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2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation
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2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Irrigation Management and Water-Wise Gardening HCC100 -- Horticultural Science, The Science of Gardening
  • 3. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening
  • 4. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility
  • 5. Improving the soil <ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul>
  • 7. Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods <ul><li>Irrigation efficiency has greatest water savings potential for most home gardeners. </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  • 9. Mulching to reduce evaporation
  • 10. Maintaining with good horticultural practices <ul><li>Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems </li></ul><ul><li>Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering </li></ul>
  • 11. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening <ul><li>Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul><ul><li>Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching to reduce evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining with good horticultural practices </li></ul>
  • 12. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility
  • 13. Create a base plan <ul><li>Make a simple drawing of the property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical scale is 8-10 feet per inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show site amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardscape features (driveways, walks, patio, deck) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing plant materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage issues </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. &nbsp;
  • 15. &nbsp;
  • 16. Landscaping on Expansive Soils <ul><li>CSU Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet #7.236 </li></ul>
  • 17. Make a bubble diagram <ul><li>Use areas (identifying irrigation needs ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine, reduce, low and non-irrigated turf areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrub, flowerbeds and ground covers with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine, reduce, low and non-irrigated areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit &amp; vegetable gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s play areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-plant areas </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. &nbsp;
  • 19. Refine the landscape plan <ul><li>Convert bubble areas to a landscape plan. </li></ul>
  • 20. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility <ul><li>Take home message: </li></ul>
  • 21. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility <ul><li>Take home message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes planning… water conservation, beauty, and utility does not happen by accident. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  • 23. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>Select plants suitable to a semi-arid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant pallet is limited, but not void, without supplemental irrigation. </li></ul>
  • 24. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>Suggested references </li></ul><ul><li>Xeriscape Plant Guide , by Denver Water, Fulcrum Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Xeric Tree and Shrub List by the Community Tree Alliance , CMG Fact Sheet #T15 </li></ul>
  • 25. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>On sites, where landscape irrigation is not desirable or possible, focus on natural growth. </li></ul>
  • 26. Hydrozoning Grouping plants according to irrigation needs, AND watering according to need . Routinely irrigated flowerbed Non-irrigated naturalized area
  • 27. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established non-irrigated
  • 28. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established
  • 29. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Garden Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established
  • 30. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established non-irrigated
  • 31. Hydrozoning myths <ul><li>Xeriscaping is NOT a cacti and rock garden . </li></ul>
  • 32. The objective of hydrozoning is to place low-water requiring plants together in zones that actually receive reduced to no irrigation!
  • 33. Even xeric plant need rain/irrigation during establishment.
  • 34. Water-wise concepts support irrigation for “people space” “ People space” at Thanksgiving Point Gardens
  • 35. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  • 36. Improving the soil <ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  • 37. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul>
  • 38. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  • 39. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold 10+ times more water and nutrients than sand </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam &amp; Clayey Soils </li></ul>
  • 41. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam &amp; Clayey Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent compaction </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam &amp; Clayey Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent compaction </li></ul></ul> large pore spaces  deep rooting  water supply
  • 43. Improving the soil <ul><li>Exception </li></ul><ul><li>Some native plants to the high plains and Rocky Mountain region prefer poor soils . </li></ul><ul><li>In improved soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May thrive, loosing their xeric characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do poorly </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. Factors influencing irrigation management <ul><li>Soil’s water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Evapotranspiration, ET </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Plant’s ability to extract water from the soil </li></ul>
  • 45. Water holding capacity <ul><li>Pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves down with gravitational pull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves in all directions by capillary action </li></ul></ul>
  • 46. Water holding capacity Saturation Field Capacity Wilting Point
  • 47. Water holding capacity
  • 48. Water holding capacity
  • 49. Evapotranspiration, ET <ul><li>Evapotranspiration, ET , is the rate a crop uses water for transpiration plus evaporation from the soil surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing ET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of plant growth </li></ul></ul>
  • 50. Evapotranspiration, ET <ul><li>Typical ET for Cool Season Turf* </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>Month 3.98” 4.9” 6.0” 6.5” 5.5” 4.0” 2.8” </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>Day 0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.13” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>*Northern Colorado Front Range area </li></ul>
  • 51. Rooting depth and irrigation <ul><li>A deeper rooting system </li></ul><ul><li>Larger supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>Go longer between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>In compacted or clayey soil </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of soil oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Limit rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing supply of available water </li></ul>
  • 52. <ul><li>Soil’s water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>+ ET </li></ul><ul><li>+ Rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation management </li></ul>
  • 53. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>12” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  • 54. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>12” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 4 6 8 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 2.5 4 5 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  • 55. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  • 56. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 1 2 2.5 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  • 57. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 8 11.5 15 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  • 58. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 1 2 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>12 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 2.5 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary -- July
  • 59. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Soil organic content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter holds 10X more water than sand. </li></ul></ul>
  • 60. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 1 2 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>12 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 2.5 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary -- July
  • 61. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Irrigation pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent watering = shallow rooting depth </li></ul></ul>
  • 62. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Stage of growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use high during blossoming and fruiting </li></ul></ul>
  • 63. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Water demand of plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To support growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To survive dry spells </li></ul></ul>
  • 64. Fine-tune the irrigation management
  • 65. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 5 days on 1” </li></ul>
  • 66. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 5 days on 1” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.0” every 5 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8” every 4 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.6” every 3 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 67. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 4 days on 0.8 ” </li></ul>
  • 68. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 4 days on 0.8 ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8” every 4 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.6” every 3 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 69. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn only goes 2 days on 0.4” </li></ul>
  • 70. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn only goes 2 days on 0.4” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 71. Normal irrigation requirement <ul><li>Cool season turf* </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>week 0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>7/8” 1 1/8” 1 3/8” 1 1/2” 1 1/4” 7/8” 5/8” </li></ul><ul><li>* Northern Colorado Front Range area, based on historical ET, normal rainfall and a 70% sprinkler efficiency rating. </li></ul>
  • 72. <ul><li>What do you advise the gardener about, “How much and how often to water the lawn?” </li></ul>
  • 73. Improving the soil <ul><li>Take home message: </li></ul><ul><li>On sandy soils, O.M improves water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>On clayey soils, O.M. improves soil tilth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper rooting depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater water supply </li></ul></ul></ul>

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