Brand, Logo and Other IP  Concerns for Wineries Scott Hervey Weintraub Genshlea Chediak Law Corporation www.weintraub.com ...
What is Intellectual Property? <ul><li>The intangible assets of a company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May comprise the majority ...
Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs </li></...
What is a Trademark? <ul><li>Word, saying, logo, brand, sign, mark - even sound, color, or smell </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger...
What is a Trademark? <ul><li>Sub-Brand </li></ul><ul><li>Logo </li></ul><ul><li>Brand </li></ul>
What is a Trademark <ul><li>Wine label designs </li></ul><ul><li>Trade dress elements </li></ul><ul><li>Vineyard Designati...
Types of Marks <ul><li>Common Law Marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arises from actual use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection...
What is a Trademark <ul><li>Certification Mark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certifies regional or other origin, material, mode of...
Initial Concerns:  Choice of Mark <ul><li>Strength of trademark depends on the nature of the mark: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Why Chose a Strong Trademark? <ul><li>Strong trademarks accomplish source identification. More identifiable to consumer. <...
Examples of Strong Marks
Strength of Trademark <ul><li>Descriptive marks are generally not registrable unless develop secondary meaning (acquired d...
Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>Use of an American Viticulture Area Designation (AVA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of the win...
Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>US – EU Wine Accords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 10, 2006 – the US agreed to limit the use...
Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>All Wine Labels Must Be Approved By TTB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificate of Label Approva...
Choosing a Trademark:  The Search <ul><li>What is a trademark search? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snapshot of the world as it ex...
How to Perform a Trademark Search? <ul><li>Don’t rely on a Google Search! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google DOES NOT review Sta...
Protecting Trademarks  <ul><li>Federal Registration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive notice nationwide of the claim to o...
Protecting Trademarks <ul><li>TM,  ®,  SM  </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark owners must police their own marks </li></ul><ul><l...
Licenses:  Trademarks <ul><li>The Naked License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when the TM owner grants permission to a thir...
Copyrights
What is a copyright? <ul><li>Original work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles, progra...
What is a copyright? <ul><li>Generally lasts for life of author plus 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>Joint works are owned by b...
Copyrights and Employees/Agents <ul><li>Generally, author has ownership. Under Work for Hire doctrine: </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Work for Hire  <ul><li>Effect of relying on oral agreement or not using such language… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The contracti...
  Trade Secrets
What is a Trade Secret? <ul><li>Various types of information (formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, tech...
Trade Secret Misappropriation <ul><li>Acquisition by improper means (known or reason to know) or under circumstances with ...
Trade Secret Misappropriation <ul><li>Must use reasonable efforts under circumstances to protect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non...
Departing Employees <ul><li>Very significant area of trade secret disputes. Actions for injunction or special damages if s...
Departing Employees <ul><li>Public policies allowing competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California prohibition of employee ...
Bringing it All Together <ul><li>Effectively manage all your intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Know Your Inventory: ...
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Wine law

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trademark and wine label issues for wineries

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  • Vineyard Designations: 1) building a brand for the grower. Unless you have a long term contract, it may not be best to grow the grower’s brand
  • These are very strong brands for wine because they have little or nothing to do with wine. They also aren’t sur names so they are more likely to be remembered.
  • Conjunctive labeling requirements are being driven at the State level. January 2010 Sonoma County Vintners Assn voted to require conjunctive labeling to raise visibility of Sonoma county
  • Wine law

    1. 1. Brand, Logo and Other IP Concerns for Wineries Scott Hervey Weintraub Genshlea Chediak Law Corporation www.weintraub.com www.theiplawblog.com @Weintraub_Law © Weintraub Genshlea Chediak 2011
    2. 2. What is Intellectual Property? <ul><li>The intangible assets of a company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May comprise the majority of the value of a company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The competitive advantage of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reputation/goodwill of the company </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Types of Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret Inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade dress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What is a Trademark? <ul><li>Word, saying, logo, brand, sign, mark - even sound, color, or smell </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers association in the market with owner/source </li></ul><ul><li>Means of protecting goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>The exclusive right to use a brand (mark) for products or services </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is a Trademark? <ul><li>Sub-Brand </li></ul><ul><li>Logo </li></ul><ul><li>Brand </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is a Trademark <ul><li>Wine label designs </li></ul><ul><li>Trade dress elements </li></ul><ul><li>Vineyard Designations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for Grower/Risky for Winery </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Marks <ul><li>Common Law Marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arises from actual use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection in areas of use in commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Registered Marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal registration (presumed ownership throughout the nation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State filing also available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul><ul><li>Service Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Certification Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Dress </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is a Trademark <ul><li>Certification Mark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certifies regional or other origin, material, mode of manufacture, quality, accuracy, or other characteristics of such person’s goods or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective Mark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used only by members of an organization to identify their goods or services and distinguish them from those of nonmembers. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Initial Concerns: Choice of Mark <ul><li>Strength of trademark depends on the nature of the mark: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fanciful/coined (Kodak) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary (Yahoo, Apple) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestive (Roach Motel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates nature quality or characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive (Tahoe Plumbing, Park ‘N Fly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directly related to meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic (Escalator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common name </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Why Chose a Strong Trademark? <ul><li>Strong trademarks accomplish source identification. More identifiable to consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>More difficult for others to infringe, intentionally or unintentionally </li></ul><ul><li>Easier and less costly to register. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less chance of similarity with preexisting marks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No need for costly revisions of mark. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stronger Legal Protection </li></ul>
    11. 11. Examples of Strong Marks
    12. 12. Strength of Trademark <ul><li>Descriptive marks are generally not registrable unless develop secondary meaning (acquired distinctiveness) </li></ul><ul><li>Generic marks are not registrable </li></ul>
    13. 13. Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>Use of an American Viticulture Area Designation (AVA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of the wine is from grapes from the AVA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appellation of origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A country, a U.S. state, and a U.S. county – i.e., Lodi County, California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of the wine is from grapes from the appellation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive Labeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires main AVA to be used in conjunction with sub-AVA (e.g. Fair Play, El Dorado) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>US – EU Wine Accords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 10, 2006 – the US agreed to limit the use of certain semi generic names on non-European wines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burgundy (France), Malaga (Spain) , Chablis (France), Marsala (Italy) , Champagne (France), Moselle (France), Chianti (Italy), Port (Portugal) , Claret (France), Rhine (Germany) , Haut Sauterne (France), Sauterne (France), Hock (Germany), Sherry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandfather Provision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under the “grandfather” provision, any person or his or her successor in interest may continue to use a semi-generic name on a label of a wine not originating in the EU, provided the semi-generic name is only used on labels for wine bearing the same brand name, or the brand name and the fanciful name, if any, that appear on a COLA that was issued prior to March 10, 2006. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Special Labeling Issues <ul><li>All Wine Labels Must Be Approved By TTB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificate of Label Approval (COLA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not confer trademark rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic and Other “Green” Claims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FTC is scrutinizing “green” claims </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Choosing a Trademark: The Search <ul><li>What is a trademark search? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snapshot of the world as it exists at the moment in time when you seek the trademark. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perform a trademark search BEFORE settling on a mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do a trademark search? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a trademark is costly. Before you spend money, make sure you can use it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using someone else’s trademark, even accidentally, can get you sued. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. How to Perform a Trademark Search? <ul><li>Don’t rely on a Google Search! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google DOES NOT review State and Federal Databases or other proprietary databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full trademark search includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks registered through the Patent and Trademark Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks registered through local states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks used in various databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks used in domain names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unregistered business names </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Protecting Trademarks <ul><li>Federal Registration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive notice nationwide of the claim to ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of ownership and priority of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows registration with US customs to prevent importation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain name disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use or intent to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on foreign application/registration </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Protecting Trademarks <ul><li>TM, ®, SM </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark owners must police their own marks </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no governmental body that enforces marks and punishes infringement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to police mark can weaken protection or result in loss of mark (abandonment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No oral permission to Third Parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always grant permission in writing and with conditions restraining use. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create proper licenses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand unlicensed use immediately stop </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Licenses: Trademarks <ul><li>The Naked License </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when the TM owner grants permission to a third party, but does not retain the right to approve the manner (or otherwise supervise quality) in which the mark is used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect: Mark can be cancelled by the PTO. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mark assures consistency and quality. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the mark owner insists on neither, the trademark can be lost. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Copyrights
    22. 22. What is a copyright? <ul><li>Original work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles, programs, web pages, multi-media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology, software, databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No protection of functional aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive right to reproduce, derivative works, copy, perform, display, transmit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions such as fair use for criticism, comment, teaching, reporting </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. What is a copyright? <ul><li>Generally lasts for life of author plus 70 years </li></ul><ul><li>Joint works are owned by both authors equally </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright notice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>©, name, and year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circled “p” for sound recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can register at later time </li></ul><ul><li>Registration allows attorney’s fee recovery, statutory damages, etc. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Copyrights and Employees/Agents <ul><li>Generally, author has ownership. Under Work for Hire doctrine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A copyrighted work prepared by an employee within the scope of employment is owned by the employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain types of work commissioned from an independent contractor with a written agreement may be designated as “work for hire” owned by commissioning party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other types of work may be assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need written assignment documentation with all employees/agents </li></ul>
    25. 25. Work for Hire <ul><li>Effect of relying on oral agreement or not using such language… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The contracting party owns nothing more than a copy of the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does NOT own the Copyright in the work. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Trade Secrets
    27. 27. What is a Trade Secret? <ul><li>Various types of information (formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, techniques, process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>derives independent economic value from not being generally known or readily ascertainable by proper means by persons who can derive economic value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A protected idea that provides a competitive advantage in a market </li></ul><ul><li>More than one person may hold a trade secret </li></ul>
    28. 28. Trade Secret Misappropriation <ul><li>Acquisition by improper means (known or reason to know) or under circumstances with duty to maintain secrecy/limit use (may include acquired by accident or mistake) </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosure or use without actual or implied consent </li></ul>
    29. 29. Trade Secret Misappropriation <ul><li>Must use reasonable efforts under circumstances to protect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-disclosure agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disclose on a need to know basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit access and availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other internal controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy of marking problematic if not followed </li></ul>
    30. 30. Departing Employees <ul><li>Very significant area of trade secret disputes. Actions for injunction or special damages if show willful and malicious. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employer ownership of trade secrets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If relates to business of employer (for inventor) or developed on company time (other employees) </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Departing Employees <ul><li>Public policies allowing competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California prohibition of employee covenants not to compete under B&P Code 16600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other states have varying levels of prohibitions </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Bringing it All Together <ul><li>Effectively manage all your intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Know Your Inventory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a firm understanding of all IP assets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent communication with other departments (e.g., advertising, web design) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take Reasonable Steps to Protect Your Intellectual Property: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unprotected and Protected assets. Which make sense for company to pursue protection? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent Unintended Liabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform Trademark search. Don’t infringe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements with vendors guaranteeing right to use material (in websites, advertisements, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Thank You

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