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In several species pink, red, or purple pigmentation will develop in the older leaves follow
Foliage plants with pinnately (netted) veined leaves: Bronze-yellow chlorosis begins at the upper margin of older leaves progressing downward along the veins leaving a green v-shape pattern at the top of the leaf
As chlorosis progresses down the leaf a green v-shape of tissue remains at the bottom
Eventually the tip and then the base become chlorotic. Necrosis follows chlorosis in the same pattern
Nutritional Deficiencies – Younger Leaves First
Foliage over the entire plant becomes uniformly chlorotic
Sometimes the symptoms tend to be more pronounced toward the top of the plant
While symptoms on the individual leaf look like those of nitrogen deficiency, it is easy to distinguish sulfur deficiency from nitrogen deficiency because nitrogen deficiency begins in the lowest leaves.
When salt dissolves in water, sodium and chloride ions separate and may then harm the plants. Chloride ions are readily absorbed by the roots, transported to the leaves, and accumulate there to toxic levels. It is these toxic levels that cause the characteristic marginal leaf scorch
sudden wilting, stunted growth, marginal burn on leaves (especially lower, older leaves), leaf yellowing, leaf fall, dead roots, restricted root development, and sudden or gradual death of plants
While the major effect of high soil salts are to the roots, the tops of plants may show "salt injury" while the roots are apparently unaffected - the soluble salts enter the roots and are moved through the plant vessels to the leaves where the water evaporates and gradually concentrates the salts to toxic levels
When soil soluble salts are excessively high, the roots are unable to absorb water and the plant wilts
Roots in flooded or waterlogged soils are killed by a lack of oxygen. This can occur not only to trees on obviously wet sites but also to ornamental trees planted in heavy clay soils that have poor drainage. Symptoms of oxygen deficiency closely resemble those of drought injury: reduced growth, small leaves and thin crowns, twig and branch dieback, and tree death. Trees with root damage from waterlogged soils may be affected by drought stress if the excess moisture is drained off and roots are unable to meet the demands of tree tops. Roots in waterlogged soils are susceptible to a variety of soil-borne fungal pathogens.