Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture
 
Fungi <ul><li>Majority of fungi are NOT plant pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily survive on non-living organic material...
HYPHAE  (singular =  HYPHA ) are the threadlike structures that comprise the major body of a fungus. You can think of a hy...
Fungi Identification <ul><li>Most fungi produce hyphae, as the one shown here, that have  CROSS WALLS  (Septa) (partitions...
Fungal Fruiting Structures <ul><li>Fungi produce a wide range of reproductive structures (generically called  FRUITING BOD...
Powdery Mildew Fruiting Bodies <ul><li>Black – fruiting body </li></ul><ul><li>Red – sacks </li></ul><ul><li>Blue – spores...
Phaeosphaeria spartinicola Pithomyces
Spore (Botrytis)
Group I – Primarily Affecting Leaves <ul><li>Coryneum Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Early Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium Wil...
Blight Symptoms <ul><li>When spots or lesions enlarge and merge so that large areas of a leaf are necrotic and diseased, t...
Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Affects stone fruits in Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Shothole’ disease </li></ul><ul><li>Affects f...
Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Fruit symptoms  </li></ul><ul><li>Rough scab-like distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Sunken grayish are...
Coryneum Blight http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/PLANTS/coryneumblight.html
Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Affects peaches, nectarines, sweet cherries, plums –  Prunus  species </li></ul><ul><li>Overwinter...
Early Blight Tomato early blight target-like leaf spot  <ul><li>Tomato early blight target like leaf spots </li></ul><ul><...
Early Blight
Early blight (Alternaria) <ul><li>Affects many vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves, stems, fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Plant r...
Early Blight Symptoms <ul><li>Symptoms – brown on edges, leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Small holes, leaves missing </li></ul><u...
Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
Fusarium Wilt <ul><li>Leaves turn yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Early leaf drop </li></ul><ul><li>Stems droop </li></ul><ul><li...
Fusarium Wilt <ul><li>Occurs in warm weather </li></ul><ul><li>Soil borne </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li...
Fusarium Wilt of Tobacco
Fusarium Root Rot
Fusarium Wilt
Fungal Leaf Spot <ul><li>Redbud </li></ul>
Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
Marssonina leaf spot <ul><li>Early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen </li></ul><ul><li>...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Powdery Mi...
Powdery Mildew on Lilac
Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
 
Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds <ul><li>Overwintering apple powdery mildew  deforms the buds creating a feathered...
Powdery mildew on apple foliage <ul><li>Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves ...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Affects leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot ...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Good air circulation </li></ul>
Rust <ul><li>rusty-orange, powdery  PUSTULES   </li></ul><ul><li>Easily rubbed off  </li></ul><ul><li>Often requires two h...
Rust <ul><li>Produces gelatinous masses & cups of discolored and distorted tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy ser...
Rust <ul><li>Affects leaves – pale yellow spots, drop early </li></ul><ul><li>Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit have yellow sp...
May Apple Rust
Rose Rust
Rust on Spruce
Rust on Lawn & Shoes
Cedar Apple Rust
 
 
Cedar Apple Rust <ul><li>Also called Juniper – Hawthorne Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Plant alternate hosts 4 miles apart </li><...
Sooty Mold Linden
Sooty Mold <ul><li>Control insect producing the honeydew </li></ul><ul><li>Can be wiped off </li></ul><ul><li>Black or gra...
Scale & Sooty Mold on Pine
 
Group II – Primarily Affecting Stems <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Can...
Cankers <ul><li>Lesions that occur on the stems of herbaceous plants or on the trunks and branches of woody plants are cal...
Anthracnose of Maple & Sycamore Enlarged leaf vein
Anthracnose                                                                                   
Anthracnose on Twig
Anthracnose <ul><li>Affects leaves, stems, fruit, entire plant </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Sym...
Anthracnose <ul><li>Cancers may develop on the tree trunk and main branches </li></ul><ul><li>Fall clean up, improve air c...
Botrytis Blight
Botrytis Blight <ul><li>Grey mold disease affects many plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cool rainy spring, temp around 60 </li></u...
Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection   </li></ul>
` <ul><li>As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form  </li></ul>
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia.  </...
Cytospora Canker in Spruce
Cytospora Canker Symptoms <ul><li>Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Bark discoloration </li><...
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stress &...
Fungal Canker Nectria galligena  on apple
Lantern canker on birch with nail
Vascular Wilt <ul><li>Vascular wilt pathogens invade the plant's water-conducting tissue (called the  XYLEM ).  </li></ul>...
Verticillium Wilt <ul><li>Cool weather </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the season </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through wounds </li>...
Symptoms <ul><li>Slight yellow on foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers may form on br...
Prevention <ul><li>Soil borne – soil sterilization (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wou...
Verticillium Wilt of Maple <ul><li>VASCULAR DISCOLORATION  or  BROWNING </li></ul>
Verticillium Wilt
Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots <ul><li>Pythophera </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul>
Phytophthora Root Rot
Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Soil borne and seed borne </li></ul><ul><li>Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigatio...
Phytophthora symptoms <ul><li>Dark streaks up the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced roots </li></u...
Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy infected plants </li></ul><u...
Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
Phytophthora Stem Rot
Phytophthera in Soy Beans
Rhizoctonia
Rhizoctonia <ul><li>Affects roots & lower stems </li></ul><ul><li>Roots turn black or charcoal colored </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Rhizoctonia lesions                                          
Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf <ul><li>Ascochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy Rin...
Ascochyta Leaf Blight
 
Ascochyta Leaf Blight <ul><li>Affect tips of turf </li></ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul><ul><li>Aerate the...
Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
Fairy Rings
Melting Out Disease of Turf
Melting Out <ul><li>Occurs in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Band of discolored tissue in the middle of the leaf blade </li></ul...
Necrotic Ring Spot
Necrotic Ring Spot <ul><li>Mid spring through fall </li></ul><ul><li>Affects Kentucky Bluegrass </li></ul><ul><li>Plant re...
Fungi for Test <ul><li>Marssonina Leaf Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Powdery Mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><...
Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
Marssonina leaf spot <ul><li>Early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen </li></ul><ul><li>...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Powdery Mi...
Powdery Mildew on Lilac
Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
 
Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds <ul><li>Overwintering apple powdery mildew  deforms the buds creating a feathered...
Powdery mildew on apple foliage <ul><li>Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves ...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Affects leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot ...
Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Good air circulation </li></ul>
Group 2 Affecting Stems <ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Verticillium Wilt </l...
Botrytis Blight
Botrytis Blight <ul><li>Grey mold disease affects many plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cool rainy spring, temp around 60 </li></u...
Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection   </li></ul>
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form  </li></ul>
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia.  </...
Cytospera Canker in Spruce
Cytospora Canker Symptoms <ul><li>Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Bark discoloration </li><...
Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stress &...
Fungal Canker Nectria galligena  on apple
Lantern canker on birch with nail
Verticillium Wilt <ul><li>Cool weather </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the season </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through wounds </li>...
Symptoms <ul><li>Slight yellow on foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers may form on br...
Prevention <ul><li>Soil borne – soil sterilization (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wou...
Verticillium Wilt of Maple <ul><li>VASCULAR DISCOLORATION  or  BROWNING </li></ul>
Verticillium Wilt
Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots <ul><li>Phytophthora </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul>
Phytophthora Root Rot
Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Soil borne and seed borne </li></ul><ul><li>Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigatio...
Phytophthora symptoms <ul><li>Dark streaks up the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced roots </li></u...
Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy infected plants </li></ul><u...
Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
Phytophthora Stem Rot
Phytophthera in Soy Beans
Rhizoctonia
Rhizoctonia <ul><li>Affects roots & lower stems </li></ul><ul><li>Roots turn black or charcoal colored </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Rhizoctonia lesions                                          
Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf <ul><li>Ascochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul>
Ascochyta Leaf Blight
Ascochyta Leaf Blight <ul><li>Affect tips of turf </li></ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul><ul><li>Aerate the...
Ascochyta Leaf Blight
Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
Dollar Spot <ul><li>Appears as tan lesions on the turf blade </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by reddish brown borders </li></...
 
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  • 2 Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture

    1. 1. Plant Health Care Fungal Pathogens Lecture
    2. 3. Fungi <ul><li>Majority of fungi are NOT plant pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily survive on non-living organic material, are called SAPROPHYTES </li></ul><ul><li>The non-reproductive &quot;body&quot; of most fungi (called the vegetative phase) is composed of a mass of a fungal threads called HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) </li></ul><ul><li>This mass of hyphae is called a MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ). While an individual hypha is microscopic, mycelia are often visible with the naked eye. </li></ul>
    3. 4. HYPHAE (singular = HYPHA ) are the threadlike structures that comprise the major body of a fungus. You can think of a hypha as a long tube. Many hyphae in a mass are called MYCELIUM (plural = MYCELIA ).
    4. 5. Fungi Identification <ul><li>Most fungi produce hyphae, as the one shown here, that have CROSS WALLS (Septa) (partitions dividing the tubes into individual cells) </li></ul><ul><li>presence or absence of cross walls can be important in distinguishing and identifying some plant pathogenic fungi. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Fungal Fruiting Structures <ul><li>Fungi produce a wide range of reproductive structures (generically called FRUITING BODIES ) </li></ul><ul><li>Within fruiting bodies, a fungus produces spores </li></ul>
    6. 7. Powdery Mildew Fruiting Bodies <ul><li>Black – fruiting body </li></ul><ul><li>Red – sacks </li></ul><ul><li>Blue – spores </li></ul><ul><li>Green - appendages </li></ul>
    7. 8. Phaeosphaeria spartinicola Pithomyces
    8. 9. Spore (Botrytis)
    9. 10. Group I – Primarily Affecting Leaves <ul><li>Coryneum Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Early Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Fusarium Wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Marssonina Leaf Spot – example of fungal leaf spot </li></ul><ul><li>Powdery Mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Sooty Mold </li></ul>
    10. 11. Blight Symptoms <ul><li>When spots or lesions enlarge and merge so that large areas of a leaf are necrotic and diseased, then we call this a BLIGHT . </li></ul>
    11. 12. Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Affects stone fruits in Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Shothole’ disease </li></ul><ul><li>Affects fruit, stems, and leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Small purple spots, fallout </li></ul>
    12. 13. Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Fruit symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Rough scab-like distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Sunken grayish areas </li></ul><ul><li>Overwinters on buds or twigs </li></ul><ul><li>Early wet season </li></ul>
    13. 14. Coryneum Blight http://www.coopext.colostate.edu/TRA/PLANTS/coryneumblight.html
    14. 15. Coryneum Blight <ul><li>Affects peaches, nectarines, sweet cherries, plums – Prunus species </li></ul><ul><li>Overwinters on buds or twigs </li></ul><ul><li>Early wet season promotes disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to eliminate with pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Fall clean up, good air circulation, prune out damaged tissue </li></ul>
    15. 16. Early Blight Tomato early blight target-like leaf spot  <ul><li>Tomato early blight target like leaf spots </li></ul><ul><li>Starts with small spots </li></ul>
    16. 17. Early Blight
    17. 18. Early blight (Alternaria) <ul><li>Affects many vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves, stems, fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy </li></ul>
    18. 19. Early Blight Symptoms <ul><li>Symptoms – brown on edges, leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Small holes, leaves missing </li></ul><ul><li>Brown spots – concentric rings </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers on stems </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf curl </li></ul><ul><li>Wilt </li></ul>
    19. 20. Fusarium Wilt of Tomato
    20. 21. Fusarium Wilt <ul><li>Leaves turn yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Early leaf drop </li></ul><ul><li>Stems droop </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow leaf patches </li></ul><ul><li>Can be on one side of a plant </li></ul>
    21. 22. Fusarium Wilt <ul><li>Occurs in warm weather </li></ul><ul><li>Soil borne </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy </li></ul>
    22. 23. Fusarium Wilt of Tobacco
    23. 24. Fusarium Root Rot
    24. 25. Fusarium Wilt
    25. 26. Fungal Leaf Spot <ul><li>Redbud </li></ul>
    26. 27. Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
    27. 28. Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
    28. 29. Marssonina leaf spot <ul><li>Early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen </li></ul><ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damage to stems </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to cankers and die back if severe </li></ul>
    29. 30. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Host specific </li></ul><ul><li>High humidity is the key </li></ul>
    30. 31. Powdery Mildew on Lilac
    31. 32. Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
    32. 34. Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds <ul><li>Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left). </li></ul>
    33. 35. Powdery mildew on apple foliage <ul><li>Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left). </li></ul>
    34. 36. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Affects leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides include sulfur, baking soda </li></ul><ul><li>Dislikes wet leaf surface </li></ul><ul><li>More abundant on lower leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Also occurs on fruit </li></ul>
    35. 37. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Good air circulation </li></ul>
    36. 38. Rust <ul><li>rusty-orange, powdery PUSTULES </li></ul><ul><li>Easily rubbed off </li></ul><ul><li>Often requires two hosts </li></ul>
    37. 39. Rust <ul><li>Produces gelatinous masses & cups of discolored and distorted tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy seriously affected plants </li></ul><ul><li>Good air circulation, resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wetting leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t plant both hosts together </li></ul>
    38. 40. Rust <ul><li>Affects leaves – pale yellow spots, drop early </li></ul><ul><li>Stems </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit have yellow spots that turn orange </li></ul><ul><li>Fungicides, copper, sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid nitrogen fertilizer </li></ul>
    39. 41. May Apple Rust
    40. 42. Rose Rust
    41. 43. Rust on Spruce
    42. 44. Rust on Lawn & Shoes
    43. 45. Cedar Apple Rust
    44. 48. Cedar Apple Rust <ul><li>Also called Juniper – Hawthorne Rust </li></ul><ul><li>Plant alternate hosts 4 miles apart </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy the galls before winter </li></ul><ul><li>Copper based fungicides, minimal effect </li></ul>
    45. 49. Sooty Mold Linden
    46. 50. Sooty Mold <ul><li>Control insect producing the honeydew </li></ul><ul><li>Can be wiped off </li></ul><ul><li>Black or gray-green non-parasitic fungus </li></ul>
    47. 51. Scale & Sooty Mold on Pine
    48. 53. Group II – Primarily Affecting Stems <ul><li>Anthracnose </li></ul><ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Verticillium Wilt </li></ul>
    49. 54. Cankers <ul><li>Lesions that occur on the stems of herbaceous plants or on the trunks and branches of woody plants are called CANKERS </li></ul><ul><li>Often cankers are sunken and discolored, or, as in this example of a canker disease on honey locust, the outer bark layer has totally fallen away. </li></ul>http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide15.htm
    50. 55. Anthracnose of Maple & Sycamore Enlarged leaf vein
    51. 56. Anthracnose                                                                                   
    52. 57. Anthracnose on Twig
    53. 58. Anthracnose <ul><li>Affects leaves, stems, fruit, entire plant </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear on young leaves as they emerge (confused with frost damage) </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves turn brown </li></ul><ul><li>Dead areas occur along the leaf veins </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of twigs may be killed back 8-10 iches </li></ul>
    54. 59. Anthracnose <ul><li>Cancers may develop on the tree trunk and main branches </li></ul><ul><li>Fall clean up, improve air circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damage </li></ul>
    55. 60. Botrytis Blight
    56. 61. Botrytis Blight <ul><li>Grey mold disease affects many plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cool rainy spring, temp around 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect every part of a plant except the roots </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy damaged tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wet leaf surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal sprays </li></ul>
    57. 62. Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
    58. 63. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection </li></ul>
    59. 64. ` <ul><li>As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form </li></ul>
    60. 65. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia. </li></ul>
    61. 66. Cytospora Canker in Spruce
    62. 67. Cytospora Canker Symptoms <ul><li>Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Bark discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>Gummosis </li></ul><ul><li>Orange or amber colored ‘ooze’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers </li></ul><ul><li>‘Wound parasite’ </li></ul>
    63. 68. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stress & injury </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damage if you can without creating another wound </li></ul>
    64. 69. Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
    65. 70. Lantern canker on birch with nail
    66. 71. Vascular Wilt <ul><li>Vascular wilt pathogens invade the plant's water-conducting tissue (called the XYLEM ). </li></ul><ul><li>These pathogens either cause blockages in the xylem themselves </li></ul><ul><li>or the plant itself blocks off the xylem in an effort to localize the pathogen. </li></ul>
    67. 72. Verticillium Wilt <ul><li>Cool weather </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the season </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Affects wide range of woody & herbaceous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato, alfalfa, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes, eggplant </li></ul>
    68. 73. Symptoms <ul><li>Slight yellow on foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers may form on branches </li></ul><ul><li>Staining of sapwood </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves V shaped yellowing, widest on leaf margins </li></ul><ul><li>Stems droop </li></ul><ul><li>Plant dies </li></ul>
    69. 74. Prevention <ul><li>Soil borne – soil sterilization (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wounding </li></ul>
    70. 75. Verticillium Wilt of Maple <ul><li>VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING </li></ul>
    71. 76. Verticillium Wilt
    72. 77. Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
    73. 78. Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots <ul><li>Pythophera </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul>
    74. 79. Phytophthora Root Rot
    75. 80. Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Soil borne and seed borne </li></ul><ul><li>Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigation and run off from plant to plant </li></ul><ul><li>Need well drained soil </li></ul>
    76. 81. Phytophthora symptoms <ul><li>Dark streaks up the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced roots </li></ul><ul><li>Dead feeder roots </li></ul><ul><li>Death of plant </li></ul>
    77. 82. Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy infected plants </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damaged material </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase phytophthora free plants </li></ul>
    78. 83. Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
    79. 84. Phytophthora Stem Rot
    80. 85. Phytophthera in Soy Beans
    81. 86. Rhizoctonia
    82. 87. Rhizoctonia <ul><li>Affects roots & lower stems </li></ul><ul><li>Roots turn black or charcoal colored </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects young plants or stressed older plants </li></ul><ul><li>Soil borne </li></ul>
    83. 88. Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
    84. 89. Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf <ul><li>Ascochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy Rings </li></ul><ul><li>Melting Out Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Necrotic Ring Spot </li></ul>
    85. 90. Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    86. 92. Ascochyta Leaf Blight <ul><li>Affect tips of turf </li></ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul><ul><li>Aerate the turf </li></ul><ul><li>Affects Kentucky Bluegrass </li></ul>
    87. 93. Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
    88. 94. Fairy Rings
    89. 95. Melting Out Disease of Turf
    90. 96. Melting Out <ul><li>Occurs in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Band of discolored tissue in the middle of the leaf blade </li></ul><ul><li>Crowns can be rotten or red </li></ul><ul><li>Improve watering practices </li></ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum fungicides </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li></ul>
    91. 97. Necrotic Ring Spot
    92. 98. Necrotic Ring Spot <ul><li>Mid spring through fall </li></ul><ul><li>Affects Kentucky Bluegrass </li></ul><ul><li>Plant resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Kills the crowns of the turf </li></ul><ul><li>Apply fungicide </li></ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul>
    93. 99. Fungi for Test <ul><li>Marssonina Leaf Spot </li></ul><ul><li>Powdery Mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Verticillium Wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Phytophthora Root Rot </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul><ul><li>Aschochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul>
    94. 100. Marssonina leaf spot of Aspen
    95. 101. Marssonina Leaf Spot of Poplar
    96. 102. Marssonina leaf spot <ul><li>Early spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects poplars and cottonwoods, esp. aspen </li></ul><ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damage to stems </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to cankers and die back if severe </li></ul>
    97. 103. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>The white that you see is a combination of hyphae and asexual spores. </li></ul><ul><li>‘Powdery Mildew’ is a group of closely related fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Host specific </li></ul><ul><li>High humidity is the key </li></ul>
    98. 104. Powdery Mildew on Lilac
    99. 105. Powdery Mildew on Pumpkin
    100. 107. Powdery Mildew overwinters in Apple buds <ul><li>Overwintering apple powdery mildew deforms the buds creating a feathered appearance (right) rather than a smooth round healthy bud (left). </li></ul>
    101. 108. Powdery mildew on apple foliage <ul><li>Powdery mildew symptoms on apple foliage (right), notice upward curling of leaves and white appearance. Healthy foliage (left). </li></ul>
    102. 109. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Affects leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs mid to late summer when evenings are cool and days are hot </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides include sulfur, baking soda </li></ul><ul><li>Dislikes wet leaf surface </li></ul><ul><li>More abundant on lower leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Also occurs on fruit </li></ul>
    103. 110. Powdery Mildew <ul><li>Fall clean up </li></ul><ul><li>Good air circulation </li></ul>
    104. 111. Group 2 Affecting Stems <ul><li>Botrytis Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Cytospora Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Verticillium Wilt </li></ul>
    105. 112. Botrytis Blight
    106. 113. Botrytis Blight <ul><li>Grey mold disease affects many plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cool rainy spring, temp around 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect every part of a plant except the roots </li></ul><ul><li>Remove and destroy damaged tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wet leaf surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal sprays </li></ul>
    107. 114. Cytospora Canker in Aspen                             
    108. 115. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Orange-stained bark and sap flow are indicative of early cytospora canker infection </li></ul>
    109. 116. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>As infected tissue dies, pimple-like fruiting bodies called pycnidia form </li></ul>
    110. 117. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Under moist conditions small orange tendrils of a jellylike material oozes from the pycnidia. </li></ul>
    111. 118. Cytospera Canker in Spruce
    112. 119. Cytospora Canker Symptoms <ul><li>Yellowing, wilting and dieback of new shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Bark discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>Gummosis </li></ul><ul><li>Orange or amber colored ‘ooze’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers </li></ul><ul><li>‘Wound parasite’ </li></ul>
    113. 120. Cytospora Canker <ul><li>Common on willow, aspen, cottonwood, maple, stone fruits, spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stress & injury </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damage if you can without creating another wound </li></ul>
    114. 121. Fungal Canker Nectria galligena on apple
    115. 122. Lantern canker on birch with nail
    116. 123. Verticillium Wilt <ul><li>Cool weather </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the season </li></ul><ul><li>Enters through wounds </li></ul><ul><li>Affects wide range of woody & herbaceous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato, alfalfa, raspberries, strawberries, potatoes, eggplant </li></ul>
    117. 124. Symptoms <ul><li>Slight yellow on foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Discoloration of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Cankers may form on branches </li></ul><ul><li>Staining of sapwood </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves V shaped yellowing, widest on leaf margins </li></ul><ul><li>Stems droop </li></ul><ul><li>Plant dies </li></ul>
    118. 125. Prevention <ul><li>Soil borne – soil sterilization (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wounding </li></ul>
    119. 126. Verticillium Wilt of Maple <ul><li>VASCULAR DISCOLORATION or BROWNING </li></ul>
    120. 127. Verticillium Wilt
    121. 128. Verticillium Wilt – Tomato
    122. 129. Group III - Primarily Affecting Roots <ul><li>Phytophthora </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizoctonia </li></ul>
    123. 130. Phytophthora Root Rot
    124. 131. Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Soil borne and seed borne </li></ul><ul><li>Disbursed by splashing, heavy rains or irrigation and run off from plant to plant </li></ul><ul><li>Need well drained soil </li></ul>
    125. 132. Phytophthora symptoms <ul><li>Dark streaks up the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Stunting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced roots </li></ul><ul><li>Dead feeder roots </li></ul><ul><li>Death of plant </li></ul>
    126. 133. Phytophthora Root Rot <ul><li>Bordeaux mix when the weather is cool </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy infected plants </li></ul><ul><li>Prune out damaged material </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase phytophthora free plants </li></ul>
    127. 134. Phytophthora Root Rot                                                                                            
    128. 135. Phytophthora Stem Rot
    129. 136. Phytophthera in Soy Beans
    130. 137. Rhizoctonia
    131. 138. Rhizoctonia <ul><li>Affects roots & lower stems </li></ul><ul><li>Roots turn black or charcoal colored </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in spring </li></ul><ul><li>Affects young plants or stressed older plants </li></ul><ul><li>Soil borne </li></ul>
    132. 139. Rhizoctonia lesions                                         
    133. 140. Group IV – Fungal Diseases of Turf <ul><li>Ascochyta Leaf Blight </li></ul><ul><li>Dollar Spot </li></ul>
    134. 141. Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    135. 142. Ascochyta Leaf Blight <ul><li>Affect tips of turf </li></ul><ul><li>Change watering practices </li></ul><ul><li>Aerate the turf </li></ul><ul><li>Affects Kentucky Bluegrass </li></ul>
    136. 143. Ascochyta Leaf Blight
    137. 144. Dollar Spot http://www.ext.colostate.edu/ptlk/1522b.html
    138. 145. Dollar Spot <ul><li>Appears as tan lesions on the turf blade </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by reddish brown borders </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates nitrogen deficiency and prolonged wetness </li></ul><ul><li>Overwinters in thatch and soil </li></ul>
    139. 147. Id from Photographs
    140. 152.                                                                                            
    141. 153.                             

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