Writing Subject Intended Learning Outcomes


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Writing Subject Intended Learning Outcomes

  1. 1. Writing SubjectIntended LearningOutcomesbyMs. Sheryl B. SatorreIn-Service Training 2013University of Cebu – Main CampusMay 28 – 31, 2013(iamsbsatorre@gmail.com)
  2. 2. Outline:1. Understanding Intended Learning Outcomes2. FAQs about Intended Learning Outcomes3. Constructive Alignment4. Toolkit for Writing Subject Intended LearningOutcomes5. Steps in Writing Subject Intended LearningOutcomes6. DOs and DONTs7. Workshop # 1 – Writing SILOs8. Presentation of Output6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre2
  3. 3. Understanding Intended LearningOutcomes• Learning Outcomes are specific statements ofwhat students should know and be able to do asa result of learning (Morss and Murray, 2005)• Learning outcomes are statements of what isexpected that a student will be able to DO as aresult of a learning activity….(Jenkins andUnwin).• Learning outcomes are an explicit description ofwhat a learner should know, understand and beable to do as a result of learning. (Learning andTeaching Institute, Sheffield Hallam University)6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre3
  4. 4. • Learning outcomes are explicit statements ofwhat we want our students to know,understand or to be able to do as a result ofcompleting our courses. (Univ. New SouthWales, Australia)• ―Learning outcomes are statements thatspecify what learners will know or be able todo as a result of a learning activity.Outcomes are usually expressed asknowledge, skills or attitudes‖. (AmericanAssociation of Law Libraries).6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre4
  5. 5. Learning outcomes are statements of what astudent should know, understand and/or be able todemonstrate after completion of a process oflearning.• Learning outcomes must not simply be a ―wish list‖ ofwhat a student is capable of doing on completion of thelearning activity.• Learning outcomes must be simply and clearlydescribed.• Learning outcomes must be capable of being validlyassessed.Working DefinitionTherefore,6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre5
  6. 6. Intended Learning OutcomesStudents willDO WHAT (how)6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre6
  7. 7. FAQs about Intended LearningOutcomes6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre7
  8. 8. • FAQ # 1: What are the levels of ILOs?1. Program ILOs• What are the intended learning outcomes for thestudents enrolled in the course or program?2. Subject ILOs• What are the intended learning outcomes forstudents taking a particular subject at a particularstage of the course or program?6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre8
  9. 9. • FAQ # 2: Are ILOs the same withObjectives?• Objectives are for teachers.• ILO’s are for students.• FAQ # 3: Why do we need level outcomes?• So that everyone is aware of what the students willknow and be able to do by the end of the degreeprogram• FAQ # 4: Who sets ILOs?• Faculty who teach in the degree program• Experts in the discipline6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre9
  10. 10. • FAQ # 5: Where do ILOs come from?• Other colleges or universities• Professional associations• General education• Accreditation agency• Program alumni• Employers• Advisory board• Masters or doctoral programs• Online surveys of experts• FAQ # 6: How many ILOs do we need?• No magic number• Most programs have at about 4 - 86/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre10
  11. 11. • FAQ # 7: Who selects the ILOs?• The entire faculty in the program• Approved by all faculty and a chair• FAQ # 8:How do we decide on ILOs?• Faculty retreat• Regular faculty meetings• Expert facilitator• Hold assessment workshop• FAQ # 9:How are ILOs useful?• University catalogue• Promotional materials6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre11
  12. 12. FAQ # 10: Why write ILOs?Writing ILOs leads to:• A focus on student learning• Clarity• Overall vision and progression• Realism• Clear connections between goals, teaching, andassessment• The process of educational development in theacademy• Better quality assurance6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre12
  13. 13. Constructive AlignmentConstructive Alignment, a term coined byJohn Biggs (Biggs, 1999), is one of the mostinfluential ideas in higher education.It is the underpinning concept behind thecurrent requirements for programmespecification, declarations of IntendedLearning Outcomes (ILOs) and assessmentcriteria, and the use of criterion basedassessment.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre13
  14. 14. There are two parts to constructive alignment:1. Students construct meaning from what they do tolearn.2. The teacher aligns the planned learning activitieswith the learning outcomes.The basic premise of the whole system is that thecurriculum is designed so that the learning activities andassessment tasks are aligned with the learningoutcomes that are intended in the course. This meansthat the system is consistent.ILO:What thestudenthas to learn?Teaching andLearning:Engaging thestudent in theverb in the ILOAssessment:How wellthe studenthas met theILO?6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre14
  15. 15. Toolkit for Writing SubjectIntended Learning Outcomes(SILOs)1. Content to be taught2. Kind of Knowledge to be taught3. Levels of Understanding or Performancethe students are expected to achieve forthe different topics6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre15
  16. 16. Distinguish the kind ofKNOWLEDGE you want.• Declarative knowledge:• Knowing about things.• Knowledge we can declare to someone inwriting or telling.• Functioning knowledge:• Knowledge we put to work in solving aphysics problem, analyzing a case study,designing a building, making an argument,writing an essay.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre16
  17. 17. Levels of Understanding orPerformance• Bloom‘s Taxonomy• Revised Bloom‘s Taxonomy• SOLO Taxonomy6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre17
  18. 18. Bloom’s Taxonomy(Dr. Benjamin Bloom , 1965)1. Knowledge2. Comprehension3. Application4.Analysis5. Synthesis6. EvaluationHigher Order ThinkingSkills6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre18
  19. 19. 1. Knowledge - ability to recall or rememberfacts without necessarily understandingthemArrange, collect, define, describe,duplicate, enumerate, examine, find,identify, label, list, memorise, name,order, outline, present, quote, recall,recognise, recollect, record,recount, relate, repeat, reproduce,show, state, tabulate, tell6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre19
  20. 20. 2. Comprehension - ability to understandand interpret learned informationAssociate, change, clarify, classify,construct, contrast, convert, decode,defend, describe, differentiate,discriminate, discuss, distinguish,estimate, explain, express, extend,generalise, identify, illustrate,indicate, infer, interpret, locate,predict, recognise, report, restate,review, select, solve, translate.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre20
  21. 21. 3. Application - ability to use learnedmaterial in new situations, e.g. put ideas andconcepts to work in solving problemsApply, assess, calculate, change,choose, complete, compute, construct,demonstrate, develop, discover,dramatise, employ, examine,experiment, find, illustrate, interpret,manipulate, modify, operate, organise,practice, predict, prepare, produce,relate, schedule, select, show, sketch,solve, transfer, use6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre21
  22. 22. 4. Analysis - ability to break downinformation into its components, e.g. lookfor inter-relationships and ideas(understanding of organisational structure)Analyse, appraise, arrange, break down,calculate, categorise, classify, compare,connect, contrast, criticise, debate, deduce,determine, differentiate, discriminate,distinguish, divide, examine, experiment,identify, illustrate, infer, inspect,investigate, order, outline, point out,question, relate, separate, sub-divide, test6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre22
  23. 23. 5. Synthesis - ability to put parts togetherArgue, arrange, assemble, categorise,collect, combine, compile, compose,construct, create, design, develop,devise, establish, explain, formulate,generalise, generate, integrate, invent,make, manage, modify, organise,originate, plan, prepare, propose,rearrange, reconstruct, relate,reorganise, revise, rewrite, set up,summarise6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre23
  24. 24. 6. Evaluation - ability to judge value ofmaterial for a given purposeAppraise, ascertain, argue, assess,attach, choose, compare,conclude, contrast, convince,criticise, decide, defend,discriminate, explain, evaluate,interpret, judge, justify, measure,predict, rate, recommend, relate,resolve, revise, score, summarise,support, validate, value6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre24
  25. 25. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy:Anderson and Krathwohl (2001)HigherOrderThinking6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre25
  26. 26. 1. Remembering - recallprevious learned informationDefine, describe, identify, know,label, list, match, name, outline,recall, recognize, reproduce,select, state6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre26
  27. 27. 2. Understanding - Comprehending themeaning, translation, interpolation, andinterpretation of instructions and problems.State a problem in ones own words.comprehend, convert, defend,distinguish, estimate, explain,extend, generalize, give anexample, infer, interpret,paraphrase, predict, rewrite,summarize, translate6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre27
  28. 28. 3. Applying - Use a concept in a newsituation or unprompted use of anabstraction.Applies what was learned in theclassroom into novel situations in the workplace.apply, change, compute, construct,demonstrate, discover,manipulate, modify, operatespredict, prepare, produce, relate,show, solve, use6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre28
  29. 29. 4. Analyzing - Separates material orconcepts into component parts so that itsorganizational structure may be understood.Distinguishes between facts and inferences.analyze, break down, compare,contrast, diagram, deconstruct,differentiate, discriminate, distinguish,identify, illustrate, infer, outline, relate,select, separate6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre29
  30. 30. 5. Evaluating -Make judgmentsabout the value of ideas ormaterials.appraise, compare, conclude,contrast, criticize, critique, defend,describe, discriminate, evaluate,explain, interpret, justify, relate,summarize, support6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre30
  31. 31. 6. Creating - Builds a structure or patternfrom diverse elements. Put parts together toform a whole, with emphasis on creating anew meaning or structurecategorize, combine, compile,compose, create, devise, design,explain, generate, modify, organize,plan, rearrange, reconstruct, relate,reorganize, revise, rewrite,summarize, tell, write6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre31
  32. 32. Alternative to Bloom: Structure ofthe Observed Learning Outcome(SOLO) Taxonomy• by John Biggs and K. Collins in 1982• It is a model that describes levels ofincreasing complexity in a learnersunderstanding of subjects.• It aids both trainers and learners inunderstanding the learning process.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre32
  33. 33. Levels of SOLO Taxonomy1. Pre-structural• The learner doesnt understand thelesson and uses a much too simplemeans of going about it—the learner isunsure about the lesson or subject.2. Uni-structural• The learners response only focuses onone relevant aspect—the learner hasonly a basic concept about the subject.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre33
  34. 34. Levels of SOLO Taxonomy (cont.)3. Multi-structural• The learners response focuses onseveral relevant aspects but theyare treated independently—thelearner has several conceptsabout the subject but they aredisconnected. Assessment of thislevel is primarily quantitative.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre34
  35. 35. Levels of SOLO Taxonomy (cont.)4. Relational• The different aspects have becomeintegrated into a coherent whole—the learnerhas mastered the complexity of the subjectby being able to join all the parts together.This level is what is normally meant by anadequate understanding of a subject.5. Extended Abstract• The previous integrated whole may beconceptualized at a higher level ofabstraction and generalized to a new topic orarea—the learner is now able to create newideas based on her mastery of the subject.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre35
  36. 36. 6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre36
  37. 37. Appropriate Verbs for Different Levels of SOLO Taxonomy6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre37Surface Understanding Deep Understanding
  38. 38. PrepareWriteReviseVerifyCommunicateSteps inWriting theSubject ILO’s6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre38
  39. 39. PREPARE6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre39
  40. 40. 1. Decide the content to be taught.2. Decide what kind of knowledge is tobe taught -- declarative or functioning.3. Decide the levels of understanding orperformance the students areexpected to achieve for the differenttopics.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre40
  41. 41. WRITE6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre41
  42. 42. 4. Formulate subject intendedlearning outcomes.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre42Remember the Formula:Verb Object Criterion SILO
  43. 43. REVISE6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre43
  44. 44. 5. Differentiate between the wording inthe subject goals or objectives andthe wording in the learningoutcomes.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre44
  45. 45. A goal/objective, for example, describes, thatthe student will be given the opportunity todevelop his/her understanding of, acquireknowledge or awareness of, etc. It can describethe intentions of the course, focus on maincontent, and show how the course relates todifferent parts of a program.A learning outcome at subject level describeswhat the student should be able todemonstrate the results and how the studentshould show the attainment of these goals.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre45
  46. 46. 6. Make SILOs clear andobservable.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre46A clear learning outcome consists of:Active verbs that express what the student isexpected to be able to do at the end of the course.Words or phrases that describe the material, thearea, subject, etc. which the student works with oris the result of the educational experience.If wished, words or sentences that describe howthe knowledge should be used (individually, insummary, in detail, with the help of, orally, written,etc.)
  47. 47. • As an example, the verb “to understand” canbe made more concrete by substituting it witha verb which the student can perform:reproduce, interpret, clarify, reformulate,propose, account for, translate, describe inyour own words, exemplify, illustrate, classify,categorize, arrange, differentiate, summarize,generalize, explain, specify, draw conclusions,predict, confirm, demonstrate, compare,contrast, map, pair, choose, describecommonalities between different phenomena,appreciate, report, judge, or defend6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre47
  48. 48. Example: Learning outcomes thatare not observable:After completing the course, the studentshould be able to: Understand how laws and guidelines forsocial planning are applied. Read academic texts about thescholarship of teaching6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre48
  49. 49. Example: Rewritten learningoutcomes that are observableAfter finalizing the course, the student shouldbe able to: Explain the relationship between appliedlegislation and the process of urbanplanning. Review relevant scientific texts about thescholarship of teaching6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre49
  50. 50. 7. Make a distinction betweenlearning activities and results.The learning outcomes should not describehow the outcome is achieved, but detail theresults of the various learning activities whichoccur during the course.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre50
  51. 51. Example: Learning outcomes that describethe activity and not the resultAfter finalizing the course, the student shouldbe able to: Have visited at least three universityteaching sessions and have observed onesession with a pre-defined aim in mind.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre51
  52. 52. Example: Reformulated learning outcomethat describes the result of the activityAfter finalizing the course, the student shouldbe able to: Categorize and analyze observedteaching and learning activities toachieve a pre-determined aim, while atthe same time drawing conclusionsabout his or her own personal reactionsas a teacher6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre52
  53. 53. 8. Clarify vague learningoutcomes.Example: A vague learning outcomeThe student should be able to: Carry out a company auditExample: Reformulate learning outcomes so that theyspecify content and how knowledge will be used.The student should be able to: Carry out a company audit from theperspective of an economic theory,justifying and explaining his or her choiceof method6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre53
  54. 54. 9. Limit your SILOs. Have aworkable number of ILOs.• Combine and limit the number of learningoutcomes to about 7 or 8.• The presence of too many outcomes indicatesthat the outcomes may be too detailed.• What is the overall result that must beevaluated?• Higher levels of ILOs may subsume some ofthe lower level ones.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre54
  55. 55. Example: Redundant learningoutcomesThe student should be able to: Define known concepts of second-language acquisition (SLA) Use concepts of second-languageacquisition (SLA) to judge the competenceof second language teachers in written andspoken Swedish6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre55
  56. 56. Example: The redundant learning outcomeshould be deleted. It is already included inthe other outcome.The student should be able to: Use concepts about second-languageacquisition (SLA) to judge the competenceof second- language teachers in writtenand spoken Swedish.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre56
  57. 57. VERIFY6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre57
  58. 58. 10.Check if the learning outcomes canbe assessed. Sometimes it isnecessary to reformulate theoutcomes because they areunrealistic or impossible to test.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre58
  59. 59. 11.Estimate the approximate studentworkload required to attain thelearning outcomes and completeassessment.• Consider the time spent on instruction andthe total study-time needed for bothindividual and group work.• Remember that too much material oftenleads to cramming and limits the space foranalysis and critical thinking.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre59
  60. 60. 12. Check if all SILOs are alignedwith the Student Outcomes.• Ensure that all SILOs are attuned with theStudent Outcomes of the college.• Ensure a clear understanding andagreement of the ILOs within the teachingteam and other relevant parties.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre60
  61. 61. COMMUNICATE6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre61
  62. 62. 13.Communicate the subject ILOs tothe students, teachers, and otherstakeholders. Make sure that allSILOs are clearly understood bythem.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre62
  63. 63. DOs• It is vital that learning outcomes are clearlywritten so that they are understood bystudents, colleagues and externalexaminers.• When writing learning outcomes it may behelpful to you if you focus on what youexpect students to be able to demonstrateupon completion of the module or program.• It is standard practice to list the learningoutcomes using a phrase like ―On successfulcompletion of this module, students shouldbe able to:‖ [list of learning outcomes]6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre63
  64. 64. DOs• Avoid complicated sentences. If necessaryuse one than one sentence to ensure clarity.• General recommendation: 4 – 8 learningoutcomes per subject.• ―The key word is DO and the key need indrafting learning outcomes is to use activeverbs‖. (Jenkins and Unwin, Fry et al.)6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre64
  65. 65. DON‘Ts• ―They [Learning Outcomes] are statementsdescribing observable behaviour and thereforemust use ‗action verbs‘‖… Words like―appreciate‖ and ―understand‖ do not helpstudents because there are so manyinterpretations of their meaning. It is moretransparent and helpful to be specific aboutexpectations (Morss and Murray).• Avoid verbs like ―know‖, ―understand‖, ―befamiliar with‖, ―be exposed to‖ (Osters and Tiu)• ―Try to avoid ambiguous verbs such as―understand‖, ―know‖, ―be aware‖ and―appreciate‖. (Sheffield Hallam Guide).6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre65
  66. 66. DON‘Ts• ―Care should be taken in using words such as‗understand‘ and ‗know‘ if you cannot be surethat students will understand what it means toknow or understand in a given context‖ (UnivNSW).• Certain verbs are unclear and subject todifferent interpretations in terms of what actionthey are specifying…… These types of verbsshould be avoided: know, become aware of,appreciate, learn, understand, become familiarwith. (American Association of Law Libraries).6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre66
  67. 67. Some Vague SILO verbs• Appreciate• Become aware of• Familiarize with• Know• Learn about• Recognize• Understand6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre67
  68. 68. Example: SILOs forComputer Programming 3(Object-OrientedProgramming)6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre68
  69. 69. Steps 1 - 31. Introduction to Java2. Data types and Variables3. Operators andExpressions4. Control Flow Statements5. Methods6. Object-OrientedProgramming7. Objects and Classes8. Using Java Objects9. Java Application ProjectFunctional ApplicationFunctional AnalysisFunctional SynthesisFunctional EvaluationKind of knowledgeLevel ofUnderstanding orPerformance6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre69
  70. 70. At the end of the semester, the students should be ableto:SILO1: compile syntactically and semantically correctJava-based programs using basic elements such as datatypes, operators and expressionsSILO2: design syntactically and semantically correctJava-based programs using appropriate control structuresand modulesSILO3: develop Java-based programs using Object-Oriented approachSILO4: defend a Java-based application project thatintegrates process-oriented and object-orientedapproaches6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre70
  71. 71. SubjectILOsContent Kind ofKnowledgeLevels ofunderstanding orperformanceSILO1 1. Introduction to Java2. Data types andVariables3. Operators andExpressionFunctional ApplicationSILO2 4. Control FlowStatements5. MethodsFunctional AnalysisSILO3 6. Object-OrientedProgramming7. Objects andClasses8. Using Java ObjectsFunctional SynthesisSILO4 9. Java ApplicationProjectFunctional Evaluation6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre71
  72. 72. Student Outcomes Subject ILOsA, B, C SILO1A, B, C SILO2A, B, C, I SILO3A, B, C, I , J SILO4Student Outcomes:A – ability to apply knowledge of computing and mathematics appropriate tothe disciplineB – ability to analyse and identify and define the computing requirementsappropriate to its solutionC – ability to design, implement and evaluate a computer-based system,process, component, or program to meet desired needsI – ability to use current technical concepts, skills and tools necessary forcomputing practiceJ – ability to use and apply current technical concepts and practices in thecore information technologies6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre72
  73. 73. Workshop # 1 – WritingSILO‘sPart I. Refer to your existing syllabus, and do thefollowing:1. review the existing objectives in relation tocontent, kind of knowledge and levels ofunderstanding / performance.2. identify any areas requiring revision.3. rewrite the subject objectives in ILO format,4. consider if the ILOs are of equal importance.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre73
  74. 74. Part II. Construct the following tables.SubjectILOsContent Kind ofKnowledgeLevels ofunderstanding orperformanceTable 1 – Writing SILO’sStudent Outcomes Subject ILO‘sTable 2 – Alignment of Student Outcomes and Subject ILO’s6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre74
  75. 75. Part III.• Present your output to the group.• Be sure to jot down any issues that you would like tobring up for discussion at the workshop.6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre75
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  80. 80. Thank you   6/2/2013Preparedby:SBSatorre80