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  • 1. Maintaining Healthy Landscapes IPM/PHC
  • 2. Integrated Pest Management IPM – an environmentally sensitive approach to controlling pests that does not rely totally on pesticides. – Focus is on the pest rather than on the plant. – PROPER PLANT CARE IS PART OF IPM
  • 3. Plant Health Care PHC – A holistic system that focuses more on healthy landscapes rather than the pest. – Coined by the International Society of Arborists.
  • 4. Pest Management NO MATTER WHAT YOU CALL IT, MAINTAINING A HEALTHY LANDSCAPE REQUIRES MUCH MORE THAN SPRAYING PESTS.
  • 5. PHC 1. Know your plants – Culture/Care/Siting – Start right (soil preparation)
  • 6. Black plastic under rock PHC Study the landscape slkj ecosystem – How does the Down spout soil/site influence the plant and/or pest? Black plastic under rock
  • 7. PHC Determine key problem – Monitor, Scout – Identify/Diagnose Pest • Insect, Disease, Weed vs. Abiotic
  • 8. PHC Optimize plant health – What’s being done wrong in the culture of plant? Fertility, water, etc. – If pest is present, is it primary or secondary?
  • 9. IPM Step 0: Grow plant the right way (assumption) Step 1: Monitor, Scout Step 2: Identify pest Step 3: Manage pest using the knowledge of – why is pest present – life cycle of pest
  • 10. Pest Management (IPM) Cultural control Mechanical control (Physical control) Biological control Chemical control – pesticide use • used as a last resort IN CONJUCTION WITH CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS
  • 11. Cultural Control (IPM) Same as PHC steps of – know your plants – study landscape ecosystem – optimize plant health
  • 12. Cultural Control (IPM) Sanitation - removal of insect infested, diseased plant parts. Clean up plant debris. Modify the environment (so pest is not favored, plant health is)
  • 13. Cultural Control (IPM) Modification of environment – Induced competition • ie encourage dense ground covers to reduce weeds by competition – Water management • ie avoid over watering, avoid water on leaf surface by watering – Selective pruning/spacing • to open up plantings and allow for more air circulation
  • 14. Mechanical Control (IPM) Physically removing a pest or infested plant – Washing off aphids with a garden hose – pulling a weed Physical barriers – using row covers, screen, etc.
  • 15. Biological Control (IPM) Natural control Predators Parasites Diseases Bioantagonists
  • 16. Biocontrol Natural control – Weather extremes • freeze • wind • rain
  • 17. Biocontrol Predators (insect control) – insects or spiders that require several prey to complete their development • Predatory beetles • Lacewings • Flies • True bugs • Wasps • Spiders and mites
  • 18. Biocontrol Eggs Examples of predators – Ladybird beetles Larva Adult
  • 19. Biocontrol Eggs Examples of predators – Green lacewing Adult Larva
  • 20. Biocontrol – Hunting wasp Examples of predators – Predatory stinkbug
  • 21. Biocontrol Parasites – Require one host to complete development. – Adults lay eggs in or on host.
  • 22. Biocontrol – Aphid parasites Examples of parasites – Wasps Adult wasp Aphid mummy Larva
  • 23. Biocontrol . Parasitic nematodes – Parasitic nematodesFigure 1: Life cycle of Steinernema nematodes. 1, 2: invasion and colonization of insect. 3,4: development within insect. 5: exit from dead insect and invasion of new host. Drawing courtesy of University of Illinois
  • 24. Biocontrol • Tree and shrub Diseases insects – BT (Bacillus • Tent caterpillars. • thuringiensis) for Fall webworm. • Leafrollers. insect control • Red-humped – Kurstaki strain caterpillar. • (Biobit, Dipel, MVP, Spiny elm caterpillar. Steward, Thuricide, • Western spruce etc.): budworm. • Pine budworm. • Pine butterfly.
  • 25. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – Kurstaki strain (Biobit, Dipel, MVP, Steward, Thuricide, etc.): • Vegetable insects • Cabbage worms (cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth, etc.). • Tomato and tobacco hornworm.
  • 26. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – Israelensis strains (Vectobac, Skeetal, Gnatrol, Bactimos, etc.) • Mosquito. • Black fly. • Fungus gnats
  • 27. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – San diego/tenebrionis strains (Trident, M- One, M-Trak, Foil, Novodor, etc.) • Colorado potato beetle. • Elm leaf beetle. • Cottonwood leaf beetle.
  • 28. Bioccontrol Use of plant pathogens for weed control?? – Potential is being explored – Pathogens are harder to manipulate – Don’t give high mortality rates
  • 29. Biocontrol Bioantagonists or biofungicides (plant disease control) 4 mechanisms of action – Direct competition – Antibiosis – Predation or parasitism – Induced resistance
  • 30. Biocontrol – Trade names Bioantagonists or • Deny biofungicides (plant • Kodiak disease control) • MycoStop – For soilborne • Root Shield/Plant diseases Shield – Are preventive • SoilGard – Do not work well at high pathogen levels
  • 31. Chemical Control (IPM) Pesticides – Any chemical (natural or synthetic) that mitigates (kills, controls) a pest (animal or plant, etc)
  • 32. Chemical Control (IPM) Herbicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable plants. • Will kill any plant not just weeds
  • 33. Chemical Control (IPM) Insecticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable insects.
  • 34. Chemical Control (IPM) Fungicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable fungi.
  • 35. Chemical Control (IPM) Miticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable mites. Acaracide – is a broader way to define this….. • Kills spiders, ticks and mites
  • 36. Chemical Control (IPM) Bactericide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable bacteria.
  • 37. Chemical Control (IPM) Molluscicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable pest mollusks. • Slugs • Snails
  • 38. Chemical Control (IPM) Nematicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable pest nematodes. • Slugs • Snails
  • 39. Chemical Control (IPM) Rodenticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable rodents.
  • 40. Chemical Control (IPM) Pesticides – SO WHAT’’S THE BIG DEAL????