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2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture 2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture Presentation Transcript

  • Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture
  •  
  • Fungi
    • Majority of fungi are NOT plant pathogens
    • Primarily survive on non-living organic material, are called SAPROPHYTES
    • The non-reproductive "body" of most fungi (called the vegetative phase) is composed of a mass of a fungal threads called HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA )
    • This mass of hyphae is called a MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ). While an individual hypha is microscopic, mycelia are often visible with the naked eye.
  • HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) are the threadlike structures that comprise the major body of a fungus. You can think of a hypha as a long tube. Many hyphae in a mass are called MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ).
  • Fungi Identification
    • Most fungi produce hyphae, as the one shown here, that have CROSS WALLS (Septa) (partitions dividing the tubes into individual cells)
    • presence or absence of cross walls can be important in distinguishing and identifying some plant pathogenic fungi.
  • Fungal Fruiting Structures
    • Fungi produce a wide range of reproductive structures (generically called FRUITING BODIES )
    • Within fruiting bodies, a fungus produces spores
  • Powdery Mildew Fruiting Bodies
    • Black – fruiting body
    • Red – sacks
    • Blue – spores
    • Green - appendages
  • Phaeosphaeria spartinicola Pithomyces
  • Spore (Botrytis)
  • Group I – Primarily Affecting Leaves
    • Coryneum Blight
    • Early Blight
    • Fusarium Wilt
    • Marssonina Leaf Spot – example of fungal leaf spot
    • Powdery Mildew
    • Rust
    • Sooty Mold
  • Blight Symptoms
    • When spots or lesions enlarge and merge so that large areas of a leaf are necrotic and diseased, then we call this a BLIGHT .
  • Coryneum Blight
    • Affects stone fruits in Colorado
    • ‘ Shothole’ disease
    • Affects fruit, stems, and leaves
    • Small purple spots, fallout
  • Coryneum Blight
    • Fruit symptoms
    • Rough scab-like distortions
    • Sunken grayish areas
    • Overwinters on buds or twigs
    • Early wet season
  • Coryneum Blight http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/PLANTS/coryneumblight.html
  • Coryneum Blight
    • Affects peaches, nectarines, sweet cherries, plums – Prunus species
    • Overwinters on buds or twigs
    • Early wet season promotes disease
    • Hard to eliminate with pesticides
    • Fall clean up, good air circulation, prune out damaged tissue
  • Early Blight Tomato early blight target-like leaf spot 
    • Tomato early blight target like leaf spots
    • Starts with small spots
  • Early Blight
  • Early blight (Alternaria)
    • Affects many vegetables
    • Leaves, stems, fruit
    • Plant resistant varieties
    • Remove and destroy
  • Early Blight Symptoms
    • Symptoms – brown on edges, leaves
    • Small holes, leaves missing
    • Brown spots – concentric rings
    • Cankers on stems
    • Leaf curl
    • Wilt
  • Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
  • Fusarium Wilt
    • Leaves turn yellow
    • Early leaf drop
    • Stems droop
    • Yellow leaf patches
    • Can be on one side of a plant
  • Fusarium Wilt
    • Occurs in warm weather
    • Soil borne
    • Plant resistant varieties
    • Remove and destroy
  • Fusarium Wilt of Tobacco
  • Fusarium Root Rot
  • Fusarium Wilt
  • Fungal Leaf Spot
    • Redbud
  • Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
  • Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
  • Marssonina leaf spot
    • Early spring
    • Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen
    • Fall clean up
    • Prune out damage to stems
    • Can lead to cankers and die back if severe
  • Powdery Mildew
    • The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores.
    • ‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi
    • Host specific
    • High humidity is the key
  • Powdery Mildew on Lilac
  • Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
  •  
  • Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds
    • Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left).
  • Powdery mildew on apple foliage
    • Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left).
  • Powdery Mildew
    • Affects leaves
    • Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot
    • Pesticides include sulfur, baking soda
    • Dislikes wet leaf surface
    • More abundant on lower leaves
    • Also occurs on fruit
  • Powdery Mildew
    • Fall clean up
    • Good air circulation
  • Rust
    • rusty-orange, powdery PUSTULES
    • Easily rubbed off
    • Often requires two hosts
  • Rust
    • Produces gelatinous masses & cups of discolored and distorted tissue
    • Remove and destroy seriously affected plants
    • Good air circulation, resistant varieties
    • Avoid wetting leaves
    • Don’t plant both hosts together
  • Rust
    • Affects leaves – pale yellow spots, drop early
    • Stems
    • Fruit have yellow spots that turn orange
    • Fungicides, copper, sulfur
    • Avoid nitrogen fertilizer
  • May Apple Rust
  • Rose Rust
  • Rust on Spruce
  • Rust on Lawn & Shoes
  • Cedar Apple Rust
  •  
  •  
  • Cedar Apple Rust
    • Also called Juniper – Hawthorne Rust
    • Plant alternate hosts 4 miles apart
    • Destroy the galls before winter
    • Copper based fungicides, minimal effect
  • Sooty Mold Linden
  • Sooty Mold
    • Control insect producing the honeydew
    • Can be wiped off
    • Black or gray-green non-parasitic fungus
  • Scale & Sooty Mold on Pine
  •  
  • Group II – Primarily Affecting Stems
    • Anthracnose
    • Botrytis Blight
    • Cytospora Canker
    • Verticillium Wilt
  • Cankers
    • Lesions that occur on the stems of herbaceous plants or on the trunks and branches of woody plants are called CANKERS
    • Often cankers are sunken and discolored, or, as in this example of a canker disease on honey locust, the outer bark layer has totally fallen away.
    http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide15.htm
  • Anthracnose of Maple & Sycamore Enlarged leaf vein
  • Anthracnose                                                                                   
  • Anthracnose on Twig
  • Anthracnose
    • Affects leaves, stems, fruit, entire plant
    • Occurs early spring
    • Symptoms appear on young leaves as they emerge (confused with frost damage)
    • Older leaves turn brown
    • Dead areas occur along the leaf veins
    • Ends of twigs may be killed back 8-10 iches
  • Anthracnose
    • Cancers may develop on the tree trunk and main branches
    • Fall clean up, improve air circulation
    • Plant resistant varieties
    • Prune out damage
  • Botrytis Blight
  • Botrytis Blight
    • Grey mold disease affects many plants
    • Cool rainy spring, temp around 60
    • Can affect every part of a plant except the roots
    • Remove and destroy damaged tissue
    • Avoid wet leaf surfaces
    • Fungal sprays
  • Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection
  • `
    • As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia.
  • Cytospora Canker in Spruce
  • Cytospora Canker Symptoms
    • Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots
    • Bark discoloration
    • Gummosis
    • Orange or amber colored ‘ooze’
    • Cankers
    • ‘Wound parasite’
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce
    • Avoid stress & injury
    • Prune out damage if you can without creating another wound
  • Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
  • Lantern canker on birch with nail
  • Vascular Wilt
    • Vascular wilt pathogens invade the plant's water-conducting tissue (called the XYLEM ).
    • These pathogens either cause blockages in the xylem themselves
    • or the plant itself blocks off the xylem in an effort to localize the pathogen.
  • Verticillium Wilt
    • Cool weather
    • Early in the season
    • Enters through wounds
    • Affects wide range of woody & herbaceous plants
    • Tomato, alfalfa, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes, eggplant
  • Symptoms
    • Slight yellow on foliage
    • Discoloration of wood
    • Cankers may form on branches
    • Staining of sapwood
    • Leaves V shaped yellowing, widest on leaf margins
    • Stems droop
    • Plant dies
  • Prevention
    • Soil borne – soil sterilization (?)
    • Resistant varieties
    • Prevent wounding
  • Verticillium Wilt of Maple
    • VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING
  • Verticillium Wilt
  • Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
  • Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots
    • Pythophera
    • Rhizoctonia
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
    • Soil borne and seed borne
    • Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigation and run off from plant to plant
    • Need well drained soil
  • Phytophthora symptoms
    • Dark streaks up the stem
    • Stunting
    • Reduced roots
    • Dead feeder roots
    • Death of plant
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
    • Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool
    • Destroy infected plants
    • Prune out damaged material
    • Purchase phytophthora free plants
  • Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
  • Phytophthora Stem Rot
  • Phytophthera in Soy Beans
  • Rhizoctonia
  • Rhizoctonia
    • Affects roots & lower stems
    • Roots turn black or charcoal colored
    • Occurs in spring
    • Affects young plants or stressed older plants
    • Soil borne
  • Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
  • Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf
    • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    • Dollar Spot
    • Fairy Rings
    • Melting Out Disease
    • Necrotic Ring Spot
  • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
  •  
  • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    • Affect tips of turf
    • Change watering practices
    • Aerate the turf
    • Affects Kentucky Bluegrass
  • Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
  • Fairy Rings
  • Melting Out Disease of Turf
  • Melting Out
    • Occurs in spring
    • Band of discolored tissue in the middle of the leaf blade
    • Crowns can be rotten or red
    • Improve watering practices
    • Broad spectrum fungicides
    • Plant resistant varieties
  • Necrotic Ring Spot
  • Necrotic Ring Spot
    • Mid spring through fall
    • Affects Kentucky Bluegrass
    • Plant resistant varieties
    • Kills the crowns of the turf
    • Apply fungicide
    • Change watering practices
  • Fungi for Test
    • Marssonina Leaf Spot
    • Powdery Mildew
    • Botrytis Blight
    • Cytospora Canker
    • Verticillium Wilt
    • Phytophthora Root Rot
    • Rhizoctonia
    • Aschochyta Leaf Blight
    • Dollar Spot
  • Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
  • Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
  • Marssonina leaf spot
    • Early spring
    • Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen
    • Fall clean up
    • Prune out damage to stems
    • Can lead to cankers and die back if severe
  • Powdery Mildew
    • The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores.
    • ‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi
    • Host specific
    • High humidity is the key
  • Powdery Mildew on Lilac
  • Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
  •  
  • Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds
    • Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left).
  • Powdery mildew on apple foliage
    • Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left).
  • Powdery Mildew
    • Affects leaves
    • Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot
    • Pesticides include sulfur, baking soda
    • Dislikes wet leaf surface
    • More abundant on lower leaves
    • Also occurs on fruit
  • Powdery Mildew
    • Fall clean up
    • Good air circulation
  • Group 2 Affecting Stems
    • Botrytis Blight
    • Cytospora Canker
    • Verticillium Wilt
  • Botrytis Blight
  • Botrytis Blight
    • Grey mold disease affects many plants
    • Cool rainy spring, temp around 60
    • Can affect every part of a plant except the roots
    • Remove and destroy damaged tissue
    • Avoid wet leaf surfaces
    • Fungal sprays
  • Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection
  • Cytospora Canker
    • As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia.
  • Cytospera Canker in Spruce
  • Cytospora Canker Symptoms
    • Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots
    • Bark discoloration
    • Gummosis
    • Orange or amber colored ‘ooze’
    • Cankers
    • ‘Wound parasite’
  • Cytospora Canker
    • Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce
    • Avoid stress & injury
    • Prune out damage if you can without creating another wound
  • Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
  • Lantern canker on birch with nail
  • Verticillium Wilt
    • Cool weather
    • Early in the season
    • Enters through wounds
    • Affects wide range of woody & herbaceous plants
    • Tomato, alfalfa, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes, eggplant
  • Symptoms
    • Slight yellow on foliage
    • Discoloration of wood
    • Cankers may form on branches
    • Staining of sapwood
    • Leaves V shaped yellowing, widest on leaf margins
    • Stems droop
    • Plant dies
  • Prevention
    • Soil borne – soil sterilization (?)
    • Resistant varieties
    • Prevent wounding
  • Verticillium Wilt of Maple
    • VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING
  • Verticillium Wilt
  • Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
  • Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots
    • Phytophthora
    • Rhizoctonia
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
    • Soil borne and seed borne
    • Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigation and run off from plant to plant
    • Need well drained soil
  • Phytophthora symptoms
    • Dark streaks up the stem
    • Stunting
    • Reduced roots
    • Dead feeder roots
    • Death of plant
  • Phytophthora Root Rot
    • Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool
    • Destroy infected plants
    • Prune out damaged material
    • Purchase phytophthora free plants
  • Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
  • Phytophthora Stem Rot
  • Phytophthera in Soy Beans
  • Rhizoctonia
  • Rhizoctonia
    • Affects roots & lower stems
    • Roots turn black or charcoal colored
    • Occurs in spring
    • Affects young plants or stressed older plants
    • Soil borne
  • Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
  • Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf
    • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    • Dollar Spot
  • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
  • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    • Affect tips of turf
    • Change watering practices
    • Aerate the turf
    • Affects Kentucky Bluegrass
  • Ascochyta Leaf Blight
  • Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
  • Dollar Spot
    • Appears as tan lesions on the turf blade
    • Surrounded by reddish brown borders
    • Indicates nitrogen deficiency and prolonged wetness
    • Overwinters in thatch and soil
  •  
  • Id from Photographs
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