Learning report curriculum/models


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Learning report curriculum/models

  1. 1. Psychological Dimensions of Curriculum Development SHERYL P. VALDEZ Presenter
  2. 2. • Sound curriculum development can be effected only from a sound psychology of learning. Knowledge about psychology of the learner and of the learning process is relevant to the three different matters of the curriculum. 1) Selection and arrangement of content 2) Choice of the learning experiences 3) Plans for the optimum conditions for learning
  3. 3. •The curriculum must be a means of initiating learners into activities and experiences which are worthwhile for them. For this purpose it must draw upon analyses of the nature of learning and the inherent human abilities it intends to develop. The Main Theories of Learning 1) Association Theories 2) Field Theories 3) Perceptual Theories
  4. 4. Association Theories • Stimulus-Response Theory (connectionism) According to Thorndike, the “association between sense impression and impulses to action” is the basis of learning. Conditioning can either be: 1) respondent 2) operant
  5. 5. Association Theories Respondent Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov experiment (1927) found that dogs could be trained to salivate to a variety of stimuli such as a tone, a bell, or a touch on the paw. • He found that if you repeatedly rang a bell and then presented food to a hungry dog, soon just the ringing of the bell alone was enough to produce salivation. Pavlov and others found that a certain sequence of events seemed to produce the most effective learning.
  6. 6. Association Theories Operant Conditioning • It refers to the “strengthening of a stimulus response pattern by following the response with a reinforcing stimulus.” • Defenders of the Association Theories hold that learning is non-purposive habit formation and is conditioned. Situation and connected responsereward and/or satisfaction reduce the need and hasten the learning or performance. Learning takes place when any change in behavior occurs.
  7. 7. Field Theories • Holds that experiences, information, and activities group themselves in a pattern or field new to the learner, forming a configuration, or gestalt. • It emphasizes “wholes,” the grasping of the whole field or idea and its surroundings. • The parts get meaning from membership in the whole. • It is learning by insight.
  8. 8. Perceptual Theories • Consider learning as self-perception. • They are more concerned with “knowing” and “perceiving” activities. • Tolman states that the learner is following a sort of map, a cognitive map, which involves learning meanings. • The organism expects one stimulus (the sign) to be followed by another (significate) if a familiar route is to be developed.
  9. 9. The Nature of Learning • Learning – a process which brings about a change in the individual’s way of responding as a result of practice or other experience or as a relatively permanent change of behavior. • Behavior changes with experience. New patterns of behavior take place when the organism senses its world, interprets it, responds to it, and then responds to the consequences of its own responses. Once the organism has undergone this cycle, it is never the same again. It hereby learns.
  10. 10. Factors to be considered in every learning situation: 1) The raw data of sense perception from stimuli of the present situation. 2) The learning's attached to these stimuli, coming from the past experience of the learner. 3) Data furnished by various organs of the body that are more or less concerned with the learning. 4) Feeling-tone resulting from the above, and feeling connected with the present situation or attitudes.
  11. 11. Conditions Affecting Learning • Learning will be most effective when the learning situations are related to life as realistically as possible. • Learning will be most effective when the learner gains confidence in his ability and also acquires favourable attitudes positively to the learning situation. • Learning will be most effective when the environment contributes positively to the learning situation. • Learning will be most effective when the learning experiences help the learner gain an insight through practical use of the relationship with which he is having experiences.
  12. 12. Conditions Affecting Learning • Learning will be most effective when the learners feel the need for the experiences and outcomes. • Learning situations will be most effective when they are adapted to the needs, capacities, and interests of learners. • Learning will be most effective when the students are free from emotional tensions. • Learning will be most effective if they are adapted to the normal growth of the learners. • Learning will be most effective in situations that provide satisfactorily for student participation in planning and learning.
  13. 13. Four Levels of Learning 1) Motor learning involves muscle control, like learning to jump or run. 2) Sensorimotor learning requires the cooperation of muscles and senses. 3) Ideomotor learning is the combination of higher thought processes with muscular actions. 4) Ideational learning involves the use of ideas and intangible factors and learning to handle people.
  14. 14. Curriculum Development and Management of Learning •Learning is perhaps the most basic of all human experiences. It includes intellectual, emotional, and physical learning. •The principles through which old behavior acquired or learning is acquired are divided into three areas: 1) The subjective principles – concerned with what the learner brings to the learning situation and includes self-concept, past experiences, intelligence, motivation, and emotions 2) The objective principles – deals with factors relevant to learning situations and includes rates of learning and forgetting, reviewing, rewards, reward schedules, self-rewards, generalization, and discrimination 3) Special learning techniques – used to increase learning efficiency and includes massed and distributed learning, feedback, and over learning.
  15. 15. The Subjective Principles of Learning 1) New experiences are learned more effectively if they agree with or enhance our self-concept. 2) What is learned is a combination of the experience itself and the person’s previous knowledge about that experience. 3) High intelligence or learning capacity helps one to learn. and other factors as well. 4) When a learner is really interested and involved he will learn better. 5) When we are enthusiastic, we tend to learn better.
  16. 16. The Objective Principles of Learning 1. People differ in their rate of learning. 2. Forgetting is more rapid than learning. 3. Review is essential to retain what has been learned. 4. Learning is more effective when followed by appropriate rewards. 5. Habits are better formed when the sequence of continuous, intermittent, and variable reward schedules are followed.
  17. 17. The Objective Principles of Learning 6. When the preceding schedules are followed, the behavior can become self-rewarding. 7. Generalization permits the learning of large amounts of information. 8. Discrimination permits appropriate usage of information learned through generalization.
  18. 18. Planning the Sequence of Learning 1) Distributed Practice – learning section by section distributing the total learning time into separate periods. 2) Massed Practice – learning to solve a problem or learning an entire sequence at one time with no rest or interruptions.
  19. 19. Learning by Feedback • Persons learn better when they are informed as to the correctness or incorrectness of their responses. • Knowledge of results helps them to learn faster because full information is available and the task becomes more interesting. There is much evidence that people learn better when they are constantly informed as to how they are doing and shown ways to improve.
  20. 20. Integrative Learning • Learning by wholes tends to be better than learning by parts. • It is essential that the learner perceive the relationship of what is learned to the entirety of the situation or matter.
  21. 21. Experimental Approach to Learning • Kolb, Rubin and McIntyre • It focuses on the experiences and reactions of the individuals in the group. • The individual learners and not merely the teacher are the sources of data for learning. • The emphasis is on the process, not solely on the content hence, it is a process philosophy of education.
  22. 22. Factors Involve in the Learning Loop CONCRETE EXPERIENCE (exercises) ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION (forming new questions, behaviors ) ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALIZATION (readings) REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION (discussion)
  23. 23. Factors Used in Experiential Education • • • • Learning must be current. Learning must be eclectic. Learning must be inclusive. Learning must deal with the essential, not structures and forms. • Learning must be dynamic.
  24. 24. Recalling and Learning Recall is a very important factor in learning because the more we can recall effectively the more we learn. Ways of recalling: 1) Self-recitation 2) Over learning 3) Periodic review 4) Following a logical pattern
  25. 25. Ways of recalling: 1) Self-recitation while the material is being learned. Recall is helped by recalling during practice. 2) Over learning helps the learner to have a better memory since he can recall more efficiently over learned materials. 3) Periodic review helps to cut down the effects of forgetting. 4) Following a logical pattern makes us remember the materials better.
  26. 26. Guidelines for Curriculum Development 1) A good curriculum must encourage inquiry and creativity. 2) A good curriculum must be democratic with regard to procedures. 3) A good curriculum must accept individual differences. 4) A good curriculum must take into consideration scientific and scholarly techniques and findings. 5) A good curriculum must minimize memorizing and maximize discovery. 6) A good curriculum must take into consideration the potential for achievement through either the individual learner or the group. 7) A good curriculum must employ teacher resources in a multi-dimensional role.
  27. 27. Reference • Andres, Tomas Quintin D.; Francisco, Felizardo Y. Curriculum Development on the Philippine Setting. National Book Store, Quad Alpha Centrum Bldg. Mandaluyong City. 1989. pp. 55-77