3 Wwg Audit[1]

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3 Wwg Audit[1]

  1. 2. Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods
  2. 3. Watering efficiently <ul><li>Based on community water use figures, 40% to 50% of the water used for landscape irrigation is wasted due to poor design , maintenance , and management . </li></ul><ul><li>For many yards, the irrigation system design and management had little fore-thought for water conservation. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Watering efficiently <ul><li>Irrigation efficiency has greatest water savings potential for most home gardeners. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Irrigation audit <ul><li>Tool to evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working adequately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs adjustments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simplification of standard audit procedures for the home gardener </li></ul>
  5. 6. Irrigation audit <ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling methods </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Irrigation audit <ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>20% to 70% water savings </li></ul><ul><li>40% average water savings </li></ul><ul><li>Improved plant health </li></ul>
  7. 8. Step 1 -- Water day before audit
  8. 9. Step 2 -- Visually evaluate the lawn Why ?
  9. 10. Step 2 -- Visually evaluate the lawn Why? What?
  10. 11. Small Group Discussion <ul><li>Make of list of “flags” to look for that will identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management techniques that are successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management problems </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Step 3 -- Visually evaluate flowerbeds, shrubs areas and other non-lawn areas What?
  12. 13. Step 4 -- Record current controller settings Will be used in end to compare water use before and after
  13. 14. Step 5 -- Identify and evaluate irrigation zones <ul><li>1. Identify the heads on each zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color flags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to turn on sprinklers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Step 5 -- Identify and evaluate irrigation zones <ul><li>2. Evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation zone layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design criteria for uniform delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance criteria for water conservation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by water demand </li></ul>
  16. 17. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by water demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low input lawns </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by water demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual flowerbeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perennial flowerbeds </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by water demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual flowerbeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perennial flowerbeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by water demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low input lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual flowerbeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perennial flowerbeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited/non-irrigated areas </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>
  21. 22. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>Typical sunny lawn Water use: 1X
  22. 23. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>Lawn on southwest facing slope Water use: 2X Typical sunny lawn Water use: 1X
  23. 24. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>Full shade Water use: 1/2X Lawn on southwest facing slope Water use: 1.5X Typical sunny lawn Water use: 1X
  24. 25. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure </li></ul><ul><li>to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>Green
  25. 26. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Zone by exposure </li></ul><ul><li>to sun, heat, and wind </li></ul>Standing Water Green Soggy
  26. 27. Irrigation zones reflect water demand <ul><li>Drip irrigation on shrub and flower beds, small fruits, and vegetables reduces water use by 50%. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings Line-out along non-irrigated areas
  28. 29. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings Line-out along non-irrigated areas Don’t water onto non-irrigated areas
  29. 30. Water-wise irrigation maintenance <ul><li>Uniform type, brand and style of heads in a zone </li></ul>Pop-up heads apply water at 1 to 2 1/2 inches per hour Rotor heads apply water at 1/4 to 3/4 inches per hour
  30. 31. <ul><li>Avoid irrigating small irregular-shaped areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 7-10’ wide </li></ul></ul>Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings
  31. 32. Water-wise irrigation management <ul><li>Turn off in rainy weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain shut-off sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required by law in many parts of the country. Not yet in Colorado. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manually </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Step 6 -- While sprinklers are running, evaluate performance Repeat evaluation for each zone
  33. 34. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings
  34. 35. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings 1. Head to head coverage Spray from each head should reach neighboring heads 20% overlap gives better uniformity
  35. 36. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings 2. Fill in with heads in square and triangle patterns
  36. 37. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings Avoid pentagon (5 sides) patterns Dry spot created by head pattern
  37. 38. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings <ul><li>3. Adjust pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mist cloud around sprinkler indicates excessive pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly drop pressure until water flow just starts to drop, then up the pressure just a touch . </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution
  39. 40. <ul><li>Deliver arc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is water delivery arc correct to avoid watering sidewalk and other non-irrigated areas? </li></ul></ul>Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution
  40. 41. Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution <ul><li>Adjust heads to vertical </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Adjust height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is nozzle releasing water above grass height? </li></ul></ul>Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution
  42. 43. Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution <ul><li>Replace worn heads/nozzles </li></ul>New head/nozzle Worn head/nozzle
  43. 44. Maintenance criteria for uniform water distribution <ul><li>Replace leaky valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rubber diaphragm in the value wears out over time </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Water-wise irrigation management <ul><li>Evaluate dry spots </li></ul>
  45. 46. Water-wise irrigation management <ul><li>Evaluate dry spots </li></ul><ul><li>Compare amount of water received in can from the dry spot to can from the green area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly less = water delivery problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly similar = soil or plant problem </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Step 6 -- While sprinklers are running, evaluate performance Repeat evaluation for each zone
  47. 48. Step 7 -- Perform precipitation rate (catch can) test
  48. 49. Precipitation rate test (catch can test) <ul><li>Step 1 -- Place 6 identical, straight sided, flat bottom cans randomly between sprinklers in zone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use short cans like tuna, water may splash out. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Precipitation rate test (catch can test) <ul><li>Step 2 -- Run sprinklers exactly 10 minutes </li></ul>
  50. 51. Precipitation rate test (catch can test) <ul><li>Step 3 -- Pour all the water into one can </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 -- Measure depth of water in can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the precipitation rate in inches per hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 5 -- Record in Table: Step 8 </li></ul>
  51. 52. Precipitation rate test (catch can test) <ul><li>Note: If the amount of water in some containers is significantly more or less than others, it indicates that the system is poorly designed or heads are malfunctioning. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Step 7 -- Perform precipitation rate (catch can) test Repeat for each zone
  53. 54. Step 8 -- Calculate run times for each zone
  54. 55. Step 8 -- Calculate run times for each zone <ul><li>Converting inches to minutes </li></ul>
  55. 56. Converting inches to minutes <ul><li>Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Water to apply (inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Run time = ------------------------------- X 60 minutes/hour </li></ul><ul><li>PR (inches/hours) </li></ul>
  56. 57. Converting inches to minutes <ul><li>Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Water to apply (inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Run time = ------------------------------- X 60 minutes/hour </li></ul><ul><li>PR (inches/hours) </li></ul><ul><li>0.5 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Run time = -------------------------------- X 60 minutes/hour </li></ul><ul><li>1 1/2 inches/hour </li></ul>
  57. 58. Converting inches to minutes <ul><li>Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Water to apply (inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Run time = ------------------------------- X 60 minutes/hour </li></ul><ul><li>PR (inches/hours) </li></ul><ul><li>0.5 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Run time = -------------------------------- X 60 minutes/hour </li></ul><ul><li>1 1/2 inches/hour </li></ul><ul><li>= 20 minutes </li></ul>
  58. 59. Converting inches to minutes <ul><li>Table method </li></ul><ul><li>Use Sprinkler Run Time Table CMG Fact Sheet #I19 </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Management: Converting Inches to Minutes </li></ul>
  59. 60. Work Sheet Question 1 Converting inches to minutes
  60. 61. Work Sheet Question 1 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 </li></ul>Converting inches to minutes
  61. 62. Work Sheet Question 1 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” 32 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 </li></ul>Converting inches to minutes
  62. 63. Work Sheet Question 1 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” 32 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” 29 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 </li></ul>Converting inches to minutes
  63. 64. Work Sheet Question 1 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” 32 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” 29 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” 24 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” 40 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 36 minutes </li></ul>Converting inches to minutes
  64. 65. Water-wise irrigation maintenance <ul><li>Uniform type, brand and style of heads in a zone </li></ul>Pop-up heads apply water at 1 to 2 1/2 inches per hour Rotor heads apply water at 1/4 to 3/4 inches per hour
  65. 66. Work Sheet Question 2 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” 32 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” 29 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” 24 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” 40 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 36 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Pop-up or Rotor? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-ups = 1” to 2 1/2”/hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotors = 1/4” to 3/4” /hour </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Work Sheet Question 2 <ul><li>Zone PR Amount Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/2”/hour 0.8” 32 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 1 1/4”/hour 0.6” 29 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 1/2”/hour 1.0” 120 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>4 2”/hour 0.8” 24 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4”/hour 0.5” 40 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>6 1 1/2”/hour 1.5 36 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Pop-up or Rotor? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-ups = 1” to 2 1/2”/hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotors = 1/4” to 3/4” /hour </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. Step 8 -- Calculate run times for each zone
  68. 69. Considerations <ul><li>Soak and Cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Most compacted/clayey soils can’t absorb water as quickly as sprinklers apply it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical Front Range clayey soils = 1/4” per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If applying more than 1/4 inch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple short runs an hour apart </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Considerations <ul><li>Watering time? </li></ul><ul><li>Night/early morning (9 p.m. to 9 a.m.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many communities experience peak water demand from 4 to 6 a.m </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Considerations <ul><li>Soil water holding capacity and rooting depth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In typical July weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawn goes ___ days on ____ inches (Step 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum amount for soil water holding capacity and rooting depth is ___ inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred amount? ______________ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation days? _________________ </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. Step 8 -- Calculate run times for each zone <ul><li>Scheduling methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time ET -- fixed day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time ET -- fixed amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ET controllers </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. Irrigation scheduling <ul><li>Observational method </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended by many communities to reduce over-watering </li></ul><ul><li>Manually activate the controller to run cycles </li></ul>
  73. 74. Irrigation scheduling <ul><li>Observational method </li></ul><ul><li>Set controller for desired amount of water </li></ul><ul><li>Manually turn on when lawn show symptoms of water shortage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Footprints show in lawn for an hour or more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color change from grassy green to bluish- gray </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn to “off” until next irrigation cycle is needed. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Work Sheet Question 3 Observational Method
  75. 76. Work Sheet Question 3 <ul><li>Example: Apply 0.7 inch per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Zone PR Inches of Water Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/4”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 1/4”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>3 3/4”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>4 1 1/2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>5 2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>6 1/2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul>Observational Method
  76. 77. Work Sheet Question 3 <ul><li>Example: Apply 0.7 inch per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Zone PR Inches of Water Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/4”/hr 0.7” 34 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 1/4”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>3 3/4”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>4 1 1/2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>5 2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul><ul><li>6 1/2”/hr 0.7” </li></ul>Observational Method
  77. 78. Work Sheet Question 3 <ul><li>Example: Apply 0.7 inch per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Zone PR Inches of Water Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/4”/hr 0.7” 34 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 1/4”/hr 0.7” 19 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 3/4”/hr 0.7” 56 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>4 1 1/2”/hr 0.7” 28 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>5 2”/hr 0.7” 21 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>6 1/2”/hr 0.7” 84 minutes </li></ul>Observational Method
  78. 79. Work Sheet Question 3 <ul><li>Example: Apply 0.7 inch per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Zone PR Inches of Water Run Time </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/4”/hr 0.7” 34 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 1/4”/hr 0.7” 19 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>3 3/4”/hr 0.7” 56 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>4 1 1/2”/hr 0.7” 28 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>5 2”/hr 0.7” 21 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>6 1/2”/hr 0.7” 84 minutes </li></ul>Observational Method
  79. 80. <ul><li>What if ran each zone ran 84 minutes? </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Apply 0.7 inch per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Zone PR Run Time Amount % </li></ul><ul><li>1 1 1/4”/hr 84 minutes 1.8” 250% </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 1/4”/hr 84 minutes 3.2” 450% </li></ul><ul><li>3 3/4”/hr 84 minutes 1.1” 150% </li></ul><ul><li>4 1 1/2”/hr 84 minutes 2.1” 300% </li></ul><ul><li>5 2”/hr 84 minutes 2.8” 400% </li></ul><ul><li>6 1/2”/hr 84 minutes 0.3” 100% </li></ul>
  80. 81. Irrigation scheduling <ul><li>Historical ET Method </li></ul><ul><li>Water use* </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Per week 0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>Per day 0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.13” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>% July 60% 73% 93% 100% 87% 60% 40% </li></ul><ul><li>*Northern Colorado Front Range area for cool season turf </li></ul>
  81. 82. Work Sheet Question 4 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul>
  82. 83. Work sheet Question 4 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul>
  83. 84. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 4
  84. 85. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 4
  85. 86. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 4
  86. 87. Work Sheet Question 4 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul>
  87. 88. Work Sheet Question 4 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>36 </li></ul>
  88. 89. Work Sheet Question 4 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (on Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>36 44 56 60 48 36 24 </li></ul>
  89. 90. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 5
  90. 91. Work Sheet Question 5 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>18 </li></ul>
  91. 92. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.7” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul><ul><li>Zone 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation rate = 1.5”/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Run time (minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>18 22 28 30 24 18 12 </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 5
  92. 93. Do you water once or twice a week? <ul><li>Soil water holding capacity and rooting depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To estimate for the site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maximum number </li></ul><ul><li>of days between X 0.20”/day = Maximum amount </li></ul><ul><li>irrigations in July per irrigation (inches) </li></ul>
  93. 94. Do you water once or twice a week? <ul><li>Soil water holding capacity and rooting depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To estimate for the site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maximum number </li></ul><ul><li>of days between X 0.20”/day = Maximum amount </li></ul><ul><li>irrigations in July per irrigation (inches) </li></ul>Typical daily water use in July
  94. 95. Do you water once or twice a week? <ul><li>Soil water holding capacity and rooting depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To estimate for the site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>maximum number </li></ul><ul><li>of days between X 0.20”/day = Maximum amount </li></ul><ul><li>irrigations in July per irrigation (inches) </li></ul>5 days maximum X 0.20”/day = 1” maximum to apply
  95. 96. <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>If 1” is maximum amount to apply per irrigation, circle irrigation schedule for the week . </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.7” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 6
  96. 97. Work Sheet Question 6 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>If 1” is maximum amount to apply per irrigation, circle irrigation schedule for the week . </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.70” 0.75” 0.65” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul>
  97. 98. Work Sheet Question 6 <ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>If 1” is maximum amount to apply per irrigation, circle irrigation schedule for the week . </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Once a week (Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> .9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6” </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.70” 0.75” 0.60” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul>
  98. 99. Work Sheet Question 7 <ul><li>Historical ET -- Soak & Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a week (Thursdays and Saturdays) </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.7” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul>
  99. 100. Work Sheet Question 7 <ul><li>Historical ET -- Soak & Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days -- Twice a week </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.7” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul><ul><li>Total run time </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cycles (~1/4”/cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Run time per cycle </li></ul>
  100. 101. Work Sheet Question 7 <ul><li>Historical ET -- Soak & Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days -- Twice a week </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.7” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.3” </li></ul><ul><li>Total run time </li></ul><ul><li>14 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cycles (~1/4”/cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>Run time per cycle </li></ul><ul><li>7 </li></ul>
  101. 102. Work Sheet Question 7 <ul><li>Historical ET -- Soak & Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Watering days -- Twice a week </li></ul><ul><li> 0.45” 0.55” 0.70” 0.75” 0.6” 0.45” 0.30” </li></ul><ul><li>Total run time </li></ul><ul><li>14 17 21 23 18 14 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cycles (~1/4”/cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>2 2 3 3 2 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Run time per cycle </li></ul><ul><li>7 9 7 8 9 7 9 </li></ul>
  102. 103. Work Sheet Question 8 <ul><li>Historical ET -- Fixed Amount </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply 1” per irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per week </li></ul><ul><li>0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per day </li></ul><ul><li>0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.13” 0.09” </li></ul>
  103. 104. <ul><li>Historical ET -- Fixed Amount </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per day </li></ul><ul><li>0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.12” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>Days per 1” of water </li></ul><ul><li>Inches to apply </li></ul><ul><li>1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Run time </li></ul><ul><li>80 80 80 80 80 80 80 </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 8
  104. 105. <ul><li>Historical ET -- Fixed Amount </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per day </li></ul><ul><li>0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.12” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>Days per 1” of water </li></ul><ul><li>8 </li></ul><ul><li>Inches to apply </li></ul><ul><li>1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Run time </li></ul><ul><li>80 80 80 80 80 80 80 </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 8
  105. 106. <ul><li>Historical ET -- Fixed Amount </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Water use per day </li></ul><ul><li>0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.12” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>Days per 1” of water </li></ul><ul><li>8 6 5 5 6 8 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Inches to apply </li></ul><ul><li>1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Run time </li></ul><ul><li>80 80 80 80 80 80 80 </li></ul>Work Sheet Question 8
  106. 107. Step 8 -- Calculate run times for each zone <ul><li>Scheduling methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical ET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time ET -- fixed day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time ET -- fixed amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ET controllers </li></ul></ul>
  107. 108. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Day Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodates fixed watering days or mowing days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recalculate run time for each irrigation </li></ul></ul>
  108. 109. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Day Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watered on Monday and Thursday nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last watered Thursday night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friday 0.18” ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturday 0.21” ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunday 0.19” ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monday 0.16” ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total 0.74 inches used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minus rain -0.12” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net water to apply 0.62” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  109. 110. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Day Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a precipitation rate of 1.5 inches/hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes 24 minutes to apply 0.6 inches </li></ul></ul>
  110. 111. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Amount Method </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a fixed amount per irrigation (don’t have to reset controller with each watering) </li></ul><ul><li>Activate controller when ET exceeds amount to apply per irrigation </li></ul>
  111. 112. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Amount Method </li></ul><ul><li>Activate controller when ET exceeds amount to apply per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Apply 1/2” per irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a precipitation rate of 1 1 / 4 inches per hours it takes 24 minutes. </li></ul></ul>
  112. 113. Irrigation schedule <ul><li>Real-time ET -- Fixed Amount Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry over 0.07” ET 0.07” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 1 0.14” ET 0.21” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2 0.17” ET 0.38” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 3 0.15” ET 0.53” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minus rain 0.0” 0.53” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activate irrigation - 0.50 inches 0.03” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New carry over 0.03” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  113. 114. WaterWise Irrigation Management <ul><li>ET Controllers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coming to home garden trade in few years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some work on historical ET </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some work on real-time ET, connecting via phone or satellite to a local weather station data bank (for a small monthly fee). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  114. 116. Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings 3. Fill in with heads in square and triangle patterns. 1. Head- to-head coverage 2. “Line-out”
  115. 117. <ul><li>If your sprinkler system doesn’t meet this criteria, consider upgrading the design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water saving 20% to over 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recover costs in 3-15 years </li></ul></ul>Design criteria for uniform delivery Uniformity of water delivery = water savings
  116. 118. WaterWise Irrigation Management <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul>Water saving potential? 20% 40% 70%

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