2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation

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2 Wwg2 Soil Hydrozone Irrigation

  1. 2. Irrigation Management and Water-Wise Gardening HCC100 -- Horticultural Science, The Science of Gardening
  2. 3. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening
  3. 4. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility
  4. 5. Improving the soil <ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul>
  6. 7. Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods <ul><li>Irrigation efficiency has greatest water savings potential for most home gardeners. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  8. 9. Mulching to reduce evaporation
  9. 10. Maintaining with good horticultural practices <ul><li>Healthy plants are more tolerant of insect and disease problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy plants have fewer insect and disease problems </li></ul><ul><li>Iron chlorosis, a symptoms of springtime over-watering </li></ul>
  10. 11. 7 Principles of Water-Wise Gardening <ul><li>Planning and design for water conservation, beauty, and utility </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Creating practical turf and non-turf areas </li></ul><ul><li>Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting plants and grouping them according to water need </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching to reduce evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining with good horticultural practices </li></ul>
  11. 12. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility
  12. 13. Create a base plan <ul><li>Make a simple drawing of the property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical scale is 8-10 feet per inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Show site amenities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardscape features (driveways, walks, patio, deck) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing plant materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage issues </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Landscaping on Expansive Soils <ul><li>CSU Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet #7.236 </li></ul>
  14. 17. Make a bubble diagram <ul><li>Use areas (identifying irrigation needs ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine, reduce, low and non-irrigated turf areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrub, flowerbeds and ground covers with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routine, reduce, low and non-irrigated areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit & vegetable gardens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s play areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-plant areas </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Refine the landscape plan <ul><li>Convert bubble areas to a landscape plan. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility <ul><li>Take home message: </li></ul>
  17. 21. Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility <ul><li>Take home message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It takes planning… water conservation, beauty, and utility does not happen by accident. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  19. 23. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>Select plants suitable to a semi-arid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant pallet is limited, but not void, without supplemental irrigation. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>Suggested references </li></ul><ul><li>Xeriscape Plant Guide , by Denver Water, Fulcrum Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Xeric Tree and Shrub List by the Community Tree Alliance , CMG Fact Sheet #T15 </li></ul>
  21. 25. Colorado is a semi-arid climate. <ul><li>On sites, where landscape irrigation is not desirable or possible, focus on natural growth. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Hydrozoning Grouping plants according to irrigation needs, AND watering according to need . Routinely irrigated flowerbed Non-irrigated naturalized area
  23. 27. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established non-irrigated
  24. 28. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established
  25. 29. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Garden Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established
  26. 30. Design with irrigation demand in mind. Routine Irrigation Reduced Irrigation Need Limited irrigation once established non-irrigated
  27. 31. Hydrozoning myths <ul><li>Xeriscaping is NOT a cacti and rock garden . </li></ul>
  28. 32. The objective of hydrozoning is to place low-water requiring plants together in zones that actually receive reduced to no irrigation!
  29. 33. Even xeric plant need rain/irrigation during establishment.
  30. 34. Water-wise concepts support irrigation for “people space” “ People space” at Thanksgiving Point Gardens
  31. 35. <ul><li>Selecting plant appropriate for our climate </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them according to their water needs ( Hydrozoning ) </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigating according to water need </li></ul>
  32. 36. Improving the soil <ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  33. 37. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul>
  34. 38. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul>
  35. 39. Improving the soil <ul><li>Sandy Soils </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold 10+ times more water and nutrients than sand </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam & Clayey Soils </li></ul>
  37. 41. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam & Clayey Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent compaction </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Improving the soil <ul><li>Loam & Clayey Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent compaction </li></ul></ul> large pore spaces  deep rooting  water supply
  39. 43. Improving the soil <ul><li>Exception </li></ul><ul><li>Some native plants to the high plains and Rocky Mountain region prefer poor soils . </li></ul><ul><li>In improved soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May thrive, loosing their xeric characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do poorly </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. Factors influencing irrigation management <ul><li>Soil’s water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Evapotranspiration, ET </li></ul><ul><li>Rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Plant’s ability to extract water from the soil </li></ul>
  41. 45. Water holding capacity <ul><li>Pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves down with gravitational pull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small pore spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves in all directions by capillary action </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Water holding capacity Saturation Field Capacity Wilting Point
  43. 47. Water holding capacity
  44. 48. Water holding capacity
  45. 49. Evapotranspiration, ET <ul><li>Evapotranspiration, ET , is the rate a crop uses water for transpiration plus evaporation from the soil surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing ET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of plant growth </li></ul></ul>
  46. 50. Evapotranspiration, ET <ul><li>Typical ET for Cool Season Turf* </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>Month 3.98” 4.9” 6.0” 6.5” 5.5” 4.0” 2.8” </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>Day 0.13” 0.16” 0.20” 0.21” 0.18” 0.13” 0.09” </li></ul><ul><li>*Northern Colorado Front Range area </li></ul>
  47. 51. Rooting depth and irrigation <ul><li>A deeper rooting system </li></ul><ul><li>Larger supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>Go longer between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>In compacted or clayey soil </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of soil oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Limit rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing supply of available water </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>Soil’s water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>+ ET </li></ul><ul><li>+ Rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation management </li></ul>
  49. 53. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>12” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  50. 54. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>12” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 4 6 8 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 2.5 4 5 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  51. 55. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  52. 56. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6” rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 2 3 4 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 1 2 2.5 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  53. 57. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Inches available water </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water per irrigation </li></ul><ul><li> 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days between irrigations </li></ul><ul><li>April (at 0.13”/day) 8 11.5 15 </li></ul><ul><li>July (at 0.20”/day) 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary
  54. 58. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 1 2 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>12 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 2.5 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary -- July
  55. 59. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Soil organic content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter holds 10X more water than sand. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. <ul><li>Sandy Loam </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Loam w/ clay </li></ul><ul><li>6 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.25” 0.38” 0.5” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 1 2 2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>12 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 0.5” 0.75” 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 2.5 4 5 </li></ul><ul><li>24 inch rooting depth </li></ul><ul><li>Amount 1” 1.5” 2” </li></ul><ul><li>Days 5 7.5 10 </li></ul>Irrigation summary -- July
  57. 61. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Irrigation pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent watering = shallow rooting depth </li></ul></ul>
  58. 62. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Stage of growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use high during blossoming and fruiting </li></ul></ul>
  59. 63. Factors influencing irrigation demand <ul><li>Water demand of plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To support growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To survive dry spells </li></ul></ul>
  60. 64. Fine-tune the irrigation management
  61. 65. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 5 days on 1” </li></ul>
  62. 66. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 5 days on 1” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.0” every 5 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8” every 4 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.6” every 3 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 67. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 4 days on 0.8 ” </li></ul>
  64. 68. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn goes 4 days on 0.8 ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8” every 4 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.6” every 3 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 69. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn only goes 2 days on 0.4” </li></ul>
  66. 70. Fine-tune the irrigation management <ul><li>In the normal June/July days </li></ul><ul><li>IF a lawn only goes 2 days on 0.4” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.4” every 2 days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional amounts would leach below root zone. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2” every day </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 71. Normal irrigation requirement <ul><li>Cool season turf* </li></ul><ul><li>April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. </li></ul><ul><li>Per </li></ul><ul><li>week 0.9” 1.1” 1.4” 1.5” 1.2” 0.9” 0.6 ” </li></ul><ul><li>7/8” 1 1/8” 1 3/8” 1 1/2” 1 1/4” 7/8” 5/8” </li></ul><ul><li>* Northern Colorado Front Range area, based on historical ET, normal rainfall and a 70% sprinkler efficiency rating. </li></ul>
  68. 72. <ul><li>What do you advise the gardener about, “How much and how often to water the lawn?” </li></ul>
  69. 73. Improving the soil <ul><li>Take home message: </li></ul><ul><li>On sandy soils, O.M improves water holding capacity </li></ul><ul><li>On clayey soils, O.M. improves soil tilth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper rooting depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater water supply </li></ul></ul></ul>

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