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10 Integrated Pest Management
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10 Integrated Pest Management

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  • 1. Integrated Pest Management
  • 2. What is IPM
    • Uses a combination of Best management Practices
    • Reduce pest damage
    • Least disruption to the environment
    • Keep pest populations below the economic or aesthetic injury level
    • Protect humans, animals, plants & the environment
  • 3. Phases of IPM
    • Phase I - Action threshold is the predetermined level when pest control is needed
      • The losses due to pests are equal to the cost of control
    • Phase II – Evaluate possible control measures
      • Chemical
      • Biological
      • Mechanical
  • 4. Best Management Practices
    • Combine scientific research with practical knowledge
    • Optimize yields and increase quality
    • Maintain environmental integrity
    • Eliminate the risk of unwanted materials having a negative affect on the environment
  • 5. Examples of BMPs
    • To Manage surface and subsurface water runoff
      • Erosion control
      • Soil testing
      • Timing & placement of fertilizers
      • Irrigation management
      • Cultural control of pests
      • Etc…
  • 6. What is a Pesticide?
    • Any material used to control pests.
    • Man made or natural
    • Classified by the insect they control
  • 7. Types of Pesticides Bait – attracts & poisons them Snails and slugs Molluscicides Plants Herbicides Preventative Fungal disease Fungicides Contact Mites & ticks Miticides Body contact or or swallowing the insecticide Insect Insecticide
  • 8. Classification of Herbicides (5.2)
    • Selective herbicide – kills only certain plant species and not others
    • Non-selective herbicide kills all plants
    • Contact herbicide – kills by exposure
    • Growth regulators – kills by altering growth or metabolic processes
      • Roots, stems or leaves absorb the chemical
      • May take a week or more
    • Soil sterilant – prevents the growth of plants in the soil
  • 9. Classification of Insecticides
    • Contact
      • absorbed through the skin or exterior of an insect
      • Chemical must be applied directly on the insect
      • Normally used with sucking insects
    • Stomach
      • Affective when eaten
      • Applied to the plant
      • Affective on chewing insects
    • Respiratory
      • Fumigants, used in enclosed places
  • 10. Using Pesticides Safely (5.3)
    • Pesticides are classified according to toxicity
      • The degree of poison in the material
      • General use pesticides
        • Used by following the label
        • Less hazardous to the environment
    • Restricted use pesticides
      • Higher toxicity level
      • Must have special training in the safe use and handling of these chemicals
  • 11. Types of Exposure
    • Oral
      • through the mouth and digestive system
      • Usually from carelessness
    • Dermal exposure
      • Through the skin
      • Can happen anytime working with chemicals
  • 12.
    • Inhalation Exposure
      • Through the nose and respiratory system
      • Can be more dangerous than oral or dermal due to the uptake of blood via the lungs and other membranes
    • Eye exposure
      • Eyes are very sensitive to most pesticide materials
  • 13. How is Toxicity Measured
    • LD 50
      • Lethal dose – amount to cause death
      • 50 means 50 percent of the test animals are killed at this dose
      • The lower the number the more poisonous it is
      • Values given in milligrams of substance per kilogram of test animal body weight
      • Equal to parts per million
  • 14. Inhalation toxicity
    • LC 50
      • LC – lethal concentration
      • Measured in milligrams per liter
      • Lower the number the more poisonous
  • 15. Worker Protection Standard (WPS)
    • Use only approved pesticides
    • Applicator (person) must be informed
    • Do not use pesticides for uses that they were not intended for
    • Follow the label
    • Use a pesticide with low toxicity
    • Use only when needed
  • 16. WPS
    • Do not contaminate resources
    • Wear protective clothing
    • Dispose of empty containers properly
    • Apply in good weather, when most effective, reduce drift
    • Use the right equipment
    • Know the right emergency measures
  • 17. Interpreting Pesticide Labels
    • Provides information about the Active Ingredient
      • Read the label
      • Understand the label
      • Follow the label directions
        • Can be subject to both civil & criminal penalties for not following the label directions
  • 18. Pesticide Label (5.4)
    • Front panel- only basic information
      • Use classification
        • General use
        • Restricted use
      • Trade (Brand) Name
      • Formulation
        • Cannot be sold in pure form
  • 19. Inert ingredients
    • Surfactants
    • Emulsifying agents
      • Liquid emulsifiable concentrates (E or EC)
      • Wettable powders (W or WP)
      • Dry flowables (DF)
      • Solutions (S)
      • Granules (G)
      • Dusts (D)
  • 20. Front Label contents
    • Common Name for the active ingredient
    • Ingredients
      • All the ingredients
      • For inert only the combined total concentration must be stated
    • Net contents of Container
  • 21. Signal Words
    • Words to designate the degree of toxicity and potential danger
    • Based of LD 50
    • Danger or Danger-Poison with skull & cross bones (all red) must appear on all highly toxic pesticides
    • Warning – moderately toxic
    • Caution – low or very low
    • Keep Out of Reach of Children – on all, regardless of toxicity
  • 22. Front Label
    • Precautionary statements
      • First aid treatment
      • Potential environmental and human hazards
      • Flammability or explosion hazards
    • Establishment Number
    • EPA identifies the plant where the pesticide was manufactured, packaged, or formulated
    • Name, address, phone of Manufacturer
  • 23. Hazardous Materials Warning
    • Required by US Department of Transportation
    • Symbol to denote the nature of the chemicals
    • Small number in lower portion of the symbol indicates the class of the hazardous material
  • 24. Directions for Use
    • Sites which can be treated
    • Target pest(s)
    • Amount of chemical to use pre acre
    • Type of equipment and application methods
    • Proper mixing procedures
    • When they should be applied
    • Reentry limitations
    • Guidelines for storage and disposal
    • Limitations on its use
  • 25. Notice of Limitations
    • Condition of sale
    • Warranty limitation
    • Inherent risks
    • Liability limitations
  • 26. When should the label be read?
    • Before purchase
      • Make sure you have the proper equipment
    • Before mixing
      • note warnings and first aid measures
      • Determine the proper protective clothing
    • Before applying
    • Before storing
    • Before disposing of excess
  • 27. Time of Applications (5.5)
    • When applied relative to the stage of growth of the crop
    • Preplant applications
    • Preemergence – before plant has emerged or broken through the soil surface
    • Postemergence – after plants growing and when pests are present
  • 28. Area of Application
    • Extent of coverage
    • Band application – narrow strips – 10-12 inches wide
    • Broadcast – entire area
    • Directed – only selected plants, applied where pests are present, tiny amount
    • Spot application – only certain areas with high concentrations of pests
  • 29. Calibration
    • Setting the equipment to meter the exact amount of herbicide needed
    • Nozzle flow rate
      • size of the tip
      • Nozzle pressure
    • Ground speed – rate travel across the ground
    • Spray width per nozzle
  • 30. Potential Environmental Problems (5.6)
    • Non-target area
      • Drift
      • Surface runoff
      • Leaching
    • Not-biodegradable
      • Accumulate in groundwater, plants, or animals
    • Careless disposal
  • 31. Pesticide persistence
    • How long it takes to biodegrade or break down
    • Rapid decomposers
    • Accumulative pesticides – can build up in bodies of animals and humans
    • Persistent pesticides
      • break down slowly
      • Do not react readily with sunlight, oxygen or heat
      • Not broken down by soil organisms
  • 32. Proper Disposal
    • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 to management hazardous toxic materials and their containers
    • Avoid inventory of unnecessary pesticides
    • Some can be buried in landfills (small amounts)
    • Some in licensed sites that can receive hazardous wastes
  • 33. Container rinsing – Triple rinse method
    • Drain container into the spray tank, hold vertical for 30 seconds
    • Add water until container ¼ full, close container
    • Shake or roll to rinse all interior, drain remaining into the spray tank
    • Repeat 2 more times
  • 34. Disposal
    • Puncture plastic or metal triple rinsed containers to prevent reuse
    • Crush the container