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1 Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus, Photoplasma
 

1 Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus, Photoplasma

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    1 Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus, Photoplasma 1 Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus, Photoplasma Presentation Transcript

    • Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus and minor Pathogens
    •                                                                                            
    • Plant Diseases Causes of Plant Diseases
      • Fungi
      • Bacteria
      • Viruses
      • Nematodes
      • Phytoplasma
      • Abiotic Factors
    • Causes of Plant Diseases
      • BIOTIC and ABIOTIC .
      • BIOTIC causes of plant diseases are those that are biological in origin. There are five major biotic causes of plant diseases. These are the fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and phytoplasmas.
    • Abiotic Causes
      • ABIOTIC causes of plant diseases are non-biological in origin. Examples include things like adverse weather conditions or environmental pollutants. Often the affects of abiotic factors on plants are referred to as INJURIES .
    • Fungi
      • Largest pathogen group
      • More than 8000 pathogenic species
      • Can be seen with the naked eye
      • Vegetative growth through production of multicellular fungal threads (hyphae)
      • Reproduce via spores
    • Bacteria
      • About 200 pathogenic species
      • Can be seen with a light microscope
      • Simple, unicellular
      • Reproduce b binary fission
    • Identification
      • Bacterial diseases are virtually impossible to identify definitively based on symptoms
      • Typically, in order to identify bacterial pathogens, the bacterium must be isolated from diseased tissue and then grown on specialized media.
    • Bacterial cells
      • Bacterial cells are extremely small (see arrow).
      • Even when magnified to 400 times their normal size (as they are in this photo) they are difficult to distinguish as individual objects
      • Often one must stain the cells (as in this photo) to see them.
    • Symptoms
      • SPOT symptoms
      • Often spots produced by bacteria have a water-soaked appearance and a well-defined yellow halo
      • However, be cautious when attempting to distinguish bacterial and fungal spots
      • Spots produced by bacteria and fungi are typically very similar
      • Bacterial lesions are often delimited (bordered) by veins (see arrow) and thus often have an angular appearance
      http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide30.htm
    • Signs - Bacterial Streaming
      • Cut the lesion from the leaf and place it on a microscope slide in a drop of water
      • Slice through the lesion with a razor blade
      • If bacteria are present they will "stream" out from the cut edges of the lesion
    • Bacteria
      • Bacterial leaf spot
      • Bacterial Soft rot
      • Bacterial Wilt
      • Crown Gall
      • Fireblight
      • Slime Flux
    • Bacterial Leaf Spot
      • Round, angular or elongated discoloration
      • May cover the entire leaf
      • Usually brown, may be surrounded by a yellow halo
      • Dead tissue drops out of leaves
      • Can affect fruit – sunken spots
    • Bacterial Leaf Spot
    • Bacterial Leaf Spot
      • Affects many woody and herbaceous plants
      • Life cycle
        • Overwinter in infected plant parts and seeds
        • Soil borne
        • Spread by contaminated tools and pots
      • Prevention
        • Sanitation, resistant cultivars, remove & destroy
    • Bacterial Soft Rot Erwinia carotovora
    • Bacterial Soft Rot
      • Fruit or storage roots
      • Water soaked, then soft, watery, and slimy gray or brown
      • May have a foul odor
    • Bacterial Soft Rot
      • Above ground – yellow, stunted and wilted
      • Affects – wide range, fleshy fruits and succulent stems especially
      • Enters through wounds
      • Need high moisture – so store in cool, dry place
      • Rotate crops
    • Bacterial Wilt
    • Bacterial Wilt
      • Interveinal chlorosis (yellowing), with the main leaf veins remaining dark green in color
    • Bacterial Wilt
      • Wilt, at first parts soft then hard and dry
      • May see strands of long white ooze
      • Affects curcubit family & tomatoes & beans
      • Plant resistant cultivars
      • Use disease free seed
      • Remove & destroy affected plants
      • These stands are composed of plant sap and bacterial cells, held together by a sticky substance (called LPS) that is produced by and serves as a protective coat for the bacterium.
    •  
    • Crown Gall Agrobacterium
      • The interior of a gall due to crown gall will have a mass of disorganized vascular tissue.
      • Lives in the soil and infects plants through wounds.
    • Crown Gall
      • Populus, Salix, Prunus & Rose families
      • May form above ground on stems or branches or below ground on roots
      • Apple roots Euonymous stems
    •  
    • Crown Gall
      • Above ground appears yellow and stunted
      • Enters through wounds or contaminated tools
      • Can survive on dead plants for years
      • Remove and destroy affected plants
      • Don’t replant in same place
    • Fire Blight
      • Affects many in the Rose family:
      • crabapple, pear and apple trees
    • Fire Blight
      • Flowers first – wilt, shrivel and turn brown
      • Leaves turn brown or black
      • Dead leaves remain on twigs
      • Shoot tips turn black, wilt and curl downward
      • Cancers on branches
      • Fruit black and may stay on the tree
    • Fire blight
    • Fire blight
      • In spring, bacteria from previous year's cankers on twigs, branches and limbs are rain-splashed, wind-blown or carried by insects to blossoms
      • Plant resistant cultivars
      • Don’t prune too heavily encouraging succulent, susceptible tissue
      • Prune out affected tissue with 6-12” of healthy tissue
    • Fire Blight
      • Advances from twigs to older branches and limbs causing localized cankers, which appear sunken, dark and wrinkled
      • Cankers on large scaffold limbs and the trunk eventually become cracked or creviced.
    • Slime Flux – Bacterial Wetwood
      • The ooze often is foul-smelling, slimy, and colonized by yeast organisms when exposed to air
      • When the slime dries, it leaves a light gray to white crust on the bark
    • White foam oozing- Slime Flux
      • yellow-brown discoloration confined to the central core of the tree
      • under high internal gas pressure
      • The gas pressure and high moisture content cause an oozing or bleeding of slime from wood and branch crotches
    • Bacterial ooze
      • Affects many woody plants
      • Elms, maples and poplars
      • Cosmetic damage
      • No control available
    • Viruses
      • Can only be seen using an electron microscope
      • Extremely simple – nucleic acid with a protein coat
      • Reproduce by taking over host’ reproductive machinery
      • Often associated with insect vectors
    • Tulips with a virus
      • Virus symptoms
      • Leaf & fruit distortion
      • “ strappy” leaf, curled and twisted
      • Warty fruit
    • Virus
      • Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV)
      • Mosaic
      • Tomato Curly top Virus
      • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
    • Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus
      • Black stems
    • INSV
      • Vectored by Thrips, variety of leaf symptoms. Not always rings
    • INSV
      • Affects over 300 species, esp. bedding plants
      • Vectored by thrips
      • Use yellow sticky traps
      • Remove and destroy affected plants
      • INSV resistant cultivars
    • Mosaic
    • Mosaic
      • Mottled leaves with yellow, white or streaked spots
      • Streaking or spotting on fruits
      • Often stunted growth
      • Affects a wide range of plants
      • Plant resistant cultivars
      • Spread by insects – esp. leafhoppers
    • Mosaic
      • No control
      • Remove and destroy
    • Mosaic Watermelon
    • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
    • Tomato Curly Top Virus
    • Tomato Curly Top Virus
      • Plants infected when older turn a dull yellow
      • Veins turn purple
      • Leaves roll upward, fruit production and ripening ceases
      • Plant slowly dies
      • Vectored by beet leafhoppers
    • Tomato Curly Top Virus
    • Tomato Curly Top Virus
      • Affects – wide variety of herbaceous plants
      • Beets
      • Tomatoes
      • Beans
      • Melons
      • Remove and destroy
    •  
    • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
      • splotches and yellow bulls-eye like rings on ripe tomato fruit
    •  
    • Phytoplasma
      • Funky bacteria?
      • Small wall-less
      • Only in the phloem
      • Usually only see with an electron microscope
      • Reproduce by binary fission
      • Transmitted by insects (leafhoppers)
    • Phytoplasma
      • Previously referred to as mycoplasma
      • Smaller than bacteria
      • No cell wall
      • Live in the phloem
      • Only seen with an electron microscope
      • Reproduce by splitting (as do bacteria)
    • Phytoplasma – Aster Yellows
    • Phytoplasma – Aster Yellows
      • Colored petals turn green
      • Brooming
    • Phytoplasma
      • Yellow, stunted, strange growth patterns
      • Overwinters in affected tissue
      • Vectored by leaf hoppers
      • Remove and destroy affected plants
    • Phytoplasma – Carrots
    • Phytoplasma – Fasciation in Maple
    • Nematodes
      • Parasitic worms
      • Very complex compared to other pathogens
      • Usually seen only with a light microscope
      • Reproduce by eggs
      • A stylet is a modified tooth that helps a nematode puncture and feed on plant tissue.
    • Root Knot Nematode
    • Root Knot Nematode
      • Above ground – yellowed, wilted
      • Fruit stunted or non existent
      • Affects – fruit trees, corn, lettuce, tomatoes & potatoes
      • Plant resistant cultivars
      • Rotate crops
      • Soil solarization
      • Neem, organic matter
    • ID from Photographs Part I Bacteria
    • Bacterial Diseases
      • Bacterial Leaf Spot
      • Bacterial Soft Rot
      • Bacterial Wilt
      • Fireblight
      • Bacterial Wetwood/Slime Flux
      • Crown Gall
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Virus & Others
      • Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV)
      • Mosaic
      • Tomato Curly top Virus
      • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
      • Root Knot Nematode
      • Phytoplasma
      • Phytoplasma- fasciation
    •  
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    •