Colorado Master Gardener Training Trees and the  Living Soil
Trees: Soils & Fertilizers <ul><li>Compaction  </li></ul><ul><li>Urban soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living soils </li></ul>...
80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems. Predisposing Inciting Contributing
80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems,  most commonly soil compaction .
 
Preventing Soil Compaction <ul><li>Avoid working clayey soils when wet </li></ul><ul><li>Annual applications of organic ma...
Aeration of Compacted Soils Correction is limited, prevention is the key. <ul><li>Worth considering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Soil fracturing with compressed air
Prevent Compaction within the PRZ Calculating the Critical Root Radius, CRR of the  Protected Root Zone, PRZ 1.  First mea...
Urban Soils <ul><li>Compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Surface cr...
Colorado Master Gardener Training Tree Fertilization
Why fertilize landscape trees?
Value of soil tests  for fertilizer recommendations <ul><li>Valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Agronomic crops </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Nutrient Analysis  for Trees <ul><li>Visual Soil Test Tissue Test </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to see Limited value Limited...
Low Nutrient Levels  on Trees <ul><li>Nitrogen , Phosphorus, and Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains health by adjustin...
Low Nutrient Levels  on Trees <ul><li>Potassium, Magnesium, and  Manganese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies slow entire ...
<ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Growth phase </li></ul><ul><li>Mature, maintenance phase </li></ul>Nitrogen ...
Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Growth phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate based on plant’s natural growth rate...
Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Mature, maintenance phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine rates </li></ul></ul...
 
<ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 to 0.1 pounds N / 100 ft 2  / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth phase...
<ul><li>Tree in Tree in  </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Phase Mature Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, actively Supplemental vertic...
Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Unrestricted root zone </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Root Radius, CRR </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Confined root zone </li></ul><ul><li>Measure open root area in PRZ </li></ul>dripline
Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Under Stress </li></ul><ul><li>It takes energy to absorb nutrients.  </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Fertilizer Application <ul><li>Vertical fertilizing  </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compacted soils </li></u...
Tree Fertilization <ul><li>Controlled release (slow release) Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Light applications to support root...
 
 
Colorado Master Gardener Training Iron Chlorosis
Leaf  chlorosis  has several causes. <ul><li>Iron deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General yellowing with  veins  remainin...
Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis <ul><li>Leaf symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing of leaf with veins remaining green </li></ul>...
Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis <ul><li>Branch symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Single branch, side of tree or entire plant </li></ul...
Leaf  chlorosis  has several causes. <ul><li>Chlorophyll-inhibiting herbicides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing with green ...
Leaf  chlorosis  has several causes. <ul><li>Root and trunk damage </li></ul><ul><li>Some virus, MLOs and vascular wilt di...
Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem. <ul><li>Water stress   -- overl...
Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem. <ul><li>Plant competition </li>...
Right Plant, Right Place woody plants susceptible to iron chlorosis  <ul><li>Apple Douglas-fir Peach </li></ul><ul><li>Arb...
Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Sulfur to lower pH   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merits consideration on soils  without  “free li...
Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Sulfur + Iron combinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merits consideration on soils  without  “f...
Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Iron Chelates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chelate to use depends on soil pH </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Iron Chelates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply before May 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts 1-2...
Iron - Foliar Sprays <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe sulfate or Fe chelates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply ...
Fe Trunk Injections/Implants <ul><li>Localized necrosis at injection/implant site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use methods with m...
Iron citrate trunk injections
 
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10b Trees Fertsoil

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10b Trees Fertsoil

  1. 1. Colorado Master Gardener Training Trees and the Living Soil
  2. 2. Trees: Soils & Fertilizers <ul><li>Compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Urban soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living soils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tree fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Iron chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding soils </li></ul>
  3. 3. 80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems. Predisposing Inciting Contributing
  4. 4. 80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems, most commonly soil compaction .
  5. 6. Preventing Soil Compaction <ul><li>Avoid working clayey soils when wet </li></ul><ul><li>Annual applications of organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Organic mulches </li></ul><ul><li>Establish walkways, keeping traffic off growing beds and out of tree’s PRZ </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive tilling </li></ul><ul><li>Aerate turf areas </li></ul><ul><li>Construction = Soil compaction </li></ul>
  6. 7. Aeration of Compacted Soils Correction is limited, prevention is the key. <ul><li>Worth considering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerate lawn at 2” centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic mulch in PRZ of trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical mulching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionable value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trenching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracturing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Soil fracturing with compressed air
  8. 9. Prevent Compaction within the PRZ Calculating the Critical Root Radius, CRR of the Protected Root Zone, PRZ 1. First measure the tree’s circumference (distance around) at a 4.5 foot height, in inches. 2. Divide the number by 2. 3. Express the results in feet. CRR Example: Circumference = 30 inches 30  2 = 15 CRR = 15 feet dripline Protected Root Zone (PRZ)
  9. 10. Urban Soils <ul><li>Compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Variability </li></ul><ul><li>Surface crusting </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Soil micro-organism activity </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer soil temperatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root growth into fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste materials (asphalt, concrete, masonry, etc.) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Colorado Master Gardener Training Tree Fertilization
  11. 12. Why fertilize landscape trees?
  12. 13. Value of soil tests for fertilizer recommendations <ul><li>Valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Agronomic crops </li></ul><ul><li>Lawns & turf </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse crops </li></ul><ul><li>Nursery crops </li></ul><ul><li>General gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable Value </li></ul><ul><li>Shade trees and other woody plants in a landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Specific herbaceous plants in the landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients (except in a few high value crops.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of research base to interpret these tests. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Nutrient Analysis for Trees <ul><li>Visual Soil Test Tissue Test </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to see Limited value Limited value </li></ul><ul><li>due to limited due to limited </li></ul><ul><li>Trees often show research base. research base. </li></ul><ul><li>no symptoms, </li></ul><ul><li>but growth may Helpful to Must compare </li></ul><ul><li>be reduced. identify very healthy tree </li></ul><ul><li>low levels. with tree in </li></ul><ul><li>in question. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Low Nutrient Levels on Trees <ul><li>Nitrogen , Phosphorus, and Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains health by adjusting root-shoot growth rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiency = more roots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add nutrients = new root/shoot growth balance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Low Nutrient Levels on Trees <ul><li>Potassium, Magnesium, and Manganese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies slow entire system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient uptake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate concentrations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Growth phase </li></ul><ul><li>Mature, maintenance phase </li></ul>Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
  17. 18. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase top growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease root growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light application of controlled release (slow release) nitrogen may support root growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soils moderate to high in organic content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO fertilizer warranted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soils low in organic content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.1 pound N / 100 ft 2 / season MAXIMUM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fertilize trees with other growth limiting factors, like limited water supply . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Growth phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate based on plant’s natural growth rates (use higher rates where rapid growth is desirable on fast growing plants). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soils low in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2-0.4 pound nitrogen / 100 sq. ft. / year </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soils moderate in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.1-0.2 pound nitrogen / 100 ft2 / year </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soil high in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO fertilizer warranted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For maximum growth, N needs to be available in spring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late fall (soil temps > 40 O ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early spring (4-6 weeks before bud break) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid N application late summer/early fall </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity <ul><li>Mature, maintenance phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soils low in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.2-0.4 pound nitrogen / 100 sq. ft. / 4 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soils moderate in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.1-0.2 pound nitrogen / 100 ft 2 / 4 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For soil high in organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO fertilizer warranted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Establishment phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 to 0.1 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.2 to 0.4 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mature, maintenance phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.2 to 0.4 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / 4 years </li></ul></ul>Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
  21. 23. <ul><li>Tree in Tree in </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Phase Mature Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, actively Supplemental vertical No additional </li></ul><ul><li>growing turf fertilization may push fertilizer warranted </li></ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul><ul><li>??? High N rates could </li></ul><ul><li>Thin turf Why is turf thin? push undesirable </li></ul><ul><li>Does this impact canopy growth. </li></ul><ul><li>tree growth? </li></ul>Fertilizing Trees in Turf <ul><li>In full sun, a healthy turf has 20 to 400 times more root mass than woody plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turf absorbs most of the water soluble N within 48 hours. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Unrestricted root zone </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Root Radius, CRR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure circumference (in inches) and divide by 2 = CCR (in feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protected Root Zone, PRZ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRR 2 x 3.14 = area </li></ul></ul>dripline
  23. 25. Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Confined root zone </li></ul><ul><li>Measure open root area in PRZ </li></ul>dripline
  24. 26. Fertilizer Rate for Trees <ul><li>Under Stress </li></ul><ul><li>It takes energy to absorb nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Is canopy growth desirable? </li></ul>dripline
  25. 27. Fertilizer Application <ul><li>Vertical fertilizing </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compacted soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on slopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P, K, & Fe fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-6” deep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2’ intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-5 rings around CRR/dripline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backfill with sand, compost, or vermiculite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds surface roots </li></ul><ul><li>For N fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Quick and easy </li></ul>
  26. 28. Tree Fertilization <ul><li>Controlled release (slow release) Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Light applications to support root growth </li></ul><ul><li>Lawn fertilization generally takes care of trees in lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Established trees have NOT shown a response to phosphate fertilizer even when soil levels are low! </li></ul>
  27. 31. Colorado Master Gardener Training Iron Chlorosis
  28. 32. Leaf chlorosis has several causes. <ul><li>Iron deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General yellowing with veins remaining green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First on younger leaves, terminal growth </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis <ul><li>Leaf symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing of leaf with veins remaining green </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf may become whitish with veins retaining a green tint </li></ul><ul><li>Angular brown spots and marginal scorch </li></ul><ul><li>Shows first on growing tips </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Curl, dry up, and fall </li></ul>
  30. 34. Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis <ul><li>Branch symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Single branch, side of tree or entire plant </li></ul><ul><li>Dieback </li></ul>
  31. 35. Leaf chlorosis has several causes. <ul><li>Chlorophyll-inhibiting herbicides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing with green vein banding </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Leaf chlorosis has several causes. <ul><li>Root and trunk damage </li></ul><ul><li>Some virus, MLOs and vascular wilt diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc, nitrogen, manganese deficiency </li></ul>
  33. 37. Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem. <ul><li>Water stress -- overly wet or overly dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common in wet springs and with heavy spring irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron chlorosis is a common symptom of over-irrigation! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil compaction and low soil oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Winter injury </li></ul>
  34. 38. Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem. <ul><li>Plant competition </li></ul><ul><li>Soil organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>High salts </li></ul><ul><li>High temperatures and light intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Acid-loving plants </li></ul><ul><li>XS phosphorus </li></ul>
  35. 39. Right Plant, Right Place woody plants susceptible to iron chlorosis <ul><li>Apple Douglas-fir Peach </li></ul><ul><li>Arborvitae Elm Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Aspen Flowering dogwood Pin Oak </li></ul><ul><li>Azalea Grape Pine </li></ul><ul><li>Beech Honeylocust Raspberry </li></ul><ul><li>Birch Horsechestnut Rhododendron </li></ul><ul><li>Boxelder Junipers Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Bumald Spiraea Linden Sweetgum </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry Magnolia Sycamore </li></ul><ul><li>Cotoneaster Maple (Amur, Silver, Red) </li></ul><ul><li>Crabapple Mountain-ash and some 250 </li></ul><ul><li>Dawn redwood Northern red oak other species </li></ul>
  36. 40. Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Sulfur to lower pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merits consideration on soils without “free lime”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Vinegar test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have effect over period of year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add sulfur </li></ul></ul>
  37. 41. Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Sulfur + Iron combinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merits consideration on soils without “free lime” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Vinegar test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply by May 1st for best results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts < season to couple of years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add sulfur + iron sulfate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insert in holes, around drip line area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter holes, 6-12” deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2’ apart in 2-5 rings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Iron Chelates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chelate to use depends on soil pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH > 7.5 (limited availability due to high cost) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDDHMA (Miller’s Ferriplus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDDHA (Fe Sequestrene 138) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH < 7.5 (lose effectiveness as pH rises above 7.2) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DTPA (Miller’s Iron Chelate DP) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDTA (Fe Sequestrene 330, Fertilome Liquid Iron) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 43. Iron Additives -- Soil <ul><li>Iron Chelates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply before May 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts 1-2+ years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert in holes around drip line area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter holes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-12” deep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2’ apart in 2-5 rings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 44. Iron - Foliar Sprays <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe sulfate or Fe chelates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply on cloudy day or evening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May last few days to few weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete coverage essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large trees impractical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily burns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-spray stains - sidewalks, etc </li></ul></ul>
  41. 45. Fe Trunk Injections/Implants <ul><li>Localized necrosis at injection/implant site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use methods with minimal hole size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid annual applications or tree may be girdled. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See product information for details of injection site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often in root flares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most effective in early spring during bud break. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid injections on hot, dry, windy days, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure tree has good moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts 1-5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products available in liquids, powders, or capsules </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Iron citrate trunk injections

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