10 Integrated Pest Management


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10 Integrated Pest Management

  1. 1. Integrated Pest Management
  2. 2. What is IPM <ul><li>Uses a combination of Best management Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pest damage </li></ul><ul><li>Least disruption to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Keep pest populations below the economic or aesthetic injury level </li></ul><ul><li>Protect humans, animals, plants & the environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Phases of IPM <ul><li>Phase I - Action threshold is the predetermined level when pest control is needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The losses due to pests are equal to the cost of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase II – Evaluate possible control measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Best Management Practices <ul><li>Combine scientific research with practical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize yields and increase quality </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain environmental integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the risk of unwanted materials having a negative affect on the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of BMPs <ul><li>To Manage surface and subsurface water runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing & placement of fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural control of pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is a Pesticide? <ul><li>Any material used to control pests. </li></ul><ul><li>Man made or natural </li></ul><ul><li>Classified by the insect they control </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Pesticides Bait – attracts & poisons them Snails and slugs Molluscicides Plants Herbicides Preventative Fungal disease Fungicides Contact Mites & ticks Miticides Body contact or or swallowing the insecticide Insect Insecticide
  8. 8. Classification of Herbicides (5.2) <ul><li>Selective herbicide – kills only certain plant species and not others </li></ul><ul><li>Non-selective herbicide kills all plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contact herbicide – kills by exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Growth regulators – kills by altering growth or metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots, stems or leaves absorb the chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May take a week or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil sterilant – prevents the growth of plants in the soil </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of Insecticides <ul><li>Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorbed through the skin or exterior of an insect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical must be applied directly on the insect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally used with sucking insects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective when eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective on chewing insects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumigants, used in enclosed places </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Using Pesticides Safely (5.3) <ul><li>Pesticides are classified according to toxicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of poison in the material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General use pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by following the label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less hazardous to the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restricted use pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher toxicity level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have special training in the safe use and handling of these chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Exposure <ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>through the mouth and digestive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually from carelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dermal exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can happen anytime working with chemicals </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Inhalation Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the nose and respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be more dangerous than oral or dermal due to the uptake of blood via the lungs and other membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes are very sensitive to most pesticide materials </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How is Toxicity Measured <ul><li>LD 50 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethal dose – amount to cause death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 means 50 percent of the test animals are killed at this dose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower the number the more poisonous it is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values given in milligrams of substance per kilogram of test animal body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to parts per million </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Inhalation toxicity <ul><li>LC 50 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LC – lethal concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in milligrams per liter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower the number the more poisonous </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Worker Protection Standard (WPS) <ul><li>Use only approved pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Applicator (person) must be informed </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use pesticides for uses that they were not intended for </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the label </li></ul><ul><li>Use a pesticide with low toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Use only when needed </li></ul>
  16. 16. WPS <ul><li>Do not contaminate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Wear protective clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of empty containers properly </li></ul><ul><li>Apply in good weather, when most effective, reduce drift </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Know the right emergency measures </li></ul>
  17. 17. Interpreting Pesticide Labels <ul><li>Provides information about the Active Ingredient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the label directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be subject to both civil & criminal penalties for not following the label directions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Pesticide Label (5.4) <ul><li>Front panel- only basic information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade (Brand) Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be sold in pure form </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Inert ingredients <ul><li>Surfactants </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsifying agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid emulsifiable concentrates (E or EC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wettable powders (W or WP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry flowables (DF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granules (G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dusts (D) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Front Label contents <ul><li>Common Name for the active ingredient </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ingredients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For inert only the combined total concentration must be stated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net contents of Container </li></ul>
  21. 21. Signal Words <ul><li>Words to designate the degree of toxicity and potential danger </li></ul><ul><li>Based of LD 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Danger or Danger-Poison with skull & cross bones (all red) must appear on all highly toxic pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Warning – moderately toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Caution – low or very low </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Out of Reach of Children – on all, regardless of toxicity </li></ul>
  22. 22. Front Label <ul><li>Precautionary statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First aid treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential environmental and human hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammability or explosion hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishment Number </li></ul><ul><li>EPA identifies the plant where the pesticide was manufactured, packaged, or formulated </li></ul><ul><li>Name, address, phone of Manufacturer </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hazardous Materials Warning <ul><li>Required by US Department of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol to denote the nature of the chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Small number in lower portion of the symbol indicates the class of the hazardous material </li></ul>
  24. 24. Directions for Use <ul><li>Sites which can be treated </li></ul><ul><li>Target pest(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of chemical to use pre acre </li></ul><ul><li>Type of equipment and application methods </li></ul><ul><li>Proper mixing procedures </li></ul><ul><li>When they should be applied </li></ul><ul><li>Reentry limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for storage and disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations on its use </li></ul>
  25. 25. Notice of Limitations <ul><li>Condition of sale </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent risks </li></ul><ul><li>Liability limitations </li></ul>
  26. 26. When should the label be read? <ul><li>Before purchase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you have the proper equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before mixing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>note warnings and first aid measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the proper protective clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before applying </li></ul><ul><li>Before storing </li></ul><ul><li>Before disposing of excess </li></ul>
  27. 27. Time of Applications (5.5) <ul><li>When applied relative to the stage of growth of the crop </li></ul><ul><li>Preplant applications </li></ul><ul><li>Preemergence – before plant has emerged or broken through the soil surface </li></ul><ul><li>Postemergence – after plants growing and when pests are present </li></ul>
  28. 28. Area of Application <ul><li>Extent of coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Band application – narrow strips – 10-12 inches wide </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast – entire area </li></ul><ul><li>Directed – only selected plants, applied where pests are present, tiny amount </li></ul><ul><li>Spot application – only certain areas with high concentrations of pests </li></ul>
  29. 29. Calibration <ul><li>Setting the equipment to meter the exact amount of herbicide needed </li></ul><ul><li>Nozzle flow rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size of the tip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nozzle pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground speed – rate travel across the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Spray width per nozzle </li></ul>
  30. 30. Potential Environmental Problems (5.6) <ul><li>Non-target area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drift </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not-biodegradable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulate in groundwater, plants, or animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Careless disposal </li></ul>
  31. 31. Pesticide persistence <ul><li>How long it takes to biodegrade or break down </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulative pesticides – can build up in bodies of animals and humans </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>break down slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not react readily with sunlight, oxygen or heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not broken down by soil organisms </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Proper Disposal <ul><li>Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 to management hazardous toxic materials and their containers </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid inventory of unnecessary pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be buried in landfills (small amounts) </li></ul><ul><li>Some in licensed sites that can receive hazardous wastes </li></ul>
  33. 33. Container rinsing – Triple rinse method <ul><li>Drain container into the spray tank, hold vertical for 30 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Add water until container ¼ full, close container </li></ul><ul><li>Shake or roll to rinse all interior, drain remaining into the spray tank </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat 2 more times </li></ul>
  34. 34. Disposal <ul><li>Puncture plastic or metal triple rinsed containers to prevent reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Crush the container </li></ul>