  • 2.  
  • 3. Group I
    • Aphids
    • Army cutworms
    • Borers
    • Boxelder Bugs
    • Cabbage loopers and imported Cabbage worm
    • Codling moths
  • 4. Aphids 5.511
    • Pear-shaped 1/32-1/8”
    • 2 short tubes (stove pipes) projecting out of the abdomen
    • Long antenae
    • Green, pink, black. Gray or white fluffy
    • With or without wings
  • 5. Aphids
    • Suck sap from most small fruits, veges, ornamentals, fruit and shade trees
    • Cause leaf, bud and flower distortion
    • Secrete honeydew
    • Can spread viral diseases
    • Eggs overwinter on woody stems
    • Born pregnant
  • 6. Aphids
    • Spray woodies with dormant oil
    • Can use systemics or Malathion
    • Draw natural predators
      • Lady bird beetles
      • Lacewings
      • Parasitic wasps
  • 7. Aphid Apple Aphid
  • 8. Aphids
  • 9. Aphid Curling & Distortion                                                                                                             
  • 10. Aphids on Geranium
  • 11. Army Cutworm Euxoa auxiliaris
  • 12. Army cutworms
    • Adults: brown or gray moths
    • 1 ½” wingspan
    • Larvae: fat, greasy looking gray or dull brown
    • Larvae 1-2” caterpillars with shiny heads
  • 13. Army Cutworms
    • Larvae feed at night on veges and flowers
    • Cut at the soil line
    • Lay eggs May to June
    • Hatch 5-7 days, feed 3-5 weeks
    • Control: collars around transplants
  • 14. Borers
    • Three types
      • Round-headed borers are larvae of long-horned beetles,
      • flat-headed borers are larvae of metallic wood-boring beetles
      • moth borers are wood chewing caterpillars
  • 15. Borers
  • 16. Their larvae bore through the bark and tunnel extensively in the wood
  • 17. Ash Borers
  • 18. Roundheaded borers attack twigs and small branches as well as the trunk
  • 19. Flat headed Wood Borers The adult beetles have hard shells with a metallic lustre. The heads of the larvae are expanded and flattened Spiral Swellings
  • 20. Peach Tree Wood Borer
  • 21. Boxelder bug Boisea trivittata
    • Adults ½”
    • charcoal colored wings with red veins
    • Cause deformities on boxelder, ash and maple trees
    • Usually not serious damage
    • 2 generations
    • Can spray with pyrethrin
                                          
  • 22. Cabbage Looper
  • 23. Cabbage Looper Trichoplusia ni
    • Adults gray moths with a silver spot in the middle of each forewing
    • 1 ½ to 2” wingspan
    • Larvae green 1 ½” with 2 white lines
    • Eggs on undersides of leaves
    • Chew large holes in cabbage family plants
    • Moths emerge in May, feed 2-4 weeks
    • 3-4 generations per year
    • Can use BT
  • 24. Cabbageworm Artogeia rapae                                   
  • 25. Codling Moths
  • 26. Codling Moths Cydia pomonella
    • Gray brown moths
    • Pink or creamy white 7/8” caterpillars with brown heads
    • Larvae tunnel through apple, apricot cherry peach, pear and plum fruit, ruining them
    • Adults emerge when tree in flower
    • Larvae burrow into fruit core 3-5 weeks
  • 27. Codling Moths
    • Pupate under tree bark or in ground litter
    • 2-3 generations per year, 5-8 weeks apart
    • Dormant oil
    • Spray when 75% of petals have fallen
    • 3 sprays in 1-2 week intervals
  • 28. ID from photographs
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Group II
    • Colorado Potato Beetles
    • Cooley spruce Gall Adelgids
    • Earwigs
    • Eriophyid mites
    • Grasshoppers
    • Ips beetles
  • 36. Colorado Potato Beetle
  • 37. Colorado Potato Beetle
    • Adults yellow striped about 1/3” long
    • Defoliate the plants
    • Eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes
    • Both adults and larvae chew leaves
  • 38. Colorado Potato Beetle
    • 1 or 2 generations
    • Overwinter as adults
    • Fall clean up
    • Natural predators:
      • Lacewings
      • Assassin bugs
      • Lady bird beetles
      • Ground beetles and stink bugs
  • 39. Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid
    • Two Hosts: Spruce and Douglas Fir
    • Immature females overwinter
    • Matures in Spring, lays 100s of eggs
    • Larvae migrate to the leaf bases on new growth
    • Emerge in June – July
    • Takes two years to complete the cycle
  • 40. Cooley Spruce Gall
  • 41. Earwigs
  • 42. Earwigs
    • Usually beneficial by eating other insects
    • Chewing other insects, dead or alive
    • Like moisture and cracks
    • Lay eggs in the soil and protect them
    • 20 different species in the US
  • 43. Eriophyid Mites
    • 1/100 of an inch long
    • 2 pairs of legs
    • Considered plant parasites
    • Move around on wind, birds, flying insects
    • Create galls
    • Not usually fatal to the plant
  • 44. Eriophyid Mite damage Ash Flowers  
  • 45. Eriophyid damage on Aspen
  • 46. Grasshoppers
  • 47. Grasshoppers
    • Adults; brown, yellow or green
    • 1-2” with leathery forewings and enlarged hind legs
    • Nymphs like adults but smaller
    • Eat any kind of vegetation
    • Eggs masses in the soil, hatch in spring
    • 40-60 days until they molt to adults
    • Killed by cold weather
  • 48. Ips Beetle
  • 49. Pitch tubes are not always present
    • Pitch Tubes 1/5 inch long
  • 50.
    • Carries Blue Stain Fungus
    • Attacks all species of pine and spruce
    • Adults bore through the bark into the cambium
  • 51.
    • Blue Stain Fungus – Ceratocystis
    • Color change may occur in 2-4 weeks during the summer
    • Over several months during the winter
  • 52. Stressed Trees
    • Egg to Adult
    • 21-40 days = summer
    • Several months = winter
    • 59 degrees
    • Drought
    • Overwatering
    • Wildfires
    • Windstorms
    • Root injury
    • Trunk Damage
    • Porcupine Damage
  • 53. Sanitation
    • Burning
    • Chipping
    • Debarking
    • Burying infested portions
    • Beetle is dormant November to March
    • 2 to 5 generations per year
  • 54. Prevention
    • Avoid damage to remaining trees Thin stands to maintain vigor (slash)
    • Chemical applications
      • Late March – early April
      • Late July – early August
      • More frequently?
    • Timing is critical
    • Coverage is critical of trunk, large branches and ‘armpits’
  • 55. Prevention of Spread
    • Inspect prior to digging
    • Treat prior to digging
    • Rootball – 1 foot/ each inch of caliper
  • 56. ID
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63. Group III
    • Japanese beetles
    • Leaf cutter bees
    • Leaf hoppers
    • Leafminers
    • Pearslug (Pear Sawfly)
    • Pine Tip Moth
    • Pinon pitch mass borers
  • 64. Survey and Control of the Japanese Beetle in Mesa County. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Program Aid No. 1599
  • 65. The Japanese Beetle Was First Introduced into the United States on Nursery Stock From Japan, in 1916. Attempts to control it failed. By 1932, populations were found as far west as St. Louis. New Jersey, 1916 USDA 1998 St. Louis, 1932
  • 66. Japanese Beetles in Colorado (CSU)
  • 67. The Most Likely Explanation for its Arrival is that it Came into the Valley on Nursery Stock
    • Because Mesa County is surrounded by mountains and deserts it is unlikely that the beetle emigrated by itself.
    J.M. Moore Univ. of Georgia
  • 68. What Damage is Done by the Adult Japanese Beetle?
    • Adults feed on the foliage of over 300 different plants, about 50 species are preferred.
    • Grape, cherry, peach, plum, raspberry, apple, rose, zinnia and corn are only a few of the preferred plants.
    B. Walker
  • 69. The Larva is Equally as Damaging as the Adult .
    • The grub of the Japanese Beetle causes extensive damage to the turf of lawns, parks, golf courses and pastures.
    • Losses due to larval activity: $234 million annually. Losses due to adults: $226 million annually.
    (NCSU.edu)
  • 70. White Grubs are the Larvae of a Variety of Beetles.
    • Japanese Beetles, False Japanese Beetles, May/June Beetles and The Masked Chafer Beetle all have larvae that are called “white grubs.”
    Japanese Beetle False Japanese Beetle May/June Beetle Masked Chafer Beetle White Grub (University of Minn. Extension)
  • 71. Check for The Grubs by Pulling the Grass Back Like a Piece of Carpet
    • Look for brown or dead areas, survey the edge of this area.
    • With a square spade remove a piece of turf 12 x 12 x 3 inches.
    • Counts over 10 grubs per sq. foot require treatment.
    60 grub per square foot (HomeHarvest.com)
  • 72. It May Be Necessary to Identify White Grubs in a Lawn to See if the Grub is the Normal Masked Chafer or the Newly Introduced Japanese Beetle.
    • Pick up the grub and analyze the setae arrangements on the raster.
    X (Michigan State University Extension)
  • 73. Comparison of White Grub Rasters.
    • (Michigan State University Extension)
  • 74. The Masked Chafer as Compared to the Japanese Beetle.
    • The masked chafer larva is the white grub common to western Colorado.
    Raster (Univ. of Minn. Extension)
  • 75. Recognizing the Adult Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica Newman )
    • The adult beetle is about the size of women's little fingernail.
    • Approximately 3/8 to 5/8 inch in length.
  • 76. Identifying Features.
    • Head, shoulders and body are shiny green and iridescent.
    • Back is brown or copper.
    • Five or six tufts of white hair can be seen from the side.
    Gorsuch, Clemson
  • 77. There are a few Beetles that Look Like the Japanese Beetle.
    • Only the Japanese Beetle has the five white spots on each side.
    • The False Japanese Beetle, Strigoderma arbicola is often mistaken for the true Japanese Beetle. It is not common in Colorado, but it has been found here.
  • 78. Why has the Presence of the Japanese Beetle in Mesa County Created such Great Interest?
    • An established population of this pest would have great economic impact upon farms, orchards, parks, and golf courses as well as the lawns and landscape of the homeowner.
    • Its presence would influence nursery stock sold to other states.
    (HomeHarvest.com)
  • 79. Eradication is Possible With a Quick and Appropriate Response.
    • Early detection, isolation, and elimination of populations are considered to be the best strategies.
    B. Walker
  • 80. The Assembled Trap
    • Floral attractant: both males and females.
    • Pheromone lure: attracts only the male.
  • 81. The Attractant Package
    • Floral attractant has a very sweet flower smell that attracts both males and females.
    • The pheromone lure contains the female pheromone that attracts only male Japanese beetles..
  • 82. Calendar Year for the Japanese Beetle.
    • Larva spend about 10 months in the soil.
    • From November to March the larvae may be from 8 to 10 inches below the surface.
    • The best time to treat for the larvae is when they are actively feeding on the roots: preventive, May through July; rescue, August through September.
    (Univ. of Minn. Extension)
  • 83. Chemicals Recommended in the USDA Program Aid No. 1599.
    • Adults: Carbaryl, Malathion, Methoxyclor, Rotenone.
    • Larvae: Imidacloprid, Halofenozide, Bendiocarb, Isofenphos, Diazinon.
  • 84. Milky Spore
    • Spores of the bacterium Bacillus popillae.
    • Upon ingestion these spores germinate in the gut, infect the gut and enter the blood.
    • After death 1-2 billion new spores are released into the soil.
    • Takes 2 - 4 years to become established.
    • (not effective on the Masked Chafer)
    (HomeHarvest.com)
  • 85. Nematodes
    • Nematodes are roundworms that parasitize many types of plants and animals.
    • The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is recommended for control of Japanese beetle larvae.
    • Takes 2-5 days to kill the grubs.
    Steinernema carpocapsae from a Beet Army Worm.
  • 86. Tachinid Fly Eggs On a Japanese Beetle.
    • Notice the Tachinid fly eggs on the shoulders of this Japanese Beetle Adult.
    • The eggs hatches in 24 hours and the maggots burrow into the body cavity to feed.
    • The beetle dies in 5-6 days.
    Tachinid Fly Eggs Isocheta (=Hyperecteina) aldrichi
  • 87. Tiphia vernalis
    • A small parasitic wasp native to Japan and Korea.
    • Imported into the United States to combat the Japanese beetle larva in 1924.
    • Believed to be found from the Northeastern United States to North Carolina.
    ( also T. popilliavora) (Ohio State edu.)
  • 88. Habitat Manipulation
    • Keep plants healthy. Insects are attracted to diseased and stressed plants.
    • Select plants that are resistant to adult Japanese beetle feeding. Do not plant species that attract Japanese beetles.
    • A mixture of non-preferred and preferred plants will help reduce the population.
    • Prematurely ripened and diseased fruit attracts Japanese beetles that will then attack healthy plants. Remove and dispose of such fruit.
  • 89. Best and Worst Plants to Have in a Yard.
    • Resistant:
    • Redbud
    • Dogwood
    • Red Maple
    • Burning Bush
    • Holly
    • Boxwood
    • Ash
    • Northern Red Oak
    • Pine, Spruce, Fir, etc.
    • Lilac
    • Forsythia
    • Clematis
    • Susceptible
    • American linden
    • Apples
    • Stone fruits
    • Rose
    • Norway maple
    • Birch
    • Willow
    • Grape
    • Virginia creeper
    • Corn
    • Japanese maple
    • Pin oak
  • 90. Watch out for this guy
  • 91. Category 1 States; they are JB-free and have a quarantine against this pest.
    • Arizona
    • California
    • Hawaii
    • Idaho
    • Nevada
    • Oregon
    • Utah
    • Washington
    (Montana has applied for this status)
  • 92. Category 2 States; JB is not known to occur in these states, JB has been detected by survey but not confirmed infested, or JB is established in limited areas and no quarantine is enacted.
    • Alaska
    • Arkansas
    • Colorado
    • Iowa
    • Kansas
    • Louisiana
    • Minnesota
    • Mississippi
    • Missouri
    • Montana
    • Nebraska
    • New Mexico
    • Oklahoma
    • South Dakota
    • Tennessee
    • Texas
  • 93. Category 3 states; partially or generally infested and no quarantine enacted.
    • Alabama
    • Connecticut
    • Delaware
    • District of Columbia
    • Georgia
    • Illinois
    • Indiana
    • Kentucky
    • Maine
    • Maryland
    • Massachusetts
    • Michigan
    • New Hampshire
    • New Jersey
    • New York
    • North Carolina
    • Ohio
    • Pennsylvania
    • Rhode Island
    • South Carolina
    • Vermont
    • Virginia
    • West Virginia
    • Wisconsin
  • 94. Category 4 states; The natural spread of JB is unlikely in these states or if introduced, the pest is unlikely to survive.
    • Florida
    • North Dakota
    • Wyoming
  • 95. Leaf Cutter Bees
    • Solitary Bees
      • Each female rears her own
    • Damage usually slight, can reduce the vigor of the plant
    • Lot of natural predators
    • Used to pollinate alfalfa
    • Can use netting if infestation is bad
  • 96. Leaf Cutter Bees
    • Use plant to make a nest
    • Take a semicircular piece of rose and other foliage
    • Cemented together to form thimble-shaped cells
    • In a tunnel made in the stem of a plant
  • 97.  
  • 98. Leafhoppers
    • Lots of different leafhoppers
    • Feed by removing chlorophyll and sap
      • Reduces photosynthesis
    • Looks like flecking of the leaves
    • Grape Leafhopper (Erythroneura vulnerata) feeds on Virginia creeper, maple, mint, grapes
  • 99. Grape Leafhopper
    • When temperatures mid-60s move to feed and lay eggs in the grape leaf
    • Hatch immature nymphs in 1-2 weeks
    • Feed on undersides of leaves
    • Molt 5 times, 2 or 3 generations
    • Overwinter in weedy areas
  • 100. Leafhopper Control
    • Keep down weeds around vineyards
    • Remove lower canes in late June to eliminate a lot of eggs
    • Can use sticky traps
    • If spray, need to cover the undersides of the leaf
  • 101. Leafhopper
  • 102. Potato leafhopper damage
  • 103. Leafminer Damage
  • 104. Leafminers
    • Several different types of insects can mine leaves, but they are grouped together
    • Flies, small moths, beetles, sawfly wasps
    • Adults lay eggs into leaves or on the lower leaf surface
    • Young tunnel into the leave
    • Develop for 2-4 weeks
    • Cut their way out and drop to the soil to pupate
    • 2 generations per seasons
  • 105. Leafminers
    • Rarely cause serious damage
    • Only systemics will be effective once mining has started
    • Don’t want to use a systemic on vegetable crops like spinach
    • Hand crushing of eggs or row covers can be an option
  • 106. Leafminers
    • Small enough to feed between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf
  • 107. Pearslugs - Pear Sawfly Caliroa crasei
  • 108. Pearslug (Pear Sawfly)
    • Sluglike larvae feed on upper surfaces of sweet cherry, plum and pear trees and other ornamental shrubs like cotoneaster
    • Skeletonizing defoliation leaving the main veins and lower leaf surfaces alone
    • Winters as a pupa at the base of the plants that were attacked last season
  • 109. Pearslugs
    • Adult emerge late spring-small black wasp
    • Eggs inserted into leaves
    • Hatch 1-2 weeks
    • Larvae change color from dark green to orangeish
    • Pupae in the soil
    • Second generation mid-August - September
  • 110. Pearslug Control
    • Wash off with water
    • Dust with wood ashes during hot dry weather
    • Many garden insecticides are effective
  • 111. Pearslug damage
  • 112. Pine Tip Moth Damage
  • 113. Pine Tip Moth Rhyacionia
  • 114. Pine Tip Moth
    • Caterpillars that feed on and kill back new growth of various pines
    • Damage is conspicuous but rarely threatens tree health
    • Shoots dried and shriveled
    • Internal tunneling of the terminal
    • Complete metamorphosis
  • 115. Pine Tip Moth
    • Tip moths on pinyon overwinter as partially grown larvae either in stem tissue or on the bark.
    • Moth lays its eggs during midsummer
    • Parasitic wasps develop within larvae
    • Trees taller than 10 feet are less susceptible
    • Systemics – Orthen and Cygon.
    • Permethrin is also efffective
    • Treat when shoot are elongating – late April – Early May
  • 116. Pinyon Pitch Mass Borer
  • 117. Pinon Pitch Mass Borer Dioryctria ponderosae Dyar
    • Affects pinons in Colorado, perhaps Austrians and ponderosas and scotch
    • Boring larvae cause pink pitch to ooze
    • Eggs lain near wounds
    • Overwatering can increase suseptibility – lots of succulent growth
    • Damage on trunks and large branches
    • Disfigures and weakens the trees
    • Control – stick with a wire, several inches deep
  • 118. Pinon Pitch Mass Borer
    • Moth balls with paradichlorobenzene
    • Trunk sprays during June to August adult flight time. Avoid pruning then
    • Two or more treatments for two years
    • Adult is ½ to ¾” gray-brown moth with white zig zag markings
    • Called ‘Snout-moths’
  • 119. Pinon Pitch Mass Borer Damage
  • 120. Group IV
    • Scale
    • Spider mites
    • Squash bugs
    • Thrips
    • Tomato hornworms
    • Wooly Apple aphids
  • 121. Brown Scale & Honeydew Coccus hesperidum
  • 122. Armored Scale
    • Adults circular or oval hard bump less than 1/10” in diameter
    • Feeds on sap of many trees and shrubs
    • Can inject toxic saliva
    • Can secrete honeydew
    • Overwinters as a partially grown nymph
    • As sap flow begins in spring, resumes feeding and becomes full grown
    • Males fly and mate with stationary females (San Jose scale)
  • 123. Armored Scale
    • Produce crawlers that look for a place to feed, insert mouthparts and settle
    • Then they molt their skin and secret a waxy covering
    • Three to four generations per season
    • Attacked by parasitic wasps & some birds
    • Prune out infested twigs
    • Dormant oil can smother eggs
  • 124. Black Pineleaf Scale
  • 125. Spider Mites
  • 126.  
  • 127. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/key/keys/info/lifecycl/tsm-web.htm
  • 128. Spider Mites Tetranychus family
    • Minute 1/50”
    • 8 legged, reddish, pale green or yellow
    • Webbing on leaves and growing tips
    • Suck juice from cells on undersides of leaves of lots of plants
    • Premature leaf drop is common
    • Overwinter as dormant females
  • 129. Spider Mites
    • Overwinter in bark crevices or debris
    • Hatch in mid-spring when temp over 50 degrees
    • Complete from eggs-6 legged – 8 legged in 10 days
    • Lay 5 eggs a day for 2-3 weeks
    • Peak in July and August
  • 130. Spider Mites
    • Minute pirate bugs are natural predators
    • Overhead watering can dislodge them
    • Many common insecticides aggravate the problem by killing natural predators – Sevin
    • Kelthane is effective but hard to find
  • 131. Squash Bug
  • 132. Squash Bugs Anasa tristus
    • Adult – ½” brown black, flat backed
    • Emit an unpleasant odor in defense
    • Eggs – shiny yellow to brown in groups on the undersides of leaves
    • Pierce and inject toxins into members of all curcurbit groups, shoots blacken and die
    • Overwinter in litter, around site of last infestations
  • 133. Squash Bugs
    • Become active and feed in June, lay eggs
    • Nymphs active in July
    • Second generation even more destructive
    • Some predators, killing frost will work
    • Row covers, Trap crops, keep mulch to a minimum
    • Spray permethrin, try diatomaceous earth
  • 134. Thrips
  • 135. Onion Thrips Nymphs
  • 136.  
  • 137. Thrips
    • Onion Thrips, Flower Thrips, Gladiolus Thrips
    • Feed on the foliage, destroy the upper layers, appears silvery streak
    • Vectors of viruses
    • Adults are very small 1/50 -1/25” and fast moving when disturbed
    • Can damage fruit
  • 138. Thrips
    • Overwinter in sod, debris, cracks in bark
    • Eggs laid in plant tissue, feed 1-3 weeks
    • Up to 15 generations per year
    • Dormant Oil, predators
    • Sticky traps, insecticidal soap
    • Rain, overhead watering to kill them
    • Regular deadheading to reduce populations
  • 139. Tomato Hornworm
  • 140.  
  • 141. Tomato Hornworms (Manduca quinquemaculata)
    • Two similar – tomato and tobacco hornworms
    • Caterpillars chew leaves and quickly defoliate the plants
    • Adult moth is a type of sphinx, hawk or hummingbird moth
    • Overwinter as pupae in the soil, emerge in late spring
  • 142. Tomato Hornworm
    • Feed at night
    • Lay large pearly eggs on the upper surface of leaves
    • Feed for a months
    • One generation
    • Predators – spiders, stink bug, damsel bug
    • Parasitic wasp
    • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • 143. Tomato Hornworm
    • Caterpillar 3-4 inches long
    • Adult large wing span 4-5”
    • Horn on the hind end
    • Large frass
    • Damage mid to late summer
    • Handpick
  • 144. Wooly Apple Aphids Eriosoma lanigerum
    • Feeds on bark of apple, crabapple, pear, mountain ash
    • Develop around tree wounds both above and below ground
    • Feeding on new wound wood prevent proper healing
    • Elms are an alternate host – cause curling
  • 145. Galls on roots of apple tree infested with woolly apple aphid
  • 146. Elm Apple
  • 147. Wooly Apple Aphid
    • Alternate between rose family and elms
    • Winter as eggs on elms
    • Winged aphids fly to summer hosts
    • In fall produce wings again and move back to elms to produce overwintering eggs
    • Try crushing
    • Dormant oil on apple trees
    • Insecticidal soaps
  • 148. ID By Photograph
  • 149.  
  • 150.  
  • 151.  
  • 152.  
  • 153.  
  • 154.  
  • 155.  
  • 156. Group IV
  • 157.  
  • 158.  
  • 159.  
  • 160.  
  • 161.  
  • 162.