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10b Trees Fertsoil

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  • 1. Colorado Master Gardener Training Trees and the Living Soil
  • 2. Trees: Soils & Fertilizers
    • Compaction
    • Urban soils
      • Living soils
    • Tree fertilization
    • Iron chlorosis
    • Drainage
    • Expanding soils
  • 3. 80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems. Predisposing Inciting Contributing
  • 4. 80% of all tree disorders begin with soil problems, most commonly soil compaction .
  • 5.  
  • 6. Preventing Soil Compaction
    • Avoid working clayey soils when wet
    • Annual applications of organic matter
    • Organic mulches
    • Establish walkways, keeping traffic off growing beds and out of tree’s PRZ
    • Avoid excessive tilling
    • Aerate turf areas
    • Construction = Soil compaction
  • 7. Aeration of Compacted Soils Correction is limited, prevention is the key.
    • Worth considering
      • Aerate lawn at 2” centers
      • Organic mulch in PRZ of trees
      • Vertical mulching
    • Questionable value
      • Augering
      • Trenching
      • Fracturing
  • 8. Soil fracturing with compressed air
  • 9. Prevent Compaction within the PRZ Calculating the Critical Root Radius, CRR of the Protected Root Zone, PRZ 1. First measure the tree’s circumference (distance around) at a 4.5 foot height, in inches. 2. Divide the number by 2. 3. Express the results in feet. CRR Example: Circumference = 30 inches 30  2 = 15 CRR = 15 feet dripline Protected Root Zone (PRZ)
  • 10. Urban Soils
    • Compaction
    • Organic matter
    • Variability
    • Surface crusting
    • pH
    • Drainage
    • Soil micro-organism activity
    • Warmer soil temperatures
      • Organic decomposition
      • Root growth into fall
      • Drying
    • Waste materials (asphalt, concrete, masonry, etc.)
  • 11. Colorado Master Gardener Training Tree Fertilization
  • 12. Why fertilize landscape trees?
  • 13. Value of soil tests for fertilizer recommendations
    • Valuable
    • Agronomic crops
    • Lawns & turf
    • Greenhouse crops
    • Nursery crops
    • General gardens
    • Questionable Value
    • Shade trees and other woody plants in a landscape
    • Specific herbaceous plants in the landscape
    • Micronutrients (except in a few high value crops.)
    • Lack of research base to interpret these tests.
  • 14. Nutrient Analysis for Trees
    • Visual Soil Test Tissue Test
    • Difficult to see Limited value Limited value
    • due to limited due to limited
    • Trees often show research base. research base.
    • no symptoms,
    • but growth may Helpful to Must compare
    • be reduced. identify very healthy tree
    • low levels. with tree in
    • in question.
  • 15. Low Nutrient Levels on Trees
    • Nitrogen , Phosphorus, and Sulfur
      • Maintains health by adjusting root-shoot growth rate
        • Deficiency = more roots
        • Add nutrients = new root/shoot growth balance
  • 16. Low Nutrient Levels on Trees
    • Potassium, Magnesium, and Manganese
      • Deficiencies slow entire system
        • Growth
        • Nutrient uptake
        • Carbohydrate concentrations
  • 17.
    • Establishment phase
    • Growth phase
    • Mature, maintenance phase
    Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
  • 18. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
    • Establishment phase
      • High N
        • Increase top growth
        • Decrease root growth
      • Light application of controlled release (slow release) nitrogen may support root growth.
        • Soils moderate to high in organic content
          • NO fertilizer warranted
        • Soils low in organic content
          • 0.1 pound N / 100 ft 2 / season MAXIMUM
        • Do not fertilize trees with other growth limiting factors, like limited water supply .
  • 19. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
    • Growth phase
      • Rate based on plant’s natural growth rates (use higher rates where rapid growth is desirable on fast growing plants).
        • For soils low in organic matter
          • 0.2-0.4 pound nitrogen / 100 sq. ft. / year
        • For soils moderate in organic matter
          • 0.1-0.2 pound nitrogen / 100 ft2 / year
        • For soil high in organic matter
          • NO fertilizer warranted
      • For maximum growth, N needs to be available in spring.
        • Late fall (soil temps > 40 O )
        • Early spring (4-6 weeks before bud break)
        • Avoid N application late summer/early fall
  • 20. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
    • Mature, maintenance phase
      • Routine rates
        • For soils low in organic matter
          • 0.2-0.4 pound nitrogen / 100 sq. ft. / 4 years
        • For soils moderate in organic matter
          • 0.1-0.2 pound nitrogen / 100 ft 2 / 4 years
        • For soil high in organic matter
          • NO fertilizer warranted
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Establishment phase
      • 0 to 0.1 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / year
    • Growth phase
      • 0.2 to 0.4 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / year
    • Mature, maintenance phase
      • 0.2 to 0.4 pounds N / 100 ft 2 / 4 years
    Nitrogen Fertilizer and Tree Maturity
  • 23.
    • Tree in Tree in
    • Growth Phase Mature Phase
    • Thick, actively Supplemental vertical No additional
    • growing turf fertilization may push fertilizer warranted
    • growth
    • ??? High N rates could
    • Thin turf Why is turf thin? push undesirable
    • Does this impact canopy growth.
    • tree growth?
    Fertilizing Trees in Turf
    • In full sun, a healthy turf has 20 to 400 times more root mass than woody plants.
      • Turf absorbs most of the water soluble N within 48 hours.
  • 24. Fertilizer Rate for Trees
    • Unrestricted root zone
    • Critical Root Radius, CRR
      • Measure circumference (in inches) and divide by 2 = CCR (in feet)
    • Protected Root Zone, PRZ
      • CRR 2 x 3.14 = area
    dripline
  • 25. Fertilizer Rate for Trees
    • Confined root zone
    • Measure open root area in PRZ
    dripline
  • 26. Fertilizer Rate for Trees
    • Under Stress
    • It takes energy to absorb nutrients.
    • Is canopy growth desirable?
    dripline
  • 27. Fertilizer Application
    • Vertical fertilizing
    • When
      • compacted soils
      • on slopes
      • P, K, & Fe fertilizers
    • Plugs
      • 1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter
      • 4-6” deep
      • 2’ intervals
      • 2-5 rings around CRR/dripline
      • Backfill with sand, compost, or vermiculite
    • Broadcast
    • Feeds surface roots
    • For N fertilizers
    • Quick and easy
  • 28. Tree Fertilization
    • Controlled release (slow release) Nitrogen
    • Light applications to support root growth
    • Lawn fertilization generally takes care of trees in lawns
    • Established trees have NOT shown a response to phosphate fertilizer even when soil levels are low!
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Colorado Master Gardener Training Iron Chlorosis
  • 32. Leaf chlorosis has several causes.
    • Iron deficiency
      • General yellowing with veins remaining green
      • First on younger leaves, terminal growth
  • 33. Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis
    • Leaf symptoms
    • Yellowing of leaf with veins remaining green
    • Leaf may become whitish with veins retaining a green tint
    • Angular brown spots and marginal scorch
    • Shows first on growing tips
    • Smaller
    • Curl, dry up, and fall
  • 34. Symptoms of Iron Chlorosis
    • Branch symptoms
    • Single branch, side of tree or entire plant
    • Dieback
  • 35. Leaf chlorosis has several causes.
    • Chlorophyll-inhibiting herbicides
      • Yellowing with green vein banding
  • 36. Leaf chlorosis has several causes.
    • Root and trunk damage
    • Some virus, MLOs and vascular wilt diseases
    • Zinc, nitrogen, manganese deficiency
  • 37. Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem.
    • Water stress -- overly wet or overly dry
      • More common in wet springs and with heavy spring irrigation
      • Iron chlorosis is a common symptom of over-irrigation!
    • Soil compaction and low soil oxygen
    • Winter injury
  • 38. Complicating Factors to Iron Chlorosis Attention to these factors may correct the problem.
    • Plant competition
    • Soil organic matter
    • High salts
    • High temperatures and light intensity
    • Acid-loving plants
    • XS phosphorus
  • 39. Right Plant, Right Place woody plants susceptible to iron chlorosis
    • Apple Douglas-fir Peach
    • Arborvitae Elm Pear
    • Aspen Flowering dogwood Pin Oak
    • Azalea Grape Pine
    • Beech Honeylocust Raspberry
    • Birch Horsechestnut Rhododendron
    • Boxelder Junipers Spruce
    • Bumald Spiraea Linden Sweetgum
    • Cherry Magnolia Sycamore
    • Cotoneaster Maple (Amur, Silver, Red)
    • Crabapple Mountain-ash and some 250
    • Dawn redwood Northern red oak other species
  • 40. Iron Additives -- Soil
    • Sulfur to lower pH
      • Merits consideration on soils without “free lime”.
        • Use Vinegar test
      • May have effect over period of year.
      • Add sulfur
  • 41. Iron Additives -- Soil
    • Sulfur + Iron combinations
      • Merits consideration on soils without “free lime”
        • Use Vinegar test
      • Apply by May 1st for best results
      • Lasts < season to couple of years
      • Add sulfur + iron sulfate
        • Insert in holes, around drip line area
        • 1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter holes, 6-12” deep
        • 2’ apart in 2-5 rings
  • 42. Iron Additives -- Soil
    • Iron Chelates
      • Chelate to use depends on soil pH
        • pH > 7.5 (limited availability due to high cost)
          • EDDHMA (Miller’s Ferriplus)
          • EDDHA (Fe Sequestrene 138)
        • pH < 7.5 (lose effectiveness as pH rises above 7.2)
          • DTPA (Miller’s Iron Chelate DP)
          • EDTA (Fe Sequestrene 330, Fertilome Liquid Iron)
  • 43. Iron Additives -- Soil
    • Iron Chelates
      • Apply before May 1
      • Lasts 1-2+ years
      • Insert in holes around drip line area
        • 1 1 / 2 ” to 2” diameter holes,
        • 6-12” deep
        • 2’ apart in 2-5 rings
  • 44. Iron - Foliar Sprays
    • Application
      • Fe sulfate or Fe chelates
      • Apply on cloudy day or evening
      • May last few days to few weeks
    • Limitations
      • Complete coverage essential
        • Large trees impractical
      • Easily burns
      • Over-spray stains - sidewalks, etc
  • 45. Fe Trunk Injections/Implants
    • Localized necrosis at injection/implant site
      • Use methods with minimal hole size.
      • Avoid annual applications or tree may be girdled.
    • Application
      • See product information for details of injection site
        • Often in root flares
      • Most effective in early spring during bud break.
      • Avoid injections on hot, dry, windy days,
      • Make sure tree has good moisture
      • Lasts 1-5 years
      • Products available in liquids, powders, or capsules
  • 46. Iron citrate trunk injections
  • 47.  

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