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1 Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus, Photoplasma

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  • 1. Plant Health Care Bacteria, Virus and minor Pathogens
  • 2.                                                                                            
  • 3. Plant Diseases Causes of Plant Diseases
    • Fungi
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Nematodes
    • Phytoplasma
    • Abiotic Factors
  • 4. Causes of Plant Diseases
    • BIOTIC and ABIOTIC .
    • BIOTIC causes of plant diseases are those that are biological in origin. There are five major biotic causes of plant diseases. These are the fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and phytoplasmas.
  • 5. Abiotic Causes
    • ABIOTIC causes of plant diseases are non-biological in origin. Examples include things like adverse weather conditions or environmental pollutants. Often the affects of abiotic factors on plants are referred to as INJURIES .
  • 6. Fungi
    • Largest pathogen group
    • More than 8000 pathogenic species
    • Can be seen with the naked eye
    • Vegetative growth through production of multicellular fungal threads (hyphae)
    • Reproduce via spores
  • 7. Bacteria
    • About 200 pathogenic species
    • Can be seen with a light microscope
    • Simple, unicellular
    • Reproduce b binary fission
  • 8. Identification
    • Bacterial diseases are virtually impossible to identify definitively based on symptoms
    • Typically, in order to identify bacterial pathogens, the bacterium must be isolated from diseased tissue and then grown on specialized media.
  • 9. Bacterial cells
    • Bacterial cells are extremely small (see arrow).
    • Even when magnified to 400 times their normal size (as they are in this photo) they are difficult to distinguish as individual objects
    • Often one must stain the cells (as in this photo) to see them.
  • 10. Symptoms
    • SPOT symptoms
    • Often spots produced by bacteria have a water-soaked appearance and a well-defined yellow halo
    • However, be cautious when attempting to distinguish bacterial and fungal spots
    • Spots produced by bacteria and fungi are typically very similar
  • 11.
    • Bacterial lesions are often delimited (bordered) by veins (see arrow) and thus often have an angular appearance
    http://www.plantpath.wisc.edu/PDDCEducation/MasterGardener/General/Slide30.htm
  • 12. Signs - Bacterial Streaming
    • Cut the lesion from the leaf and place it on a microscope slide in a drop of water
    • Slice through the lesion with a razor blade
    • If bacteria are present they will "stream" out from the cut edges of the lesion
  • 13. Bacteria
    • Bacterial leaf spot
    • Bacterial Soft rot
    • Bacterial Wilt
    • Crown Gall
    • Fireblight
    • Slime Flux
  • 14. Bacterial Leaf Spot
    • Round, angular or elongated discoloration
    • May cover the entire leaf
    • Usually brown, may be surrounded by a yellow halo
    • Dead tissue drops out of leaves
    • Can affect fruit – sunken spots
  • 15. Bacterial Leaf Spot
  • 16. Bacterial Leaf Spot
    • Affects many woody and herbaceous plants
    • Life cycle
      • Overwinter in infected plant parts and seeds
      • Soil borne
      • Spread by contaminated tools and pots
    • Prevention
      • Sanitation, resistant cultivars, remove & destroy
  • 17. Bacterial Soft Rot Erwinia carotovora
  • 18. Bacterial Soft Rot
    • Fruit or storage roots
    • Water soaked, then soft, watery, and slimy gray or brown
    • May have a foul odor
  • 19. Bacterial Soft Rot
    • Above ground – yellow, stunted and wilted
    • Affects – wide range, fleshy fruits and succulent stems especially
    • Enters through wounds
    • Need high moisture – so store in cool, dry place
    • Rotate crops
  • 20. Bacterial Wilt
  • 21. Bacterial Wilt
    • Interveinal chlorosis (yellowing), with the main leaf veins remaining dark green in color
  • 22. Bacterial Wilt
    • Wilt, at first parts soft then hard and dry
    • May see strands of long white ooze
    • Affects curcubit family & tomatoes & beans
    • Plant resistant cultivars
    • Use disease free seed
    • Remove & destroy affected plants
  • 23.
    • These stands are composed of plant sap and bacterial cells, held together by a sticky substance (called LPS) that is produced by and serves as a protective coat for the bacterium.
  • 24.  
  • 25. Crown Gall Agrobacterium
    • The interior of a gall due to crown gall will have a mass of disorganized vascular tissue.
    • Lives in the soil and infects plants through wounds.
  • 26. Crown Gall
    • Populus, Salix, Prunus & Rose families
    • May form above ground on stems or branches or below ground on roots
    • Apple roots Euonymous stems
  • 27.  
  • 28. Crown Gall
    • Above ground appears yellow and stunted
    • Enters through wounds or contaminated tools
    • Can survive on dead plants for years
    • Remove and destroy affected plants
    • Don’t replant in same place
  • 29. Fire Blight
    • Affects many in the Rose family:
    • crabapple, pear and apple trees
  • 30. Fire Blight
    • Flowers first – wilt, shrivel and turn brown
    • Leaves turn brown or black
    • Dead leaves remain on twigs
    • Shoot tips turn black, wilt and curl downward
    • Cancers on branches
    • Fruit black and may stay on the tree
  • 31. Fire blight
  • 32. Fire blight
    • In spring, bacteria from previous year's cankers on twigs, branches and limbs are rain-splashed, wind-blown or carried by insects to blossoms
    • Plant resistant cultivars
    • Don’t prune too heavily encouraging succulent, susceptible tissue
    • Prune out affected tissue with 6-12” of healthy tissue
  • 33. Fire Blight
    • Advances from twigs to older branches and limbs causing localized cankers, which appear sunken, dark and wrinkled
    • Cankers on large scaffold limbs and the trunk eventually become cracked or creviced.
  • 34. Slime Flux – Bacterial Wetwood
    • The ooze often is foul-smelling, slimy, and colonized by yeast organisms when exposed to air
    • When the slime dries, it leaves a light gray to white crust on the bark
  • 35. White foam oozing- Slime Flux
    • yellow-brown discoloration confined to the central core of the tree
    • under high internal gas pressure
    • The gas pressure and high moisture content cause an oozing or bleeding of slime from wood and branch crotches
  • 36. Bacterial ooze
  • 37.
    • Affects many woody plants
    • Elms, maples and poplars
    • Cosmetic damage
    • No control available
  • 38. Viruses
    • Can only be seen using an electron microscope
    • Extremely simple – nucleic acid with a protein coat
    • Reproduce by taking over host’ reproductive machinery
    • Often associated with insect vectors
  • 39. Tulips with a virus
  • 40.
    • Virus symptoms
    • Leaf & fruit distortion
    • “ strappy” leaf, curled and twisted
    • Warty fruit
  • 41. Virus
    • Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV)
    • Mosaic
    • Tomato Curly top Virus
    • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
  • 42. Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus
    • Black stems
  • 43. INSV
    • Vectored by Thrips, variety of leaf symptoms. Not always rings
  • 44. INSV
    • Affects over 300 species, esp. bedding plants
    • Vectored by thrips
    • Use yellow sticky traps
    • Remove and destroy affected plants
    • INSV resistant cultivars
  • 45. Mosaic
  • 46. Mosaic
    • Mottled leaves with yellow, white or streaked spots
    • Streaking or spotting on fruits
    • Often stunted growth
    • Affects a wide range of plants
    • Plant resistant cultivars
    • Spread by insects – esp. leafhoppers
  • 47. Mosaic
    • No control
    • Remove and destroy
  • 48. Mosaic Watermelon
  • 49. Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 50. Tomato Curly Top Virus
  • 51. Tomato Curly Top Virus
    • Plants infected when older turn a dull yellow
    • Veins turn purple
    • Leaves roll upward, fruit production and ripening ceases
    • Plant slowly dies
    • Vectored by beet leafhoppers
  • 52. Tomato Curly Top Virus
  • 53. Tomato Curly Top Virus
    • Affects – wide variety of herbaceous plants
    • Beets
    • Tomatoes
    • Beans
    • Melons
    • Remove and destroy
  • 54.  
  • 55. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
    • splotches and yellow bulls-eye like rings on ripe tomato fruit
  • 56.  
  • 57. Phytoplasma
    • Funky bacteria?
    • Small wall-less
    • Only in the phloem
    • Usually only see with an electron microscope
    • Reproduce by binary fission
    • Transmitted by insects (leafhoppers)
  • 58. Phytoplasma
    • Previously referred to as mycoplasma
    • Smaller than bacteria
    • No cell wall
    • Live in the phloem
    • Only seen with an electron microscope
    • Reproduce by splitting (as do bacteria)
  • 59. Phytoplasma – Aster Yellows
  • 60. Phytoplasma – Aster Yellows
  • 61.
    • Colored petals turn green
    • Brooming
  • 62. Phytoplasma
    • Yellow, stunted, strange growth patterns
    • Overwinters in affected tissue
    • Vectored by leaf hoppers
    • Remove and destroy affected plants
  • 63. Phytoplasma – Carrots
  • 64. Phytoplasma – Fasciation in Maple
  • 65. Nematodes
    • Parasitic worms
    • Very complex compared to other pathogens
    • Usually seen only with a light microscope
    • Reproduce by eggs
  • 66.
    • A stylet is a modified tooth that helps a nematode puncture and feed on plant tissue.
  • 67. Root Knot Nematode
  • 68. Root Knot Nematode
    • Above ground – yellowed, wilted
    • Fruit stunted or non existent
    • Affects – fruit trees, corn, lettuce, tomatoes & potatoes
    • Plant resistant cultivars
    • Rotate crops
    • Soil solarization
    • Neem, organic matter
  • 69. ID from Photographs Part I Bacteria
  • 70. Bacterial Diseases
    • Bacterial Leaf Spot
    • Bacterial Soft Rot
    • Bacterial Wilt
    • Fireblight
    • Bacterial Wetwood/Slime Flux
    • Crown Gall
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.  
  • 75.  
  • 76.  
  • 77. Virus & Others
    • Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV)
    • Mosaic
    • Tomato Curly top Virus
    • Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus
    • Root Knot Nematode
    • Phytoplasma
    • Phytoplasma- fasciation
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83.  
  • 84.  

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