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2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Old Test
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2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Old Test

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  • 1. Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens
  • 2.  
  • 3. Fungi
    • Majority of fungi are NOT plant pathogens
    • Primarily survive on non-living organic material, are called SAPROPHYTES
    • The non-reproductive "body" of most fungi (called the vegetative phase) is composed of a mass of a fungal threads called HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA )
    • This mass of hyphae is called a MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ). While an individual hypha is microscopic, mycelia are often visible with the naked eye.
  • 4. HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) are the threadlike structures that comprise the major body of a fungus. You can think of a hypha as a long tube. Many hyphae in a mass are called MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ).
  • 5. Fungi Identification
    • Most fungi produce hyphae, as the one shown here, that have CROSS WALLS (partitions dividing the tubes into individual cells)
    • presence or absence of cross walls can be important in distinguishing and identifying some plant pathogenic fungi.
  • 6. Fungal Fruiting Structures
    • Fungi produce a wide range of reproductive structures (generically called FRUITING BODIES )
    • Within fruiting bodies, a fungus produces spores
  • 7. Powdery Mildew Fruiting Bodies
    • Black – fruiting body
    • Red – sacks
    • Blue – spores
    • Green - appendages
  • 8. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola Pithomyces
  • 9. Spore (Botrytis)
  • 10. Group I – Primarily Affecting Leaves
    • Coryneum Blight
    • Early Blight
    • Fusarium Wilt
    • Leaf Spot
    • Powdery Mildew
    • Rust
    • Sooty Mold
  • 11. Blight Symptoms
    • When spots or lesions enlarge and merge so that large areas of a leaf are necrotic and diseased, then we call this a BLIGHT .
  • 12. Coryneum Blight
    • Affects stone fruits in Colorado
    • ‘ Shothole’ disease
    • Affects fruit, stems, and leaves
  • 13. Coryneum Blight http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/PLANTS/coryneumblight.html
  • 14. Early Blight Tomato early blight target-like leaf spot 
    • Tomato early blight target like leaf spots
    • Starts with small spots
  • 15. Early Blight
  • 16. Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
  • 17. Fusarium Wilt of Tobacco
  • 18. Fusarium Root Rot
  • 19. Fusarium Wilt
  • 20. Fungal Leaf Spot
    • Redbud
  • 21. Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
  • 22. Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
  • 23. Powdery Mildew
    • The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores.
    • ‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi
    • Host specific
    • High humidity is the key
  • 24. Powdery Mildew on Lilac
  • 25. Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
  • 26.  
  • 27. Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds
    • Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left).
  • 28. Powdery mildew on apple foliage
    • Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left).
  • 29. Rust
    • rusty-orange, powdery PUSTULES
    • Easily rubbed off
    • Often requires two hosts
  • 30. May Apple Rust
  • 31. Rose Rust
  • 32. Rust on Spruce
  • 33. Rust on Lawn & Shoes
  • 34. Cedar Apple Rust
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. Sooty Mold Linden
  • 38. Scale & Sooty Mold on Pine
  • 39.  
  • 40. Group II – Primarily Affecting Stems
    • Anthracnose
    • Botrytis Blight
    • Cytospora Canker
    • Verticillium Wilt
  • 41. Cankers
    • Lesions that occur on the stems of herbaceous plants or on the trunks and branches of woody plants are called CANKERS
    • Often cankers are sunken and discolored, or, as in this example of a canker disease on honey locust, the outer bark layer has totally fallen away.
    http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide15.htm
  • 42. Anthracnose of Maple & Sycamore Enlarged leaf vein
  • 43. Anthracnose                                                                                   
  • 44. Anthracnose on Twig
  • 45. Botrytis Blight
  • 46. Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
  • 47. Cytospora Canker
    • Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection
  • 48. Cytospora Canker
    • As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form
  • 49. Cytospora Canker
    • Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia.
  • 50. Cytospera Canker in Spruce
  • 51. Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
  • 52. Lantern canker on birch with nail
  • 53. Vascular Wilt
    • Vascular wilt pathogens invade the plant's water-conducting tissue (called the XYLEM ).
    • These pathogens either cause blockages in the xylem themselves
    • or the plant itself blocks off the xylem in an effort to localize the pathogen.
  • 54. Verticillium Wilt of Maple
    • VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING
  • 55. Verticillium Wilt
  • 56. Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
  • 57. Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots
    • Pythophera
    • Rhizoctonia
  • 58. Phytophthora Root Rot
  • 59. Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
  • 60. Phytophthora Stem Rot
  • 61. Phytophthera in Soy Beans
  • 62. Rhizoctonia
  • 63. Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
  • 64. Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf
    • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    • Dollar Spot
    • Fairy Rings
    • Melting Out Disease
    • Necrotic Ring Spot
  • 65. Ascochyta Leaf Blight
  • 66.  
  • 67. Fairy Rings
  • 68. Melting Out Disease of Turf
  • 69. Necrotic Ring Spot

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