Irrigation Management and Water-Wise Gardening Colorado Master Gardener Training Colorado Garden Certificate Training Coop...
<ul><li>Class outline  </li></ul><ul><li>A. Overview: Colorado’s Water Situation </li></ul><ul><li>B. Principles of Water-...
Evaluate your understanding of Colorado’s water situation
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>1. In Colorado, the purchase of land includes “rights” to use the water on or adjacent ...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Western Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of  </li></ul><ul><li>Prior appropriati...
Colorado’s Water Situation Western  Water Rights First in Time,  First in Rights “ Riparian”  Water Rights
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Western water rights  are a private property that can be sold, leased or rented (like a...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Water rights  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>put water to  beneficial use </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>In times of water shortages, water use by  junior rights  will be reduced or cut off pr...
Water Rights Administration <ul><li>The Office of the State Engineer, Colorado Division of Water Resources </li></ul><ul><...
Water Rights Administration <ul><li>State divided into 7  Water Divisions </li></ul>1 South Platte 2 Arkansas 3 Rio Grande...
Division 1 -- South Platte Basin
Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court:  Greeley </li></ul><ul><li>System...
Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Power Generation :  </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% ...
Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin
Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court:  Pueblo </li></ul><ul><li>Prima...
Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Primary power generation :  </li></ul><ul><u...
Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: Water Right </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% o...
Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers
Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water court:  Montrose </li></ul><ul...
Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tel...
Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin,  excluding the Gunnison River
Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin,  excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court: ...
Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin,  excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </...
Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin,  excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agricul...
Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin,  excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-b...
Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers
Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water court:  Steamboat Sprin...
Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><...
Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River
Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court : Durango </li></ul><ul><li>...
Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purgato...
Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: Water Right </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>2. In Colorado, most  new residential well  permits restrict or  prohibit landscape  ir...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>2. In Colorado, most  new residential well  permits restrict or  prohibit landscape  ir...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>3. In Colorado, residents  can legally harvest  rainwater or use  gray water to irrigat...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>3. In Colorado, residents  can legally harvest  rainwater or use  gray water to irrigat...
Harvesting Rainwater <ul><li>Very complex issue </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom line -- The act of  intercepting and diverting  r...
<ul><li>Gray water  is water from bath/shower and washing machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Very complex </li></ul><ul><li>Issues...
Using Gray Water for Landscape Irrigation <ul><li>Water Right Issues   </li></ul><ul><li>Your  wastewater </li></ul><ul><u...
Using Gray Water for Landscape Irrigation <ul><li>Colorado Wastewater Treatment Issue   </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal   </li><...
Using Non-Potable Water for Irrigation <ul><li>Many larger landscape site (golf courses, parks, industrial sites) are irri...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>4. What percentage of Colorado’s water supply is used for landscape irrigation? </li></...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Production agriculture use 85% to 90% of Colorado’s water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Other water users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power ge...
Colorado’s Water  Supply 80% of Colorado’s precipitation 80% of Colorado’s water use (water rights)
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>5. During the summer, ___ of a typical community’s water is used for landscape  irrigat...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>6. What percentage of the typical landscape irrigation water is wasted due to poor irri...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>30-70% efficiency rating is common on home sprinkler systems. </li></ul><ul><li>75-85% ...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>6. What is the  primary  reason that many cities have routine schedules for landscape i...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>The cost to maintain and expand a city’s water infrastructure is staggering. </li></ul>...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Due to landscape irrigation, most cities experience 10-15 days per year when water dema...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Due to landscape irrigation, most cities experience 10-15 days per year when water dema...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul>
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities with limited water re...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities with limited water re...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on current water demand: </li>...
Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>8. From a historical perspective, what is the  drought cycle in Colorado’s weather patt...
The Drought of 2002 <ul><li>3rd year of below  normal precipitation </li></ul>
The Drought of 2002 <ul><li>Quadruple whammy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical low snow pack  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
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1 Wwg Colorado Water Situation

  1. 2. Irrigation Management and Water-Wise Gardening Colorado Master Gardener Training Colorado Garden Certificate Training Cooperative Extension Colorado State University
  2. 3. <ul><li>Class outline </li></ul><ul><li>A. Overview: Colorado’s Water Situation </li></ul><ul><li>B. Principles of Water-Wise Gardening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning and designing for water conservation, beauty, and utility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating practical turf areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watering efficiently with appropriate irrigation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting plants for our climate and grouping them according to their water need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mulching to reduce evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining with good horticultural practices </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Evaluate your understanding of Colorado’s water situation
  4. 5. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>1. In Colorado, the purchase of land includes “rights” to use the water on or adjacent to the property . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FALSE </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Western Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of </li></ul><ul><li>Prior appropriation </li></ul><ul><li>“ First-in-time, first-in-right” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junior rights </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Colorado’s Water Situation Western Water Rights First in Time, First in Rights “ Riparian” Water Rights
  7. 8. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Western water rights are a private property that can be sold, leased or rented (like a house, apartment or car). </li></ul>
  8. 9. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Water rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>put water to beneficial use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decree of the water courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early dates = senior rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent dates = junior rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>In times of water shortages, water use by junior rights will be reduced or cut off protecting senior rights . </li></ul>
  10. 11. Water Rights Administration <ul><li>The Office of the State Engineer, Colorado Division of Water Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor surface water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor ground water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversee distribution based on the priority of water rights </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Water Rights Administration <ul><li>State divided into 7 Water Divisions </li></ul>1 South Platte 2 Arkansas 3 Rio Grande 4 Gunnison & San Miguel 5 Colorado 6 Yampa, White, North 7 San Juan & Dolores
  12. 13. Division 1 -- South Platte Basin
  13. 14. Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court: Greeley </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary water projects and reservoirs: Antero, Barr Lake, Bonny, Boulder, Chatfield, Cherry Creek, Chessman, Colorado-Big Thompson, Eleven-mile, Empire, Gross, Horsetooth, Julesburg, Prewitt, Riverside, Spinney, and Sterling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>370 reservoirs and 6,418 miles of canals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Most of the water used in this basin comes from water rights to precipitation on the west slope . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Power Generation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of Boulder: Betasso, Ordell, Sunshine, Maxwell, and Kohler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denver Water: Foothills, Roberts Tunnel, Strontia Springs, and Hillcrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xcel Energy: Georgetown and Cabin Creek </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loveland ski area and other winter sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boating, rafting, fishing, bird hunting, wildlife viewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pawnee National Grasslands </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Division 1 -- South Platte Basin <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of division water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State’s primary agricultural lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.4 million irrigated acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, alfalfa, potatoes, onions, barley, wheat, sugar beets, turfgrass, greenhouse production and livestock (hogs, cattle, sheep, and chickens) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communities -- Due to population, this division has highest industrial and household water use in state. </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate -- Compacts govern stream flow into Nebraska to serve water rights holders downstream. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin
  17. 18. Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court: Pueblo </li></ul><ul><li>Primary water projects & reservoirs: Twin Lakes and Turquoise Lake; John Martin, Pueblo and Trinidad reservoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Topography: Terrain changes from the state’s highest mountain, Mt Elbert, at 14,433 feet down to the state’s lowest elevation along the Kansas border around 3,000 feet. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Primary power generation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Elbert, Colorado Springs City </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ski areas: Copper, Monarch and Cuchera Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rafting, boating, fishing, game and bird hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National forests and state parks </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Division 2 -- Arkansas River Basin <ul><li>Overview: Water Right </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>580,000 irrigated acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, alfalfa, cattle, wheat, hay, vegetables, and melons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstate: The 1948 Arkansas River Compact governs stream flow in to Kansas serving water rights holders down downstream. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers
  21. 22. Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water court: Montrose </li></ul><ul><li>Major projects & reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs: Taylor Park, Blue Mesa (state’s largest reservoir), Morrow Point and Ridgeway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunnison Tunnel </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telluride and Crested Butte ski areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting, water sports, fishing, boating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary power generation: Blue Mesa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: The world’s first hydroelectric plant (Ames Power Plant) opened 1891 near Telluride. It is still operated and owned today by Xcel Energy. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Division 4 -- Gunnison & San Miguel Rivers <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>310,000 acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn, alfalfa, winter wheat, meadow hay, cattle and sheep, fruit and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstate: The Colorado and Upper Colorado River Compacts govern stream flow into Utah, serving water rights holders downstream. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin, excluding the Gunnison River
  25. 26. Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin, excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court: Glenwood Springs </li></ul><ul><li>Major projects & reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dillon, Lake Granby, Grand Lake, Shadow Mountain, Williams Fork, Willow Creek, Green Mountain, Vega, Wolford Mountain, and Ruedi reservoirs; Colorado-Big Thompson, Frying Pan and Arkansas projects </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin, excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ski areas:, A-Basin, Aspen, Beaver Creek, Breckenridge, Copper Mountain, Keystone, Powderhorn, Snowmass, Sunlight, Vail, and Winter Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other: rafting, hunting, fishing, hot springs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado National Monument, Arapahoe National Recreation Area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Power Generation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant on the Colorado River in Glenwood Canyon; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Mountain, Ruedi and Williams Fork reservoirs </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin, excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>270,000 irrigated acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meadow hay, cattle, alfalfa, corn, fruit, and wine grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstate: The Colorado and Upper Colorado River Compacts govern stream flows into Utah serving water rights holders downstream. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Division 5 -- Colorado River Basin, excluding the Gunnison River <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-basin diversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of water rights for the precipitation received in this basis is owned by Eastern Slope concerns serving some two million people and the state’s primary agriculture area on the Eastern slope. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers
  30. 31. Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water court: Steamboat Springs </li></ul><ul><li>Major water projects and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamboat Lake, Stagecoach and Elkhead reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary power generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric plants at Hayden and Craig </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamboat ski area, cross-country skiing, snow mobiling, fishing and hunting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinosaur National Monument </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Division 6 -- Yampa, White, & North Platte Rivers <ul><li>Overview: Water Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95+% of water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>230,000 irrigated acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meadow hay, cattle, sheep, and wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the Colorado River Basin, the Colorado and Upper Colorado River Compacts govern stream flows into Utah serving water rights holders downstream. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the North Platte River, a U.S. Supreme Court decision governs stream flow into Wyoming, serving water rights holders downstream. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River
  33. 34. Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Water Court : Durango </li></ul><ul><li>Major water projects and reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McPhee, Vallecito, Narraguinnep, Groundhog and Lemon reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geothermal sites: used for bathing and heating. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate span : Areas ranging from desert to high elevations that receive over 50” of precipitations annually </li></ul>
  34. 35. Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: System </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purgatory, Hesperus and Stoner ski areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hovenweep National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Juan Nation Forest: rafting, winter sports, fishing, hunting and boating. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Power Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electra Lake, Vallecito, Lemon, and Florida reservoirs </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Division 7 -- San Juan & Dolores River <ul><li>Overview: Water Right </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of water used for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 irrigated acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass, alfalfa, beans, corn, and apples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian tribes: A 1991 settlement govern water rights for the Ute Mountain and Southern Ute Indian tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate: LaPlata, Animas-LaPlata, Colorado, and Upper Colorado compacts govern stream flows out of the state serving water rights holders downstream </li></ul>
  36. 37. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>2. In Colorado, most new residential well permits restrict or prohibit landscape irrigation. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>2. In Colorado, most new residential well permits restrict or prohibit landscape irrigation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TRUE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But that’s a recent change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Colorado residents face a water crisis due to over-use of wells . </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>3. In Colorado, residents can legally harvest rainwater or use gray water to irrigate the landscape . </li></ul>
  39. 40. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>3. In Colorado, residents can legally harvest rainwater or use gray water to irrigate the landscape . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FALSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater -- Water rights issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray water -- Water rights issue and waste water issue </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Harvesting Rainwater <ul><li>Very complex issue </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom line -- The act of intercepting and diverting rainwater could be a violation of Colorado water rights. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could impacted the water supply (water rights) of someone else . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could go to water courts for a decree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be challenged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any system must follow local zoning, building, and plumbing codes. </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Gray water is water from bath/shower and washing machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Very complex </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water rights -- State Engineer’s Office, Colorado Division of Water Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment -- Colorado Department of Public Health </li></ul></ul>Using Gray Water for Landscape Irrigation
  42. 43. Using Gray Water for Landscape Irrigation <ul><li>Water Right Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Your wastewater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used again and again downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water right of someone downstream </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Using Gray Water for Landscape Irrigation <ul><li>Colorado Wastewater Treatment Issue </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied above ground , such as through a sprinkler system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied through a sub-surface system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a special permitting process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow industry standards and the Uniform Plumbing Code </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Using Non-Potable Water for Irrigation <ul><li>Many larger landscape site (golf courses, parks, industrial sites) are irrigated with non-potable water sources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some western communities, homes have a second waterline of non-potable water for landscape irrigation. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>4. What percentage of Colorado’s water supply is used for landscape irrigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. 7% to 10% </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Production agriculture use 85% to 90% of Colorado’s water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual farmer rather inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water returning to system used again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% system-wide efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Other water users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Colorado’s Water Supply 80% of Colorado’s precipitation 80% of Colorado’s water use (water rights)
  49. 50. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>5. During the summer, ___ of a typical community’s water is used for landscape irrigation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. 50% to 75% </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>6. What percentage of the typical landscape irrigation water is wasted due to poor irrigation system design and management? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. 40% to 50% </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>30-70% efficiency rating is common on home sprinkler systems. </li></ul><ul><li>75-85% efficiency rating is achievable with attention to design, maintenance, and management. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>6. What is the primary reason that many cities have routine schedules for landscape irrigation (such as, every third day or every other day)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. To spread water use over a broader period. </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>The cost to maintain and expand a city’s water infrastructure is staggering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost $30,000 to $50,000 per house for the city’s water and sewer treatment facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of the city water lines in USA leak. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Due to landscape irrigation, most cities experience 10-15 days per year when water demand spikes due to hot weather . </li></ul>
  55. 56. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Due to landscape irrigation, most cities experience 10-15 days per year when water demand spikes due to hot weather . </li></ul><ul><li>Federal regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Max out water processing </li></ul><ul><li>Expand </li></ul>
  56. 57. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul>
  57. 58. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities with limited water resources </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities with limited water resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on new construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase “surplus” water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What happens in year with out “surplus” water? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>Growth rates impact water needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on current water demand: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without addition water conservation and/or storage capacity, Denver Water will run out of water to support new growth by 2013 to 2023 (depending on rain/snow fall) </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Colorado’s Water Situation <ul><li>8. From a historical perspective, what is the drought cycle in Colorado’s weather pattern? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c. A multi-year drought about every 20 years </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. The Drought of 2002 <ul><li>3rd year of below normal precipitation </li></ul>
  62. 63. The Drought of 2002 <ul><li>Quadruple whammy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical low snow pack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2% of average by June 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low runoffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stream flow typically 50-70% below average </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Front Range stream flows lowest in 300 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northeast Colorado 50% below normal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Collins & Boulder had hottest July on record </li></ul></ul></ul>

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