Sherise KoneferenisiNational University - SPD 608 1.30.13 Mary Worth
Dys: absenceLexia:language The Greek origin combines „dys‟ & „lexia‟ meaning an absence of language
According to the International Dyslexia Association and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Dyslexia is defined as: a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition poor spelling and decoding abilities these difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language
Adolph Kussmaul (German neurologist) considered 1878 adults with reading problems & neurological“word blindness” impairment to have “word blindness” Rudolf Berlin (German 1887 opthalmologist) was the 1st to use the term “dyslexia” “dyslexia” Dr. Orton (American neurologist) 1st to 1925 recognize that children with reading difficulties“strephosymbolia” often reversed letters, called “strephosymbolia”
1900’s Dr. Orton also introduced the term “developmental alexia” to describe“developmental children with reading alexia” difficulties 1930’s The term “dyslexia” became a more common “dyslexia” term used in literature Children with literacy Mid difﬁculties began to be considered under the 1900’s jurisdiction of educational & psychological research
Click on the icon onthe left to be directedto a short informationaldocumentary.The documentaryincludes both adultsand children with thedyslexia and thedifficulties that theyface.
Although medicine continues to play a prominent role in research, showing that the causes of dyslexia lie within biology and neurology, its treatment will most likely continue to be in the ﬁeld of education. In the 21st century, dyslexia is ofﬁcially recognized & has become a topic of research for both education & medicine. The professions of medicine & psychology are seen now collaborating in signiﬁcant research into the origins & management of dyslexia.
Accordingto the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) : Estimated that 15–20% of the general population experiences one or more symptoms of dyslexia Based on a 2010 study: 80% of children identified as learning disabled These children have primary deficits in the area of reading and related language functions
Students with dyslexia: Experience difficulties in reading and further language functions Demonstrate lower reading skills, which will result in poor comprehension May need more time and assistance than others when reading May have lower self- esteem May exhibit more emotional and behavioral difficulties
Accommodation, Modification & Differentitation Strategies include: Use less difficult and lengthy words with written instruction Lessen the amount of items that students are expected to learn or complete Provide ample time for students to read content Increase the amount of reading instruction/directions aloud to students Occasionally substitute pictures/graphics for words Allow students to voice their responses rather than write them
PROVIDE MORE ADDRESS THE USE SCIENTIFIC EFFECTIVE LEARNINGCHALLENGES OF THE RESEARCH-BASED STRATEGIES FOR THE STUDENT TEACHING STRATEGIES STUDENT BE PATIENT WHEN HELP THE STUDENT’S PROVIDE HELPFUL TEACHIING & BE PEERS & PARENTS LEARNING STRATEGIESAVAILABLE TO OFFER BETTER UNDERSTAND FOR THE STUDENT’S ASSISTANCE WHEN THE STUDENT’S PARENTS TO PRACTICE NEEDED DIFFERENCES WITH THE STUDENT
• The International Dyslexia Association • http://www.interdys.org/ Info & • Davis Dyslexia Association International • http://www.dyslexia.com/ Support • Smart Kids with Learning Disabilities • http://www.smartkidswithld.org/parents-community/parent- to-parent/can-a-support-group-for-parents-of-kids-with- For learning-disabilities-help-youPARENTS • National Center for Learning Disabilities • http://www.ncld.org/types-learning- disabilities/dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia For • Reading Rockets: Teaching Kids to Read & Helping Those Who StruggleTEACHERS • http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/questions/dyslexia/
Culbertson (2012) discusses misconceptions of dyslexia and claims that, “Professional development in the area of dyslexia can help educators understand dyslexia is a problem with reading and not of intelligence” (p. 4). Based on Culbertson‟s discussion, I think it is important that teachers take the initiative to learn about dyslexia as a disability and gain as much knowledge on effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. Therefore, misconceptions about dyslexia can be avoided and dyslexic student‟s problems can be better assisted or prevented. Washburn et al. (2011) conducted studies that “…clearly support the common misconception that the core deﬁcit in dyslexia is visual rather than phonological” (p. 180). It is essential that teachers use research-based teaching strategies rather than use faulty strategies that are based on misconceptions. For that reason, Washburn et al. (2011) demonstrate the benefits of teachers furthering their own education and knowledge by learning more about basic language concepts. By teachers being more aware of concepts such as phonology and morphology, they will be more prepared for effective instruction of reading.
Culbertson, D. (2012). Uncovering the many misconceptions of dyslexia. CEDER Yearbook, 51-65. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.nu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfview er?sid=bb03c131-7746-42ad-94bf- 10b3f0baa070%40sessionmgr113&vid=1&hid=103 Kirby, J., Silvestri, R., Allingham, B., Parrila, R., & La Fave, C. (2008). Learning strategies and study approaches of postsecondary students with dyslexia. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 41(1), 85- 96. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.nu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfview er?sid=0406af74-de92-494f-a029- fa611dfab511%40sessionmgr110&vid=4&hid=121 Klein, R. M., & McMullen, P. A. (1999). Converging methods for understanding reading and dyslexia / edited by Raymond M. Klein and Patricia McMullen. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c1999. Lawrence, D. (2009). Understanding dyslexia: a guide for teachers and parents. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Retrieved from http://mcgraw-hill.co.uk/openup/chapters/9780335235940.pdf
Smith, T. E., Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Dowdy, C. A. (2012). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Terras, M. M., Thompson, L. C., & Minnis, H. (2009). Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self- esteem and understanding. 15(4), 304-327. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.nu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfvie wer?sid=86a5434d-b2fa-4d0b-b07b- 6e76b493b6fc%40sessionmgr114&vid=2&hid=121 Washburn, E. K., Joshi, R., & Binks-Cantrell, E. S. (2011). Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia. 17(2), 165- 183. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.nu.edu/eds/pdfviewer/pdfvie wer?sid=d2437b4f-6737-441d-bec7- c29053ea00a3%40sessionmgr111&vid=5&hid=5 (2011, April 16). Dyslexia: A Hidden Disability. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8m1fCz3ohMw