Mc lecrure handouts


Published on


Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mc lecrure handouts

  1. 1. 2010 MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION (Lecture handouts) MAV002 MBA Prof.H.Venkitachalam CIAL ACADEMY 6/22/2010
  2. 2. 46 MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION (Lecture handouts) Block- 1 The word Communication has been derived from the latin word “communis”, which means common, and implies that communication is common understanding through communion of minds and hearts. This happens as a result of transfer of information, facts, ideas, opinions and emotions by two or more persons. In the present world communication has become extremely significant due to liberalization, industrialization and globalization of the economy. Apart from this, the complexities of Business organization, information technology revolution, growing specializations, competition and change management have also resulted in the growth of communication as a subject of study in Business schools. Communication is defined differently by different authors. COMMUNICATION IS A TRANSFER OF INFORMATION BETWEEN PEOPLE RESULTING IN A COMMON UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THEM. COMMUNICATION IS AN EXCHANGE OF FACTS, IDEAS, OPINIONS OR EMOTIONS BY TWO OR MORE PERSONS ALLEN LOUIS DEFINES COMMUNICTION AS SUM OF ALL THINGS ONE DOES WHEN HE WANTS TO CREATE UNDERSTANDING IN THE MIND OF ANOTHER COMMUNICATION INCLUDES ORAL AS WELL AS NON-VERBAL SUCH AS FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, POSTURES, GESTURES, BODY LANGUAGE, and MANNERISMS etc. There are numerous ways in which human beings, birds, animals and insects convey their feelings, emotions and thoughts. (chirping of sparrows, crowing of cocks, barking of dogs, roaring of lions, mewling of cats, humming of bees etc.) Human beings have been sharing their information with others through sounds, symbols and gestures. As time passed language became the means of communication due to growth of civilization. Why Communication?  Complexities in Business Organization (scattered employee network)  Information Technology Revolution  Growing specializations (tasks handled by specialists)  Liberalizations, Privatization, Globalization, Trade Unions Benefits of Effective Communication Increased productivity Better decision making Quicker problem solving Healthier business relationships 2
  3. 3. 46 Improved customer relationships Increased awareness among employees Lesser misunderstanding Enhanced professional image The Nature of Managerial Work  Remarkable similarity in management jobs  Jobs in the workplace cluster around core management roles:  Interpersonal  Informational  Decisional Managerial Roles Interpersonal roles:- Figurehead, Leader, Liaison, Monitor Informational roles:- Disseminator, Spokesperson Decisional roles:- Entrepreneur, Disturbance, Crisis Handling, Resource Allocator & Negotiator Major Characteristics  Time is fragmented.  Values compete; the various roles are in tension.  The job is overloaded.  Efficiency is a core skill. What Varies? The Emphasis  The entrepreneur role is gaining importance.  So is the leader role. Managers must be more sophisticated as strategists and mentors.  Managers must create a local vision as they help people grow. Management Skills Required  Technical Skills: Most valuable at the entry level; less valuable at more senior levels.  Relating Skills: Valuable across the managerial career span.  Conceptual Skills: Least valuable at the entry level; more valuable at more senior levels. Talk is the Work  Managers across industries spend 75% of their time in verbal interaction:  one-on-one / face-to-face;  telephone conversations;  video teleconferencing;  presentation to small groups; public speaking to larger audiences. 3
  4. 4. 46 Major Channels: Talking/Listening  Meetings  Telephone  Electronic Mail  One-on-one Conversations  Interviews  Tours and Informal Visits  Social Events The Role of Writing  The most important projects, decisions and ideas end up in writing.  Writing provides analysis, justification, documentation, and analytic discipline.  Writing is a career sifter.  Managers do most of their own writing and editing.  Documents are references and records Communication is Invention  Managers create meaning through communication.  Managers figure things out by talking about them as much as they talk about the things they have already figured out. Information is Socially Constructed  Information is created, shared and interpreted by people.  Information never speaks for itself.  Very little in life is self-explanatory.  Context always drives meaning.  A messenger always accompanies a message. Your Task as a Professional  Recognize and understand your strengths and weaknesses as a communicator.  Improve existing skills.  Develop new skills.  Acquire a knowledge base that will work for the 21st century.  Develop the confidence you’ll need to succeed as a manager or executive. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION •Information •Advice •Order •Suggestion •Persuasion •Education •Warning •Raising morale & Motivation •Conflict resolution •Negotiation 4
  5. 5. 46 External Information (competition, raw materials, Govt regulations, Technology developments. Internal information (job assignments, policies, procedure & rules, authority & responsibility, Organizational levels. Sources of information: (Old files, Observation, Mass media, Internet, Seminars, conferences. Trade fairs, Executives need information to plan & organize, Employees need it to execute jobs. Information should be collected from reliable source, accurate, complete and recent. ADVISE:- BOTH man- oriented & work-oriented. – Promotes understanding. - Counseling is often psychological. ORDERS can be written or oral, general or specific, procedural or operational, mandatory or discretionary. ORDER SHOULD BE:- Clear & complete, capable of being executed. SUGGESTION can be voluntary submitted through suggestion boxes, Suggestions to be encouraged. PERSUASION:- STEPS:- Analyzing the situation, Preparing the receiver, Delivering the message, Prompting action. WARNINGS:- General Warnings such as No Smoking, No talking, Beware of Dogs. Reprimands to workers. MOTIVATION can be achieved by monetary & non-monetary incentives, participative decision making, congenial work environment. `STEPS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS  IDEATION - (Sender’s Idea)  ENCODING - (Developing Message to Convey the idea)  TRANSMISSION - (Transmitted to Receiver)  RECEIVING -  DECODING - (Receiver attaches a meaning to the message)  ACTING - (Response to the message)  FEED BACK - (To ensure receipt of proper message in its true sense) Five main categories of feedback:- • Evaluative: Making a judgment • Interpretive: Paraphrasing – (attempting to explain) • Supportive: Attempting to assist • Probing: gaining additional information, Understanding: Attempting to discover MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION WRITTEN COMMUNICATION •ORAL COMMUNICATION •VISUAL COMMUNICATION •AUDIO VISUAL COMMUNICATION •COMPUTER BASED COMMUNICATION 5
  6. 6. 46 Merits Limitations ORAL Saves Time & money Unsuitable for long messages Forceful No Legal Validity Good feed back Not easy to fix responsibility Clarification & effective Chances of misunderstanding with groups. WRITTEN Accurate Time consuming Precise Quick clarification is difficult Record Document Pin point Responsibility VISUAL Good for simple ideas Not suitable for complex ideas Effective with other medium AUDIO VISUAL Most suitable for Mass education & publicity COMPUTER BASED Quick Uncertain legal validity Saves Time & Money Virus, Leakage of information Block-2 FORMS OF COMMUNICATION • ORAL OR VERBAL COMMUNICATION • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION:-  FACIAL EXPRESSIONS  PLACE  EYE CONTACT  SPACE  GESTURES  SILENCE  POSTURES BODY LANGUAGE  APPEARANCE  TOUCH  TIME 6
  7. 7. 46 Eye contact can communicate friendliness, respect, interest comfort, and even domination. The duration & frequency of eye contact is meaningful. In Western cultures, looking up into the eyes while talking is a sign of respect. In Eastern cultures, looking down is a way of showing respect to the superior talking to you. In most cultures, you avoid eye contact with strangers even if you are physically close to them ( Lift). Touch is one of the very first non-verbal symbols a new-born baby is lovingly exposed to and continues to be a major means of communication. A culture determines who may touch whom, which part of the body, when and for how long. A male guest may hug the lady of the house he is visiting if she is a latin American; he may shake hands with her or kiss her hand if she is a European; he may say Namaste to her if she is an Indian, he may not even see here if she is an Arab. SPACE:- Air conditioned first class coaches, A/c two tier sleeper coaches, First class and economy section in air crafts, are excellent illustration of the way we use space to communication. The richer or more important you are, the greater space you occupy. Bigger houses, bigger cars, bigger offices and so on, to support your higher status in office and private life. Wherever you expect to get respect, you create more space between yourself and others. TIME:- When you arrive early, on time, or late for an engagement, it conveys a certain meaning to others. Meaning differs from culture to culture. In India late arrival is usual, but in Germany late arrival will not be forgiven unless there is very good reason. Types of Non-Verbal communication:- Kinesics - study of facial expressions, posture, gestures (physical movements) Oculesics - study of eye movements, or eye contacts Haptics - Communication of touch Proxemics – Communication of space and proximity (physical space) Vocalics – variations in pitch, speed, volume Chronemics – punctuality, timing of messages, meeting deadlines, not wasting our time and others’ time, cultural variations CONVERSATIONS PURPOSE:- • Improving relationships • Making decisions • Solving problems • Collecting / disseminating information • Understanding the problem • Consoling people • Sharing views • Coordinating team activities 7
  8. 8. 46 TYPES OF CONVERSATIONS • Chat : least formal of all ( father & daughter) • Tête-à-tête: confidential conversation (interview) • Dialogue : opposing point of view ( two parties) • Parley : formal discussion between enemies regarding the terms of truce • Colloquy : most formal ( between nations on some important issue • Communion : profound level ( with nature / God) Characteristics of effective conversations:- • Involves important issues in organization • Involves every participant • Arouse and sustain interest • Structured • Adapts to Changes • Allows participants to be honest without risking jobs • Uses active listening STAGES:- • Encourage: allow others to express • Acknowledge ideas: show you are paying attention • Question : to clarify meaning, seek more information • Inform : state facts, thoughts, feelings and concerns • Direct : give instructions, delegate • Criticize : give feedback / redirect / improve Non Verbal Cues:- • Indicates the relationship among the conversers • Immediacy: spacing between the conversers • Power: expansive gestures, erect posture, occupying more space • Responsiveness: intensity of feelings –react more / little • Silence: gives time, shows respect, generate focus, conveys deep feelings Stressful Conversation:- • Clarity , neutrality, temperance • Be aware and focused • Respond, don’t react • Inquire and validate • State intention • State appreciation 8
  9. 9. 46 TELEPHONIC CONVERSATION:- • Keep short • Keep in mind the limitations • Speak at a moderate rate • Use vocal cues • Have a positive attitude • Understand the design of your instrument INTERVIEWS •Intrevue – sight between •Purposeful interpersonal communication •A meeting of persons face-to-face PURPOSES:- •To exchange information •To provide information •To advise •To counsel •To select a person for specific task •To monitor performance Types OF INTERVIEWS •Job •Information •Persuasive •Exit /Termination •Evaluation •Counseling •Conflict resolution •Disciplinary Conducting an Interview •Do’s •Analyze the Knowledge, Skills & abilities required for the job. •Study the resume to match requirements •Frame suitable questions for interview •Allow the candidate to become interactive •Establish rapport & encourage candidate 9
  10. 10. 46 •Be courteous, polite & professional •Conducting an Interview •Don’ts •Do not put the same question to all •Do not ask for unnecessary details •Do not try to display your knowledge •Do not ask too much personal •Do not loose your temper •Do not become exited or emotional •Do not make hurting comments EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW:- Stages •Screening of application , Appraisal of CV, Competency Tests, Psychological Tests •Group Discussion, Stage – wise interview, Negotiations •Medical Test Preparation FOR INTERVIEW Knowledge, skill, past performance, attitude Match yours with requirements Collect necessary information Prepare what you want to ask Carry note pad, pen, calculator copies of CV, testimonials, certificates etc. •Check your brief case •Dress up formally •Go through a mock interview •Memorize your resume •Be punctual •Relax Employer’s Expectations •Disposition •Career Objective •Subject Knowledge •General Knowledge •Communication Skills •Mental Agility 10
  11. 11. 46 •Consistency •Self-confidence Ten critical success factors •Positive attitude toward work •Proficiency in the field of study •Communication skills (Oral and Written) •Interpersonal Skills •Confidence •Critical thinking and problem solving skills •Flexibility •Self-motivation •Leadership •Teamwork Ten most common reasons for rejection •Arrogance •Apathy •Uninhibited nervousness •Equivocation •Lack of concentration •Lack of crispness •Lack of Social skills •Lack of firmness •Inadequate quantitative skills •Unsuitable personality Process (3 basic steps) Establishing Rapport Information Gathering Closing Types of Questions Closed/Open •Experience •Credential •Situation Related •Probing •Dumb •Behavioral •Link 11
  12. 12. 46 •Leading •Discriminatory Some Standard Questions Tell me about yourself Why should we hire you ? What do you want to be 10 or 15 years from now? What’s your greatest weakness? What qualities do you feel a successful manager should have? If you have to live your life again, what would you change? Recap •Why you feel you are the best candidate •Your interest in the position by asking for the job Follow up •Call the interviewer to thank him •Write to them Tips for Success •Be well prepared •Brush up your subject and general knowledge •Memorize your resume •Know about the company •Dress appropriately. Unless advised otherwise wear business attire. Limit make up, perfume/aftershave and jewelry •Be smart, clean, and well groomed •Carry a briefcase or neat folder containing all relevant papers •Show up 10-15 minutes early. In case you feel you may get delayed, call up and inform •When you meet your interviewer/s shake their hand confidently if offered •Stay calm, don’t fidget or twiddle your thumb •Be polite •Never chew gum or smoke during the interview •Be yourself, be honest •Show a real interest in the job •Be aware of all the answering techniques •Don’t answer a question you didn’t understand; ask for clarification first •Speak clearly using positive words/phrases such as enjoy, enthusiastic, positive attitude, excellence, striving to be my best, etc. •Use appropriately the top 5 nonverbal eye contact (shows interest and confidence) facial expression (tells about your delight and excitement), posture (reveals confidence and power potential), gestures, space (shows your respect to the interviewer and awareness about the organizational culture) •In the end, restate your interest in the job. Smile and thank the interviewers. 12
  13. 13. 46 PUBLIC SPEAKING •Steps for effective speaking:- •Plan your topic or subject •Know your objective & the audience •Know the consequences •Arrange your thoughts logically •Speak clearly with appropriate speed •Observe your audience for feedback •Continue if the feedback is positive •Revise it the feedback is negative Speaker should have answers for the following:- •What kind of person is my listener? •How much he knows about my topic? •What is his attitude to it? •What is my objective in talking to him? •Is my objective reasonable? •What will be the difficulty in understanding •Would I accept if I were in his shoes? •What kind of approach can convince him? Preparing a Speech  Fix the purpose, aim & time allotted  Gather relevant ideas  Set time limit for each section  Prepare material for visual aids  Allot time for Questions. Delivering a Good Speech •GENERAL:- First impression is the best impression and hence start confidently Have proper eye contact throughout  Do not focus on only one section of the audience Know the audience and use appropriate language Avoid use of unfamiliar words or jargons KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE •Who are the people in the audience? •What is the level of their education? •Their language proficiency 13
  14. 14. 46 •What is their interest? •What message you want to deliver? VOICE Clarity of expression Proper voice modulation to stress certain points Do not drop your voice Should the audible BODY LANGUAGE •POSITIVE BODY LANGUAGE •POSITIVE FACIAL EXPRESSIONS •POSITIVE POSTURES •POSITIVE MANNERISMS •POSITIVE EYE CONTACT CLOSING THE TALK Summarize your points A humorous close End with a climax Appeal for action METHODS OF DELIVERY Reading (academic reports, technical papers, research work) Memorizing - if speech is short Extempore - without preparation (Vote of thanks) Point Notes – (important points) GROUP COMMUNICATION Good organizational communication and interpersonal processes are crucial to organizational effectiveness. Effective communication is vital to all major management functions; it is especially important to the leading function as it is the channel for interaction with and impact upon others. Nature of communication: • Exchange of messages between people to achieve common meanings. • Unless meanings are shared, managers cannot influence others. • Therefore communication is critical to a manager’s job. • Managers spend up to 85% of their time communicating. 14
  15. 15. 46 Managers spend much time communicating in some form. Studies show that they prefer oral to written communication, largely because oral communication is more informal and timely. Managers serve as communication centres through the managerial roles such as monitor, disseminator and spokesperson Group Communication Networks Pattern of information flow among task-group members •Centralised networks: most messages pass through one person. Thy are applicable to simple and routine work and result in faster and accurate message conveyance. •Decentralised networks: applicable to complex works, free exchange of information in the circle and all channel facilitates the process and creativity. When tasks need several people’s input, managers must look at the communication network, the information flow patterns among task group members Managing groups: Formal groups Groups officially created by an organisation for a specific purpose. •Command/functional traditional work groups determined by formal authority relationships and depicted on the organizational chart, such as manager & subordinates. EXP: flight centre •Task groups: created for a specific purpose, supplementing or replacing work normally done by command groups –Permanent: standing committee or team –Temporary: task force Each organization work unit (manager and subordinates) is a command group that is linked to higher (in the hierarchy) command groups – in this way supervisors link lower-level and higher-level groups. A task group is a formal group set up to supplement or replace work normally undertaken by a command group—task groups can be permanent or temporary. Informal groups Groups established by employees (not the organisation) to serve members’ interests or social needs •Interest groups 15
  16. 16. 46 •Friendship groups: meet employee social needs An interest group is an informal group set up to help employees in common concerns. Such concerns can have a wide base, e.g. sport or a desire to have the firm change its policy. A friendship group is an informal group existing because of employee social needs. The groups stem from mutual attraction based on common characteristics such as similar work, backgrounds and/or values. How work groups operate? Several factors affect teamwork and formal work groups’ effectiveness. In analyzing these it helps to see groups as systems using inputs, engaging in many processes or transformations, and producing outcomes. Note: important outcomes are not just group performance measures such as quantity, quality and costs, but member satisfaction too. Work-group Inputs Work group composition (diversity): Two crucial selection factors are potential member characteristics and reasons for their attraction to the group. •Member characteristics Task-relevant skills Appropriate interpersonal skills Contribution to group diversity •Attraction to the group Identification of reason for wanting to join group as being appropriate to group task As work-group composition bears on a group’s ultimate success, managers must consider carefully who will be part of a group. Two crucial selection factors are potential member characteristics and reasons for their attraction to the group. Member roles: a set of behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. •Group task roles are roles helping a group develop and accomplish its goals For examples, Initiator-contributor, information giver, coordinator, energizer. •Group maintenance roles: helping foster group unity, positive interpersonal relations among group members and development of their ability to work effectively together. for example, encourager, harmonizer, gatekeeper, standard setter, group observer, follower • Self-oriented roles: roles related to the personal needs of group members and often negatively influencing group effectiveness. for example, aggressor, blocker, recognition seeker, and dominator 16
  17. 17. 46 Group size: • Size & group interaction Group size affects interaction • Size & performance free rider tendency: free riding: the larger the group size, the higher How work groups operate: Work-group Processes Why do some groups accomplish little, while others with similar inputs, a great deal? Rely on group process: the dynamic inner workings of the group As group members work, some energy goes into group development and operations. This is diverted from the task, and is known as process loss, as it is lost energy which could have been devoted to the task. •Positive Synergy Force resulting when combined gains from group interactions are greater than group- process losses •Negative synergy Force resulting when group-process losses are greater than gains achieved from combining the forces of the group Factors influencing Work-group Processes •Group norms: Expected behaviours sanctioned by a group that regulate and foster uniform member behaviour. •Group cohesiveness: Degree to which members are attracted to a group, are motivated to remain in it, and are mutually influenced by one another. For a behaviour to be a norm, members must see it as expected for group membership. Work groups do not use norms to regulate all behaviour. Rather they develop and enforce norms relating to central matters. For example, group norms develop about production processes. These norms relate to quality and quantity as well as how the job is done. Factors influencing Work-group Processes Group norms: •Consequences of group cohesion Organisational citizenship behaviours 17
  18. 18. 46 •Determinants of group cohesiveness Similar attitudes & values Mutual understandings External threats Size of group Factors influencing Work-group Processes •Group conflict will impact the performance •Conflict is not always bad. –Optimal and functional conflict will lead to high group performance (innovative) Promoting Innovation: Using Task Forces & TeamsTask force: Temporary task group formed to recommend on a specific issue. (MAY BE: ad hoc committee) (Work) Team: Temporary or ongoing task group with members charged to work together to identify problems, identify approach and implement necessary actions to achieve a goal. (MAY BE: entrepreneurial, self-managing, virtual) Groups are used when organisations can benefit from the experience and ideas of two or more people. Group efforts are increasingly tapped when creativity and innovation are needed for organisational success Why are work teams popular? A recent study shows that 80 per cent of organisations with over 100 employees reported that half their employees were on at least one team (Beyerlein and Harris 1998) •Create esprit de corps •Increase flexibility •Allow managers to do more strategic management •Take advantage of workforce diversity •Increase performance Characteristics of a Team •Purpose: product development, problem solving, reengineering, any other organisational purposes desired •Duration: permanent or temporary •Membership: functional or cross-functional •Structure –Self-leading 18
  19. 19. 46 –supervised Types of teams •Entrepreneurial (cross functional) team Group of individuals with diverse expertise and backgrounds brought together to develop & implement innovative ideas aimed to create new products or services or significantly improve existing ones. • •Self-managing team Work group with responsibility for a task area without supervision, and given authority to influence and control group membership and behaviour. Developing and Managing Effective Teams •Clear goals •Relevant skills •Mutual trust •Unified commitment •Good communication •Negotiating skills •Appropriate leadership •Internal and external support How to Manage Teams •Planning •Organising •Leading •Controlling BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1.PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS:- FILTERING –refers to sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION – people selectively interpret, what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. PREMATURE EVALUATION 19
  20. 20. 46 PERCEPTUAL DISTORTION DIFFERENT COMPREHENSION OF REALITY ABSTRACTING, SLANTING, INFERRING, POOR LISTENING, EGOTISM (Self-centeredness), EMOTIONS (positive & negative) ATTITUDES, OPINIONS & BELIEFS 2. PHYSICAL BARRIERS- Noise, Physical noise, indifference of the listener is called Psychological noise, bad handwriting is called Written noise, Late arrival of employees results in distraction of superior’s work is called Visual noise. Time & Distance between the sender and the receiver. 3.SEMANTIC BARRIERS- (Interpretation of words spoken or written) Different languages, faulty translation, assumptions, Attributing different meanings for same word & symbol. 4. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS- Organizational rules and regulations, Wrong choice of channel & medium. Hierarchical Relationship Status & Power difference Inadequate Communication network Lack of formal channels Barriers to Effective Listening •Inadequate proficiency in the language •Difficult physical conditions (noise) •Lack of interest in the speaker or topic •Selective listening •Presence of distracters •Apathy towards the speaker •Strong convictions blocking new ideas Communication Barriers and Ways to overcome them ORGANISATIONAL •Barriers Remedies Status & Power difference Climate of Trust Departmental needs & Goals Use formal channels Inadequate communication Encourage formal channels How to improve Communication in Organizations? –SENDING:- –Use (KISS principle) •Encoding in appropriate language 20
  21. 21. 46 •Encourage questions & feed back •Repeat messages if needed. How to improve communication? Use multiple channels While receiving messages ask questions to clarify doubts and also be prepared to listen to negative information. Inter-group communication should have openness between groups. Superior / subordinate communication can be improved by •Reducing status barriers •Provide full & complete information •Proper structuring of messages •Proper delegation of authority & responsibility Block-3. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Sharing of information is of utmost importance in any type of organization. Communication is the lifeblood of any organization. Communication can be internal, external, formal or informal. Planned communication among insiders (letters, reports, memos, e-mail) that follows company’s chain of command refers to formal internal communication and with outsiders is external communication. Internal and informal communication refers to the casual communication among employees that do not follow the company’s chain of command. External informal communication refers to the casual communication with suppliers, customers, investors, and others. Directions to communication in an organization are as follows:- 1. Downward communication (superiors to subordinates) 2. Upward communication (subordinates to superiors) 3. Horizontal communication (Peers) 4. Cross channel communication 5. Grapevine communication 6. Consensus (agreement) Grapevine  Single strand 21
  22. 22. 46  Gossip  Probability  Cluster Informal (Grapevine) Importance • Non expensive • Most rapid • Multidirectional • Barometer of public opinion • Outlet for anxiety worries Limitations • Degree of error • Baseless, nonfactual – harmful • Add to the facts • Misunderstanding (incomplete) • So swift – damage to organization How to use Grapevine? Supplement the formal channels do not ignore do not threaten identify main sources Realize human relationships Importance  Life line of business  measure of the success, growth  link within & outside  tangible product of the work  valuable repository of information  develops desirable qualities  reveals gaps in thinking INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Intercultural communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background leads them to interpret verbal and nonverbal signs differently. Two trends contributing to the rapidly increasing importance of intercultural communication in the workplace are market globalization and the multicultural workforce. Market globalization is the increasing tendency of the world to act as one market. Technological advances in travel and telecommunications are the driving force behind market globalization. For 22
  23. 23. 46 instance, new communication technologies allow teams from all over the world to work on projects and share information without leaving their desks. At the same time, advanced technologies allow manufacturers to produce their goods in foreign locations that offer an abundant supply of low-cost labor. The U.S. workforce is partly composed of immigrants (new arrivals from Europe, Canada, Latin America, India, Africa, and Asia) and people from various ethnic backgrounds (such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans), all of whom bring their own language and culture to the workplace. As a result, today’s workforce is made up of more and more people who differ in race, gender, age, culture, family structure, religion, and educational background. Such cultural diversity is the second trend contributing to the importance of intercultural communication. It affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted in the workplace. INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY Culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, and norms for behavior. You belong to several cultures. The most obvious is the culture you share with all the people who live in your own country. In addition, you also belong to other cultural groups, including an ethnic group, probably a religious group, and perhaps a profession that has its own special language and customs. All members of a culture have similar assumptions about how people should think, behave, and communicate. Cultures differ widely from group to group. Distinct groups that exist within a major culture are referred to as subcultures. Groups that might be considered subcultures in the United States are Mexican Americans, Mormons, wrestling fans, Russian immigrants, disabled persons, and Harvard graduates. Communication is strongly affected by culture. You can improve your ability to communicate effectively across cultures by recognizing cultural differences and then overcoming your own ethnocentrism—the tendency to judge all other groups according to your own group’s standards, behaviors, and customs. When making such comparisons, people too often decide that their group is superior. LEGAL AND ETHICAL BEHAOVIOUR Cultural context also influences legal and ethical behavior. For example, because low-context cultures value the written word, written agreements are binding. High-context cultures put less emphasis on the written word and consider personal pledges more important than contracts. They also tend to view law with flexibility; low-context cultures value the letter of the law. As you conduct business around the world, you’ll find that legal systems differ from culture to culture. These differences can be particularly important if your firm must communicate about a legal dispute in another country. When communicating across cultures, keep your messages ethical by applying four basic principles:  Actively seek mutual ground.  Send and receive messages without judgment.  Send messages that are honest. 23
  24. 24. 46  Show respect for cultural differences. SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR AND DIFFERENCES  Materialism  Roles  Status  Manners  Time The predominant U.S. view is that money solves many problems, that material comfort (earned by individual effort) is a sign of superiority, and that people who work hard are better than those who don’t. However, many societies condemn materialism, and some prize a more carefree lifestyle. Culture dictates the roles people play, including who communicates with whom, what they communicate, and in what way. Culture also dictates how people show respect and signify rank. What is polite in one culture may be considered rude in another. Therefore, the concept of good manners varies widely from culture to culture. Conducting business entails schedules, deadlines, and appointments, but these matters are regarded differently from culture to culture. NON VERBAL COMMUNCATION & CULTURE Nonverbal communication is a reliable way to determine meaning, but that reliability is valid only when the communicators belong to the same culture. The simplest hand gestures change meaning across cultures, so interpreting nonverbal elements according to your own culture can be dangerous. Consider the concept of personal space. People in Canada and the United States usually stand about five feet apart during a business conversation. However, this distance is uncomfortably close for people from Germany or Japan and uncomfortably far for Arabs and Latin Americans. Gestures help members of a culture clarify confusing messages, but differences in body language can be a major source of misunderstanding during intercultural communication. Don’t assume that someone from another culture who speaks your language has mastered your culture’s body language. People from different cultures may misread an intentional nonverbal signal, overlook the signal entirely, or assume that a meaningless gesture is significant. Recognizing cultural differences helps you avoid sending inappropriate signals and helps you correctly interpret the signals from others—an important step toward improving intercultural sensitivity. Overcoming Ethnocentrism •Accept Distinctions, Avoid Assumptions, Avoid Judgments When communicating across cultures, your effectiveness depends on maintaining an open mind. Unfortunately, many people lapse into ethnocentrism. They lose sight of the possibility that their words and actions can be misunderstood, and they forget that they are likely to misinterpret the actions of others. 24
  25. 25. 46 When you first begin to investigate the culture of another group, you may attempt to understand the common tendencies of that group’s members by stereotyping—predicting individuals’ behavior or character on the basis of their membership in a particular group or class. Unfortunately, when ethnocentric people stereotype, they tend to do so on the basis of limited, general, or inaccurate evidence. In order to overcome ethnocentrism, follow a few simple suggestions: • Acknowledge and accept distinctions. Don’t ignore the differences between another person’s culture and your own. • Avoid assumptions. Don’t assume that others will act the same way you do, that they will operate from the same assumptions, or that they will use language and symbols the same way you do. • Avoid judgments. When people act differently, don’t conclude that they are in error, that their way is invalid, or that their customs are inferior to your own. DOING BUSINESS ABROAD Once you can recognize cultural elements and overcome ethnocentrism, you’re ready to focus on your intercultural communication skills. To communicate more effectively with people from other cultures, study other cultures, overcome language barriers, and develop intercultural communication skills, both written and oral. Use the following to communicate more effectively: • Assume differences until similarity is proved. Don’t assume that others are more similar to you than they actually are. • Take responsibility for communication. Don’t assume it’s the other person’s job to communicate with you. o Withhold judgment. Learn to listen to the whole story and accept differences in others without judging them. o Show respect. Learn how respect is communicated in various cultures (through gestures, eye contact, and so on). o Empathize. Before sending a message, put yourself in the receiver’s shoes. Imagine the receiver’s feelings and point of view. o Tolerate ambiguity. Learn to control your frustration when placed in an unfamiliar or confusing situation. • Look beyond the superficial. Don’t be distracted by things such as dress appearance, or environmental discomforts. o Be patient and persistent. If you want to communicate with someone from another culture, don’t give up easily. o Recognize your own cultural biases. Learn to identify when your assumptions are different from the other person’s. o Be flexible. Be prepared to change your habits and attitudes when communicating with someone from another culture 25
  26. 26. 46 • Emphasize common ground. Look for similarities to work from. Send clear messages. Make both your verbal and nonverbal signals clear and consistent. o Deal with the individual. Communicate with each person as an individual, not as a stereotypical representative of another group. o Learn when to be direct. Investigate each culture so that you'll know when to send • your message in a straightforward manner and when to be indirect. o Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis. Once you think you understand a foreign culture, carefully assess the feedback provided by recipients of your communication to see if it confirms your hypothesis. COMMUNICATION BARRIERS By choosing specific words to communicate, you signal that you are a member of a particular culture or subculture and that you know the code. The nature of your code—your language and vocabulary—imposes its own barriers on your message. When U.S. businesspeople deal with individuals who use English as a second language, misunderstandings are likely to involve vocabulary, pronunciation, or usage. Languages never translate word for word. They are idiomatic—constructed with phrases that mean more than the sum of their literal parts. When speaking to people less fluent in your language, try to choose words carefully to convey only their most specific denotative meaning. Even when other people speak your language, you may have a hard time understanding their pronunciation. Vocal variations can block communication because some people use their voices differently from culture to culture. U.S. workers typically prefer an open and direct communication style and consider anything else to be dishonest or insincere. Workers from other cultures, such as Japanese or Chinese, tend to be more indirect. In general, U.S. businesspeople will want to be somewhat more formal in their international correspondence than they would be when writing to people in their own country. To compete globally, many European businesses are making English their official language. Some multinational companies ask all their employees to use English when writing to employees in other countries, regardless of where they’re located. Even though English is widely spoken in the global business marketplace, the language of business is the language of the customer. And increasingly, that language may not be English. If you’re planning to live in another country or to do business there often, you might want to learn the language. The same holds true if you’ll be working closely with a subculture that has its own language. Even if you’re doing business in your own language, you show respect by making the effort to learn the subculture’s language, or at least to learn a few words. Many forms of written communication must be translated: for example, advertisements, warranties, repair and maintenance manuals, and product labels. Experienced translators can analyze a message, understand its meaning in the cultural context, consider how to convey the meaning in another language, and then use verbal and nonverbal signals to encode or decode the message for someone from another culture. 26
  27. 27. 46 The option of teaching other people to speak your language doesn’t appear to be very practical at first glance. However, many companies find it beneficial to offer English language training programs. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:- When sending written communication to businesspeople from another culture, familiarize yourself with their written communication preferences and adapt your approach, style, and tone to meet your audiences’ expectations. To help you prepare effective written communications, follow these recommendations: 1. Use plain English: short, precise words that say exactly what you mean. 2. Be clear by using specific terms and concrete examples. 3. Address international correspondence properly. 4. Cite numbers carefully. Use figures (27) instead of spelling them out twenty-seven). 5. Avoid slang, idioms, jargon, and buzzwords. 6. Be brief. Construct sentences that are shorter and simpler than those you might use when writing to someone fluent in your own language. 7. Use short paragraphs. Each paragraph should stick to one topic and be no more than eight to ten lines long. 8. Use transitional elements. Help readers follow your train of thought by using transitional words and phrases. When speaking in English to people who speak English as a second language, you may find these guidelines helpful:  Try to eliminate noise. Pronounce words clearly, stop at distinct punctuation points, and  make one point at a time.  Look for feedback. Be alert to signs of confusion in your listener.  Speak slowly and rephrase your sentence when necessary. If someone doesn’t seem to understand you, choose simpler words; don’t just repeat the sentence in a louder voice.  Clarify your true intent with repetition and examples. Try to be aware of unintentional meanings that may be read into your message.  Don’t talk down to the other person. Try not to over-enunciate, and don’t “blame” the  listener for not understanding.  Use objective, accurate language. Avoid adjectives such as fantastic and fabulous, which  people from other cultures might consider unreal and overly dramatic.  ]Learn foreign phrases. Learn common greetings and a few simple phrases in the other person’s native language. 27
  28. 28. 46  Listen carefully and patiently. Let others finish what they have to say. If you interrupt, you may miss something important or show disrespect.  Adapt your conversation style to the other person’s. For instance, if the other person appears to be direct and straightforward, follow suit.  Check frequently for comprehension. Make one point at a time and pause to check of comprehension before moving on.  Clarify what will happen next. At the end of the conversation, be sure that you and the other person agree on what has been said and decided.  Observe body language. Be alert to roving eyes, glazed looks, and other facial expressions that signal the listener is lost or confused. MANAGERIAL MEETINGS WHEN to call a meeting? Call a meeting when there is a definite purpose. It may be to reconcile conflicting views, to communicate sensitive information that might be distorted if any other channel is used, to take a decision or solve a problem or to create new ideas through brain storming. Purpose of Business Meetings:-  To share information  To collaborate – review, evaluate, discuss, decide  To achieve and make impact  To build and share a common reality Planning of Business Meetings:-  Be clear with objectives : specific objective  Create an agenda : business to be transacted  Prepare in advance : data, steps, details to be collected, strategies to control, time, venue, participants, equipment  Plan, discuss and assign roles : facilitator, recorder, leader, participant , time-keeper OTHER TYPES OF MEETINGS:- • INFORMAL (Unstructured and without powers to take action) • FORMAL (Structured meetings) • STATUTORY MEETINGS (Required by law such as AGM and other Company meetings) • MEETINGS OF SHAREHOLDERS 28
  29. 29. 46 1. Annual General Meeting 2. Extraordinary General meeting (matter of urgency which cannot be postponed to next annual general meeting) 3. Class meeting:- of a particular class of share holders- perennial share holder • MEETINGS OF DIRECTORS 1. Board meetings to be held at regular intervals 2. Committee meetings to take decisions • MEETINGS OF CREDITORS 1. Meetings of debenture holders 2. Meetings of creditors Requirements for a valid meeting:- • Proper authority • Proper notice and agenda • Quorum • Chairman • Minutes How to prepare an agenda? Agenda gives the framework within which the discussion will take place and what should be transacted in a meeting. It helps the attendees to plan and come for the meeting regarding the matters of discussion. It should include:- • The names of expected attendees • Exact Place & Date of meeting • Rough indication of time for each item • The time of Commencement and culmination • Objectives of the Meeting • The issues to be discussed and resolved in the meeting. Categories of meetings:- • MEETING TO INFORM about a policy or a decision already made. • MEETING TO PERSUADE or influence the members to accept certain proposal. • CONSULTATIVE MEETING to find out an acceptable solution to a problem. • INQUIRING MEETING to look for information Arranging a Meeting:- 29
  30. 30. 46  Objectives of the meeting has to be made clear to help the members to get prepared.  Adequate notice and Agenda should be distributed to members.  Venue, time and duration of the meeting has to be clearly informed well in advance.  Leader of the meeting should be identified Duties of Chairman in a Meeting 1. Start the meeting on time 2. Define the purpose of the meeting 3. Ensure the proper conduct of the meeting, and those present have the right to attend 4. Make sure that a quorum is present 5. See that the agenda is followed 6. Ensure that the minutes have been made Remain impartial 7. All members have equal chance to speak 8. Insist that all motions (proposals put before a meeting), amendments, and remarks are addressed to the chairperson. 9. Put motions & amendments to vote and announce the results 10. Make frequent summaries 11. Declare the meeting closed at the end CONTENTS OF MINUTES Minutes represent the actual business transacted in a meeting. This is a documentary evidence in support of the activities of the meeting and acts as a reference for the subsequent meetings. There are two types of minutes: Narrative minutes and Decision minutes. Narrative minutes aims to capture the entire discussion in a summary form. They record who said what and when? Decision minutes record only the decisions taken, the names of people responsible for implementing them and the deadline for action. Standard parts of minutes:-  Where and when the meeting was held  The names of attendees  Apologies from non-attendees  The decisions taken along with details of who should implement them by when?  Name and signature of the person writing the minutes. ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 30
  31. 31. 46 First AGM must be held within 18 months of the incorporation and thereafter within 6 months from the end of financial year. The maximum gap between the consecutive meetings should not be more than 15 months. The purpose of AGM is to inform the members about the general performance of the company. Apart from this the following business also takes place:-  Approval of annual report containing annual accounts  Appointment of directors in place of those retiring  Appointment of Auditors and their remuneration  Declaration of dividend The AGM should be called during business hours, on a working day (not a public holiday) at a specified place mentioned in the notice Secretarial Duties relating to AGM 1. Before the Meeting:-  To get annual accounts prepared and signed by directors, and submit to the Auditors for attestation.  To prepare directors’ report and get auditors’ report  Draft notice and agenda  To print notice and report and to issue at least 21 days before meeting date.  To advertise the holding of AGM in the Press  To look after the preliminary work of the dividend distribution  To receive and register and proxy form 1.During the AGM;- The Company Secretary has:-  To ensure quorum for the meeting  To read the notice of the meeting and directors report  To take notes of the proceedings of the meeting  To supply necessary documents, information and explanation 3. After the AGM  Prepare the minutes and get signature of chairman within 30days.  File the required documents and annual return with the registrar of companies within 60 days of meeting  Ensure dispatch of dividend warrants. 31
  32. 32. 46 BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS How to plan your presentation? PLANNING  Identify your purpose - achieve  Analyze audience,  Identify the need,  Collate your information, (assemble & arrange)  Design your communication,  Time your presentation,  Decide & organize the visual aids to be used.  Study the location) PRACTICE- rehearsing the presentation DELIVERY OF PRESENTATION STAR strategy is putting your presentation through five filters.  WHO, WHY, WHERE and WHEN before you touch WHAT?  WHO is the first and most important filter. It is a cluster of related questions such as Who is your audience? How many will be there? How old are they and their composition? Who are the opinion leaders among them?  What is their educational level? How much they know about the topic of presentation? What language are they comfortable in? What is likely to be their attitude? What are they looking for in your presentation?  WHO are you to them? How well do they know you? Do they accept you as an expert or consider you as a threat? What is their relationship to you? Are they attending because they are compelled to do so or on their own wish?  WHY? is the next filter. Why are you making this presentation? Is it to inform, persuade, sell, or justify an action or to project corporate image?  Why has another dimension. Why are they here? What benefit do they expect from the presentation? 32
  33. 33. 46  WHERE is the presentation made? Are you familiar with it? Is it air conditioned? Is it quiet or noisy? What kind of equipments are available? Can this suit the purpose? What kind of seating arrangement is provided? Is that what you want?  Is electricity reliable? Is back up power available?  WHEN is it going to be delivered? Is it before or after lunch? What is the duration of presentation?  WHAT? will interest the audience? What will win them over? What level of detail will they need? What type of visual aids will be required? MOM plan to prepare notes for presentation (MUST, OUGHT, MAY BE)  As you prepare notes, mark in red in the margin the core ideas the must be presented no matter what happens.  Mark in green those ideas that may be presented if you get a little extra time and dropped if you want to cut short.  The rest is what ought to be presented along with the core in the event of your presentation going on expected lines. Full version PPt - (Must+Ought+May be) Standard version - (Must + ought) Core version - (Must only) HOW TO STRUCTURE BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS INTRODUCTION:- (AIDA for effective communication)  Should arose interest in the audience  Establish rapport and motivate them to listen on and  Make the body of presentation easy to understand BODY OF PRESENTATION Message transfer HOW TO DELIVER PRESENTATIONS  Reading Aloud (not effective)  Speaking from memory (limitations)  Speaking from Notes or with OHP or Power Point Presentations. 33
  34. 34. 46  Proper voice, postures, gestures, facial expressions, body language, & positive eye contact with the audience.  Appropriate attire during presentation Visual supports for presentations:- White Board for writing, drawing wiping and reusing. You should not talk and write at the same time. Flip charts, OHP, Computers and multimedia, LCD projectors, Models of real objects etc. How to use visuals?  Visuals used should be relevant to the presentation.  It should only support the presentation rather than dominate  You should not turn out to be an operator with out explanations  Visuals should be appealing, simple and uncluttered.  Maximum number of words that can appear on slide: 7 x 7 (7 lines and 7 words on a line) – Do not read. How to handle questions? Prepare answers for expected questions or frequently asked questions. Don’t lose your cool and do not put anyone down Block-4. BUSINESS WRITING •Functions of a letter:- •To communicate ideas & information without personal contact. •To record communication in permanent form. •It acts as a valid future reference and as a documentary evidence when required.  Writing is crucial to modern organizations  Reports, proposals, manuals, plans, memos, letters, e-mails, notices, circulars, websites  Inform, persuade, sustain relationships, record  convey routine matters, goodwill messages, positive, negative messages 34
  35. 35. 46 Written Communication:-  Fax  E-mail  Memorandum  Notice  Circular  Press release  Letter  Report  Proposal  Research paper  TYPES OF MESSAGES  Positive or good news : reflects goodwill (appreciation, sympathy, thanks, etc.)  Negative or bad news messages: undesirable / disappointing ( denials, rejection, refusal, etc.)  Neutral or routine messages: important but least emotional ( acknowledgements, inquiries, requests)  Persuasive or influential messages: motivate or make others agree ( proposals, replacement, buy, etc.) APPROACHES TO WRITING Direct approach  Used when writing to inform  Details arranged in the decreasing order of importance  Both positive and neutral messages Indirect approach  Mostly to convey negative information  Also used to persuade  Reasons first and then action STAGES IN WRITING  Prewriting : purpose, readers, data, organize, outline  Drafting : right balance, right words, tailoring language to the audience  Revising: process of modifying, increase effectiveness  Formatting: appearance, design elements, professional look, appropriate to specific message  Proofreading: read from printed copy, allow time, read aloud, double check names, spellings, punctuation, etc. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE 35
  36. 36. 46  Give importance to readers : reader’s background, relationship, needs  Keep to the point: clarity of objectives, outline  Set the right tone: friendly & efficient  Write a strong opening : gain attention, most important information first, should stand out  End emphatically : polite and business-like note, summarize key points WRITING STRATEGIES  State the main business / purpose / subject  Keep paragraphs short  Provide topic indicators  Place important information strategically  Focus on recipient’s needs  Give an action ending whenever appropriate COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER Salutation Matching 1. Heading 5. Body of the letter 2. Inside address 6. Complimentary close 3. Salutation 7. Enclosures 4. Subject / reference line 8. Copies Complimentary close Sir Madam Dear Sir & Sirs Dear Madam Ladies & Gentlemen Yours faithfully Dear Mr Mohan Dear Ms Mary Dear Dr Reddy Dear Prof John Yours sincerely Dear Preethi (Yours) cordially Dear Vivek (Yours) sincerely Do not end your letters routinely with ‘thanking you’ as it is a hollow phrase. Do not end a formal letters with “regards”, with warm regards, or a related variant. Regards refers to friendly feelings. They don’t go together any mor than a suit and a bathroom slippers. STYLES OF LAYOUT:- •Layout is the design in which different parts of letter are placed on the letterhead. •Indented Form (oldest & now outdated) •Full Block Form (most modern style) every line starts from left margin, address has no punctuation at the end of the line, salutation & complementary close do not have a coma at the end. Para separated by double line spacing. 36
  37. 37. 46 •Modified Block form (modification of full block form) Inside address in block form, salutation & complementary close followed by a comma. All paragraphs begin at the left margin, and separated •by double line spacing. This is also a popular form as the appearance is streamlined and neat. •Semi-indented form  Inside address will be in the block form but the paragraph is indented.  The date and complementary close are on the right side.  Salutation and complementary close are followed by comma. •HANGING INDENTION FORM:- Inside address in block form •Date & complementary close on right •Paragraph starts from left margin, but the subsequent lines of every para are indented three to five spaces. •This style is used for sales letters, to hang out the opening line of every para. •NOMA Form (recommended by National Office Management Association of America and accepted in UK, not popular in India. •It resembles the full block form & all lines begin at the left margin, and the inside address is in the block form. Special features of NOMA form •No salutation or complementary close •Subject line in Capitals three lines below the inside address. •Numbered items begin in the left margin, no full stop at the end of each item •The writer’s name and title are typed in capitals in one line below the space for signature. •Typist’s initials in the left bottom corner. COMMON TYPES OF LETTERS  Routine letters : seeking / giving information  Covering letters : job application, sending some documents  Thank you / follow up letters  Acceptance / rejection letters  Resignation letters  Inquiry / complaint / adjustment letters PERSUASIVE LETTERS:- 37
  38. 38. 46  To convince the reader  Likely to grant – easy / likely to reject - difficult  Three purposes : to make the reader act, to build a good image, create a good relationship  Four important things : details of your request, facts about the reader, specific action desired, any possible objections TEN CHECK POSTS FOR A GOOD BUSINESS LETTER  STURCTURE: Is the structure logical? Are the ideas clear and easy to understand? Is each para built around one main idea? Is the transmission from one point to another point smooth?  ORIENTATION: Is it reader-oriented? Does it take into account and subtly project the interests and needs of the reader?  LENGTH: Is it longer than a page? If so try to trim it to a page.  COVERAGE: Is the letter complete? Is all the relevant information given?  STYLE: Is the style appropriate to the occasion, purpose and person reading it?  TONE: Is the tone polite, warm and friendly or is it unconcerned?  LANGUAGE: Does the language of your letter follow the usual rules of grammar, vocabulary, and punctuation? Is it easy to understand?  LOOKS: Does it look attractive? Is the stationery decent? Is the typing well in order and the format pleasing to the eye?  CREATIVITY: Does the letter reflect a thinking mind? Or is the text full of worn- out phrases?  EFFECTIVENESS: Is it persuasive? Is it the kind of letter you would like to receive? Inter Office Memos (letters within the organization) • Brief communication within organization • Classification: documentary, congratulatory, disciplinary • Purposes: information sharing, decision making, submitting short reports, making requests Memo style:- • Keep in mind the degree of formality 38
  39. 39. 46 • Use informal or conversational style • Use friendly tone and courtesy • Use neutral and positive tone • Avoid pompous / technical / complex words • Sound cordial, straightforward and lucid • Keep short A letter that goes out of the Organization is like a meal at a Hotel where formalities have to be kept up. A memo is like a home meal which is not elaborate, simple and informal. In IOMs we drop addresses, salutations, complimentary closes, even full signatures. The language tends to be simple and direct as it is within a family. Certain large companies use printed IOM to ensure certain basic information. Memo is the short form of memorandum means “to be remembered or noted” and are the letters and notes to people within the company All memos should carry the following basic information: To, From, Date, Subject. Memos are used for a variety of purposes such as reporting briefly on an investigation, confirming oral instructions, confirming oral agreements, etc Form of an Inter-Office Memo 2 Nov 04 To V.K. Kumar – G.M. (Marketing) From: K.V. Ramchandran Acceptance of Job order no 234 We can consider accepting the Job order no. 234 for 2000 Pieces of embossed Leather bags only @ Rs. 1000/- (one Thousand) or else we will end up in a loss. Please contact the party to revise the price and let me know. Your response is awaited. Sd/- OFFICE CIRCULARS:- These are the most common form of inter departmental communication used to inform a group of employees. They are in fact letters or notices usually presented, and addressed to a number of persons in the organization. Office circulars carry the same information to large number of employees in the organization. They are either displayed in the notice board or circulated among the staff in the organization. The usual circulars are, change of office hours, change of rules, pay revision etc. E-Mail style and structure: 39
  40. 40. 46 • Brief • Use appropriate tone : audience and purpose • Avoid spelling and grammar errors • Be aware of smileys, emticons, acronyms jargons • Introduction, main idea, conclusion E-mail etiquettes • Answer swiftly • Do not overuse reply to all • Use templates for frequently used responses • Use proper structure and layout • Identify yourself and topic • Provide all information • Use appropriate language features • Do not use all features unnecessarily • Read before sending BUSINESS QUOTATIONS •Points to be noted:- •Product specifications & Price •Validity period for Quotation (30 days) •Mode & Terms of Payment (cash, credit, through bank, hundi) •Delivery time (with in 15 days on receipt of order) •Delivery terms (FOR, FOB, Ex-Factory etc, CIF) •Transportation arrangements •Taxes & other duties, octroi & other levies While drafting letter of offer and quotations, consider the following:- 1. Reply promptly, if it is a solicited quotation 2. Refer to the date and ref. no of the other party’s letter 3. Submit reasonable offers that can persuade the party to buy 4. Be specific about all the requirements relating to the quotation. 5. Be clear about the various terms used in quoting pries. Block-5. BUSINESS PROPOSALS  Written document to persuade the reader to accept a suggested plan of action  Persuasive presentation for consideration of something 40
  41. 41. 46  A written sales offer to sell ideas or services TYPES OF BUSINESS PROPOSALS  Internal : within organization, less voluminous than external, not all details required, memo / manuscript  External : written to person / organization outside, detailed, letter / manuscript form  Solicited : arises out of specific demand, understanding of customer’s needs important  Unsolicited: sent without the recipient’s demand, should persuade the reader Like reports, proposals have an introduction, a body, and a closing. The content for each section is governed by many variables—the key variable being the source of your proposal. If your proposal is unsolicited, you have some latitude in the scope and organization of the proposal’s content. However, the scope and organization of a solicited proposal is often governed by the Request for Proposal (RFP). The RFP spells out precisely what should be covered and in what order so that all bids will be similar in form. This uniformity enables the client to evaluate the competing proposals in a systematic way The general purpose of any proposal is to persuade the readers to do something. Your proposal must sell your audience on your ideas, product, service, methods, and company. Just as with any persuasive message, you use the AIDA plan to gain attention, build interest, create desire, and motive action. Here are some additional strategies to strengthen your argument: Demonstrate your knowledge. Everything you write should show your reader that you have the knowledge and experience to solve the problem. Provide concrete examples. Avoid vague, unsupported generalizations. Instead, provide quantifiable details. Spell out your plan and give details on how the job will be done. Such concrete examples persuade readers; unsupported generalizations don’t. Research the competition. This strategy is especially important if you are competing against others for a job. Prove that your proposal is workable. Your proposal must be appropriate and feasible for the audience. Adopt a “you” attitude. Relate your product, service, or personnel to the reader’s exact needs. Package your proposal attractively. Make sure your proposal is letter perfect, inviting, and readable. PROPOSAL INTRODUCTION The introduction presents and summarizes the problem you want to solve and your solutions. It orients the readers to the remainder of the text. If your proposal is solicited, its introduction should refer to the RFP; if unsolicited, its introduction should mention any factors that led you to submit your proposal. The following topics are commonly covered in a proposal introduction: Background or statement of the problem. Briefly reviews the reader's situation and establishes a need for action. Readers may not perceive a problem or opportunity the same way you do. In unsolicited proposals, you must convince them that a problem or opportunity exists before you can convince them to accept your solution. In a way that is meaningful to your reader, discuss the current situation and explain how things could be better. Solution. Briefly describes the change you propose and highlights your key selling points and their benefits, showing how your proposal will solve the reader's problem. In long proposals, the heading for this section might also be "Preliminary Analysis," “Overview of Approach,” or some other wording that will identify this section as a summary of your solution. 41
  42. 42. 46 Scope. States the boundaries of the proposal––what you will and will not do. This brief section may also be labeled "Delimitations.” Report organization. Orients the reader to the remainder of the proposal and calls attention to the major divisions of thought. PROPOSAL BODY The proposal’s body has the same purpose as the body of other reports: It gives complete details on the proposed solution and specifies what the anticipated results will be. In addition to providing facts and evidence to support your conclusions, an effective body covers this information: Proposed approach. This section describes what you have to offer: your concept, product, or service. Show how your product or service will benefit your readers, and point out advantages that you have over your competitors. Work plan. Describes how you'll accomplish what must be done. Explain the steps you'll take, their timing, the methods or resources you'll use, and the person(s) responsible. Statement of qualifications. Describes your organization's experience, personnel, and facilities—all in relation to readers' needs. Costs. Estimating costs is difficult, so prove that your costs are realistic. Break them down in detail. Then, your readers can see how you got your numbers: so much for labor, materials, transportation, travel, training, and other categories. PROPOSAL CLOSING The final section of a proposal generally summarizes the key points of the proposal, emphasizes the benefits that the readers will realize from your solution, summarizes the merits of your approach, reemphasizes why you and your firm are the ones to do the work, and asks for a decision from the client. This is you last opportunity to persuade readers to accept your proposal. In both formal and informal proposals, make this section relatively brief, assertive, and confident. Three step WRITING PROCESS:- • As with other business messages, when writing reports and proposals you benefit from following the three-step writing process: (1) planning, Analyzing, Investigating, Adapting (2) writing, Organizing, Composing, Designing (3) completing business messages, Revising, Producing, Proofreading COMPONENTS OF A Business Proposal  Title page  Executive summary  Introduction  Statement of need 42
  43. 43. 46  Project description  Project management  Budget  Qualifications  Conclusion  Appendix  Special section if any REPORTS  Transmits information to various levels  Acts as an important management tool for decision making process  Facilitates co-ordination & control of activities in an Organization  It is indispensable for any type of organization  What Is the Purpose of the Report? To Inform, to persuade, to recommend, to confirm, to analyze, to summarise Types of Reports Routine Reports Special Reports •Progress reports FIR •Inspection reports Investigation •Performance Feasibility •Periodical reports Survey reports •Evaluation reports Research reports Project reports Formal & informal reports, Short or long reports, Informational or analytical reports, Proposal reports, Vertical or lateral reports, Internal or external reports, Periodic reports, Functional reports like accounting reports, marketing reports, financial reports etc, Report Writing •Reports by Individual Managers •Reports by Groups •Reports by Committees •Reports by Task forces & Team leaders •Reports by Chairman & MD •Reports by Auditors •Reports by Company Secretary INDIVIDUAL REPORTS •Prepared by the individuals responsible for the respective function:- •Sales Reports 43
  44. 44. 46 •Accounting Reports •Compliance Reports •Interview Reports •Accident Reports •Status Reports Parts of long formal report •Cover •Title Page •Certificates from Organization & College/Institute •Declaration of the candidate •Acknowledgments •Table of Contents •List of Tables, List of Graphs •Abstract & Executive Summary •Introduction •Discussion/Description (Chapters) •Conclusion •Findings •Recommendations •Appendix •List of References •Bibliography •Glossary •Index Block-6. EFFECTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON COMMUNICATION Importance  Pivotal role in various organizational functions  Revolutionizing communication  Fast, less expensive, easy reach  Collect information, serve customers, promote products  Accounting, storing, research, planning  Plenty of tools / facilities available Types of Technological Tools 44
  45. 45. 46  Telephone & voice mail  Software  Mobile / cellular phones  Internet  Facsimile machines  Video conferencing  Desktop  Web conferencing  Laptop  Instant messaging  Personal Digital Assistants  Email  Groupware POSITIVE IMPACT  Access to more information for more people  24-hour access possible  Direct contact / quick communication  Faster decision making  Enhanced team effectiveness  Covers all geographical areas  Lot of functions and facilities NEGATIVE IMPACT  Information overload  Delay in other activities  Blurring lines between personal and business lives  People isolation  Technophobia   Computer applications in Business Presentations With today's powerful computers, it's faster and easier than ever to produce good-looking visuals. Aside from speed, accuracy, and ease of use, another big advantage of using software to prepare visuals is the ability to save the results and use the visuals over and over again in various reports. For all the power and possibilities they offer, computer-graphics tools are not without some potential drawbacks. Using this equipment efficiently and effectively requires skills that many businesspeople, including the ability to use hardware and software and to make good design decisions. Many software products have become easier to use, but most continue to offer more and more options—type of chart, color and design of the background, typefaces, line weights, and so on. Most businesspeople lack the visual arts training to make informed design decisions; moreover, making all those choices takes time. Before you take advantage of any computer-graphics tools, think about the kind of image you want to project. The style of your visuals communicates a subtle message about your relationship with the audience. The image you want to project should determine the visual you create. To create effective visuals, become conscious of both the aesthetic and the symbolic aspects of graphic art so that you won't send the wrong message. Here are a few principles to be aware of: Continuity. Readers view a series of visuals as a whole, assuming that design elements will be consistent from one page to the next. 45
  46. 46. 46 Contrast. Readers expect visual distinctions to match verbal ones. To emphasize differences, depict items in contrasting colors: red and blue, black and white. But to emphasize similarities, make color difference more subtle. Emphasis. Readers assume that the most important point will receive the most visual emphasis. So present the key item on the chart in the most prominent way—through color, position, size, or whatever. Visually downplay less important items. Simplicity. Limit the number of colors and design elements you use, and take care to avoid chartjunk, decorative elements that clutter documents (and confuse readers) without adding any relevant information. Experience. Culture and education condition people to expect things to look a certain way, including visuals. Every visual you use should be clearly referred to by number in the text of your report. Help your readers understand the significance of visuals by referring to them before they appear in the text. The reference helps readers understand why the table or chart is important. Try to position your visuals so that your audience won't have to flip back and forth too much between the visuals and the text. Ideally, it’s best to place each visual right beside or right after the paragraph it illustrates so that readers can consult the explanation and the visual at the same time. Make sure each visual is clearly and correctly referred to in the text. If you have four or more visuals, prepare a separate list that can be placed with the table of contents at the front of the report. One of the best ways to tie your visuals to the text is to choose titles (or captions) and descriptions (or legends) that reinforce the point you want to make, especially when text and visuals are widely separated. If you're using informative headings in your report, carry this style over into the titles and legends. Regardless of whether your titles and legends are informative or descriptive, phrase them consistently throughout the report. At the same time, be consistent in your format. Any visuals that you have included are present to help your readers absorb, understand, and accept your message. Their appearance is crucial to your message's success, so be sure to check visuals for mistakes such as typographical errors, inconsistent color treatment, and alignment. Also take a few extra minutes to make sure that your visuals are necessary, absolutely accurate, properly documented, and honest. Computer applications in Business Communication •Writing and Storing documents •Manipulating data •Generating Accounting information •Processing information as per requirement •Computer network (LAN, WAN, Internet) •E-mail service & E-Business •Connectivity between firms & clients •Transfer of funds, Market developments Electronic Communication •Word Processing (transformation of ideas into written Communication using computer) 46
  47. 47. 46 •Desk Top Publishing (DTP) is an advancement over word processing for technical & design functions, printing of charts, tables, graphs etc. •Telex installations, Tel. answering machines •Facsimile Telegraphy or Fax •Voice mail, Voice recognition software •Teleconferencing (audio & Video conferencing) Threats of Computer Communication Hacking (unauthorized access to data) Inadequate network security Introducing Virus to corrupt the data Authentication through password Leakage of confidential information Books referred for preparing the above Lecture notes:- 1. Business Communication by Meenakshi Raman & Prakesh Singh 2. Business Communication Today by Bovee, Thill & Schatzman 3. Business Communication Stragies by Matthukutty M Monipally 4. Craft of Business Letter writing by Matthew M Monipally 5. Business Communication by R.K. Madhkar 6. Essentials of Business Communication by Rajendra Pal & J.S. Korlahalli 47