Patterns over time86 = A*, 73 = A, 60 = B, 48 = C, 40 = D, 32 = E, 25 = F, 18 = G
Be equipped!You will need:• Blue or black pen (take a spare)• Pencil (take a sharpener)• Coloured pencils (a range)• 300mm Rule• Eraser
Pace yourselfDon’t rush• Read the questions carefully• Spend approximately a minute per mark• Make a separate point for each mark• Consider using bullet points• Question 1 is worth 25% of the paper!
What to design?• The preliminary material tells us that the context for thedesigning question is: Packed lunch containers• If you look back at past questions like this candidateswere asked to design mainly using card• Think about who the user might be - children, adults,such as office workers, athletes etc.• Think about what might need to be contained – drink,sandwich, yoghurt, fruit etc.
Where to startPotentially this is a large topic to investigate so concentrate on:• Paper and card containers• The use of new materials (alternatives to oil basedpolymers)
The functions of packaging• Protect• Inform• Contain• Transport• Preserve• DisplayI PICT PDIf you can remember these you can write design criteria,explain the purposes or functions of packaging
Best answers?Purposes/functions ReasonsTransport It will be important to be able to easily transport the foodfrom the shop to where you want to eatContain The food will need to be contained and may need to beseparated – sweet and savoury for examplePreserve Keeping the food fresh and maintaining the correcttemperature will be importantTypically six minutes work
Function 1: ProtectThe packaging needs to protect the food fromcontamination but often needs to protect the user fromgrease. The outer layer in this case is made fromcarton board or solid white board. The card needs tobe food grade.
Protecting the sandwichThis type of packaging protects, preserves and displaysthe product. These sandwich wedges are made fromsustainable Kraft board with a 100% compostable linerand a window made from cornstarch. They aresupplied flat for easy storage and assembly is simple.
SecurityTo avoid any form of tampering sandwich cartons aresealed so that customers are confident that the producthas not been tampered with in any way.
Security• Pret a Manger use colour coded security labels sothey can check and remove stock which has been onthe shelf too long. This is helping to protect theconsumers from potential bacterial hazards.
Function 2: Inform• Most lunch packaging is generic and would not contain agreat deal of information. Windows are often a feature sothat you can see what is inside. Windows are usuallymade from Cornstarch like the sandwich example shownearlier.
Key information• Nutritional information is found on some pre-packagedfood but you are unlikely to be asked to do anythingmore than suggest a space on the lunch container.
Symbols• Informing consumers that the food is suitable forvegetarians or vegans is important to many people.There are a wide range of symbols used for thispurpose and some are shown below.• You are unlikely to be asked to do more than suggestthe position of such symbols on your container
Symbols• As lunch packaging is unlikely to be used more than oncemanufacturers are often eager to inform customers that itcan be recycled. Variations of these symbols are oftenfound on this type of packaging• You are unlikely to be asked to do more than suggest theposition of such symbols on your container
Symbols• It is common to see an anti-litter logo printed onto thepackaging. The symbol on the right is the more usualKeep Britain Tidy version whereas the one on the left isfrom the Love Where You Live campaign• You are unlikely to be asked to do more than suggest theposition of such symbols on your container
Symbols• The FSC logo provides the consumer with a guaranteethat the card board has been made from timber whichhas come from a sustainable source.• The forest will have been evaluated and certified asbeing managed according to agreed social,economically viable and environmental standards.
SymbolsThe German ‘Green Dot’, has little environmentalsignificance. It only means that the manufacturer haspaid a fee towards the packaging recovery system inGermany. On lunch packaging this is usually shownin a single colour
Function 3: Contain• Food needs to be contained. This is particularlyimportant if the food has strong flavours or is in smallpieces.• The most common material used for this type ofinsert is PET. This tray has been vacuum formed.There are now alternatives to oil based polymersbased on plant starches
Alternatives to plastics• This container looks as if it is made from normal Kraftboard. Many such containers have a plastic lining andtherefore are not compostable.• This version is from sustainably sourced paper boardwith a water-based coating, made up with leak-proofwebbed corners and fold-in flaps to give a secureclosure.
Environmentally friendly• These sandwich wedges are fully compostable, beingmade from brown Kraft board with a compostable linerand PLA window (made from cornstarch).• Grease proof lining like the previous example.• They are supplied flat and assembly is very simple.Kraft board usesunbleached pulp so ismore environmentallyfriendly than solid whiteboard.
Polylactides• These PLA Sandwich wedges are 100% compostable.• Made from clear PLA renewable plastic which is plantbased.• This is ideal for packaging as it starts to decompose verysoon after use.
Bucket meals• This approach to packaging lunch has been madefamous by KFC. This waxed card solution is only reallysuitable for food such as pieces of chicken.• KFC have been heavily criticised because the wood pulphas been found to come from rainforests.
Function 4: TransportThis type of card container is one of the most popularchildren’s lunch containers and is often printed withdecorative graphics. Solid white board is best ifprinting in full colour
Deli box• A more adult lunch container simply made from Kraftboard with a locking handle. Made from recycledfibres, this is an unbleached board which is a palebrown colour.
Handles• If the lunch container has a handle you will need toconsider anthropometrics• If you design your box to fit your own hand it would belarge enough for younger children
Deli box• A folded deli box, again, made from coated Kraftboard.• Designed to hold wet dishes such as curry, pasta etc.• The corners are folded, then glued to prevent leaks.• Locking tabs keep the carton closed
Flat pack• To save space many food containers are produced to bestored flat and simply opened up into their final form.
Function 5: Preserve• Pizza boxes are very good examples of lunch containerswhich are very simple.• They are made from corrugated cardboard which islightweight, stiff and a good insulator so the food ispreserved at the right temperature.• The layers also do a good job in protecting the consumerfrom grease.
Temperature issues• Traditionally manufactured from expanded polystyrene,this type of food container can now be made from abiodegradable bio-plastic such as Ecovio L Foam.• Foamed materials are great insulators
Aluminium trays• These trays are sealed using a foil lined card lid andprovide a very cheap solution.• Whilst they can be recycled, in practice they are oftennot separated and just treated as general waste.
Function 6: Display• This type of packaging is often displayed in refrigerateddisplay units and rely on the window so the customer caneasily see the product inside.• This window is usually made of cornstarch nowadays asit is compostable.
Display• Many suppliers brand their packaging.• In the case of McDonalds the designers were asked totry to persuade the consumers that the products weremade from high quality ingredients.
Appealing to the customer• It will be important that the packed lunch container isappealing to the customer.• This might be achieved using printing or clear windows.
Nets• Cardboard cartons are made from nets.• These flat shapes are printed, cut, then folded andglued to create a 3D box.
Your net• Make sure that you can draw an accurate net which willglue together to make a 3D carton• This example uses folded corners rather than traditionalglue tabs
Practice drawing• Practice drawing and making both the 2D nets and the3D cartons
Practice drawing• This is a very popular net for children’s packed lunchcontainers.• Practice drawing and making this.
Sandwich wedges• Practice making sandwich cartons (or wedges)• Try designing and making your own nets
Adding dimensionsMake sure that you know how to accurately show the threemain dimensions. Use projection lines then neat arrowswhich touch the projection lines. Measurements shouldbe in millimetres.
Adding colourPractice applying colour with coloured pencils.Experiment with tone as this is a simple way to get agood effect.
Offset lithography• Flat aluminium plates (speciallytreated)• Photographically exposed thenwrapped around roller• Exposed parts attract water• Non exposed parts allow ink tostick• Print onto plain roller to reverseimage• Transfers to card or othermaterialsThis is the bestprocess to specify forprinting yourcontainer if you areusing solid whiteboard
Flexographic printing• Uses a printing plate made of rubber, plastic, or some otherflexible material.• Ink is applied to a raised image on the plate, which transfersthe image to the printingInk TroughImpression cylinderPaperFountain rollerAnilox rollerPrinting cylinderThis might be the best process tospecify if you are printing simpleinformation onto Kraft board
Die-cuttingDie-cutting is the method cartons are cut out. In thepackaging industry the cutter is known as a cuttingforme. A rounded blade creases where the carton willbe folded.Plyw oodFoam layerCard t o be cutBlade
Ignore Question 1• Consider starting at question 2 andcompleting the rest of the paper beforeattempting question 1.• Lots of candidates run out of time becausethey spend too long on question 1
Materials/components• Where do materials come from?• Are they renewable/non-renewable?• How are materials classified (grouped)?• What properties do different materials have?• What are components and why are they used?• Stock forms available?• Why materials are combined?• Surface finishes?
Paper and card compulsoryWhat you need to know:• Where it comes from• How it is made• Properties of different papers/cards• How products are cut from paper/card• How is it printed
Renewable Materials• Can be grown and cropped from plants,trees and animals
Non-renewable materials• Dug out of the ground as ores,minerals, oil etc. prior to processing• Once consumed they are lost forever
Non-renewable materialsThese include:• All metals• Most plastics (made from oil)• Stone• Ceramics• Jewels...
Remember...• No marks are given for generic materialssuch as “wood”, “metal”, “plastics”, “card” etc.• Don’t get confused between renewable andbeing recycled
Combined materials• Materials are combined to improve the properties orto create a material with enhanced properties• Don’t write “to make it stronger”. Lycra is added todenim to make the material stretch.• Your school uniform is likely to be a combinedmaterial as is the exam table!
Some combined materials• Glass fibres and Polyester resin (GRP) used for boat building andsports car bodies• Melamine formaldehyde and printed paper to create plasticlaminates (Formica) for table tops such as your exam desk• Elastane (Lycra) combined with denim to create jeans which stretch• Polyester and cotton blended together to create fabric (polycotton)which is more resistant to creasing• Portland cement, sand and pebbles mixed together with water tocreate concrete which is very strong in compression• Copper and zinc mixed together (alloyed) to create brass, a metalwhich is hard and easily machineable• Aluminium foil bonded to duplex board or solid white board tocreate a board with good insulation properties (fast food containerlids)
Smart materials• Smart materials are ones which react andchange their properties in response to an inputsuch as electrical current, heat, light etc.
Specs may remind you• Two different smart materials are sometimes used inspectacles
Photochromic materials• These materials change colour in response tochanges in light.• Some spectacles have reactive lenses whichbecome darker as the light increases
Shape memory alloysShape memory alloys are used in somespectacle frames and these superelastic alloyscan be squashed beyond the point other frameswould snap and will return to their originalshape at room temperature.
Thermochromic materials• These materials change colour in response tochanges in temperature.• Kettles and baby feeding products are justtwo applications where it is useful to have abuilt in thermometer.
The Six “Rs”• Recycle and reprocess the materials• Re-use materials/components/products foranother purpose• Reduce the amount of energy and resourcesused throughout the whole product life cycle• Repair products/design them to be easilyrepaired• Rethink our current lifestyles and the way wedesign and make• Refuse products which are unnecessary orwastefully use resources
Prevent wasting materials• Bags for life• Recycling bins easily available• Reduce packaging• Buy local products to reduce “product miles”
Best choices• Re-use the product without further processing• Repair the product to return to original standard• Recycle the materials and components
Environmental issues - labellingA general recycling symbolwhich means the product canbe recycled or it is made fromrecycled materials. Foundmainly on packaging
Environmental issues - labellingMeans that the product cannot beplaced in a normal bin and needsspecialist recycling facilities.Usually found on electrical productsand batteries
Environmental issues - labellingProvides specific information on thetype of plastic material. This exampleis High Density Polyethylene. Foundon some carrier bags, milk crates,buckets etc.
Environmental issues - labellingSymbols which show specific material information toenable consumers to separate materials for recycling:Aluminium, steel and glass. In all cases, take to recyclingbins.
Carbon Footprint• A measure of the impact human activities haveon the environment in terms of the amount ofgreen house gases produced, measured in unitsof carbon dioxide
Carbon FootprintCan you:• Explain the issues which relate to the carbonfootprint of everyday products?• Explain ways of reducing the carbon footprintof everyday products?
Product milesHow many miles does the product travel?• Source material to primary processor• Material to factory• Product to distributor• Distributor to retail outlet• Retail outlet to homeHow much energy is consumed just throughtransporting materials, components and products?
Sustainability• Use resources carefully• Avoid solving your problem if you createanother problem for someone else• Improve your environment – do not damage itPlant filled air purifiers
Social issuesEnvironmental:• Product life cycles• Cradle to grave• Circular economy• Throw-away products• Designed obsolescence
Manufacturing in quantity• Best answers are usually chocolate mouldingor pewter casting because there are lots ofstages and the work can be shared
Manufacturing in quantity• Worst answer is laser cutting as there are notenough stages and you only need one personto manufacture the batch
Manufacturing in quantityIf designing a shape for manufacturingin quantity keep it simple. Mould anydecoration by designing differentlayers.
Chocolate - the material to useBest answers include:• Melts at a low temperature so easy tomould in school• Cheap to produce large quantities• Chocolate is popular so likely to sellwell
Pewter - the material to useBest answers include:• Melts at a low temperature so easy tomould in school• Easy to drill, file and polish• Cheaper than silver but has similar look
Manufacturing in quantity• Break stages to matchthe marks• Uses notes andsketches• Think about the correctorder of work before youstart
Health & safetyConsider:• Your own safety when making• The user’s safety
Organising manufacturing• Some jobs, such as filling chocolate moulds,need more workers.• Some workers may need to do more than onejob
Manufacturing in quantity• If drawing aflowchart, use thecorrect symbols• Make sure youshow where it isnecessary to makechecksStar and stopThe individual taskWhere youneed to checkFeedback loopif you need to goback a stage tosort out a fault.
Manufacturing issues• Preparation of materials• Industrial manufacturing processes• Use of labour• Quality Assurance/Quality Control• Implications of ICT• Scales of production
Quality assurance• It does not just focus on the finished product• Often involves self-checking by workers of their ownquality against agreed standards• Puts more emphasis on prevention of poor qualityrather than checking for poor quality• Establishes quality standards and targets for eachstage of production• Materials and components checked on delivery not atend of process• System can be used to trace back quality problems tothe stage in production where problem might haveoccurred.
Quality assurance• Fitness for purpose (the product should besuitable for the intended purpose)• Right first time every time (mistakes shouldbe eliminated).
Tolerances• Acceptable range of difference from standard• Sometimes measured in plus/minusNo product manufacturedin quantity can beconsidered to be perfectin every detail
Quality assurance• How could you ensure that each of thefollowing products are manufactured to thesame quality?
Quality assurance• Manufacturing methods such as moulds,formers, die-cutting tools ensure that partsare identical.• Control checks are made at various stages• Samples of the correct standard are given tothe customer• Rigorous testing takes place
TestingConsider how you would fully test a product• How can this be done without destroying theproduct?• How can you ensure that the product is fit forpurpose?
Testing• Quantitative Testing (measurable)• Qualitative Testing (opinions)• Sensory Testing (opinions)Testing is done using several difference methods:
Standards• BSI Kite Marks are awarded toproducts which satisfy strictstandards for safety• The British Standards Instituteare an independent testingorganisation
Standards?• Simply means that the product hasbeen approved for sale in theEuropean Union.• Meets basic requirements but maynot have been tested againstspecific criteria• The letters CE on a product are themanufacturers claim that theproduct meets the requirements ofall relevant European Directives.
LabellingKey information found on labellingIncludes:• Product name• Description• Safety information• Contents• Storage/maintenance information• Environmental information
Design protectionCCopyrightRegistered Design(often used with trade marks)Trade MarkPatentsT MRP
Product analysisMake sure you can comment on:• Materials used – their properties• Function – strengths and weaknesses• Human factors – ease of use• Style – aesthetics• Manufacturing - processes used• Target user – who would use?
Product evolutionWhy do products change over time?• New materials• New manufacturing methods• New technologies• Social changes• Fashions/trends• Legislation
New materials• New ways of producing construction materials tomake better use of resources• Environmental impact
Manufacturing changesDifferent construction techniquesAdvantages and disadvantages of flat pack overtraditional making
New technologies• Not just advances in electronics• Consider how many clever devices have been madeto allow us to make furniture in very
Social changes• Consider the changes in the way we purchaseproducts• Made to last or changes in fashions/trends?
Legislation/regulation• New rules to keep you safe• New guidance to save the planet.....
Human factors• Anthropometrics• Ergonomics• Senses• Colours• Improving comfort• Working triangles• Special groups• Adjustment for different sizes• Specific markets• Access
AnthropometricsIssues the designers should have considered include:• Size of handle (length and circumference)• Size of buttons• Length of cable....Anthropometrics is the study of humanmeasurements
5th-95thpercentile• Ignore the extremes• Top 5% and bottom 5% taken out• Consider the rest as a normal range• Be selective – tallest for doors, shortest forchairs?
Ergonomics• The position of buttons• Hand grips/texture• Comfort• Weight and balance• Temperature• Length of flex• The angle and size of the handle• Noise• SafetyErgonomics is generally concerned with how easyand efficient products are to understand and use:
Adjustment• Cycles• Car seats• Office chairs• Clothing…Many products need to adjust to differentsizes:
Inclusive design• We are all disabled at some times in our lives• Consider how products need to be changed to makethem accessible to all
Partially sighted• Large buttons, voice activated dialling, largedisplays
Designing new productsResearch methodsMarket researchProduct AnalysisQuestionnairesConsumer trialsModelling and testingMock-ups/prototypesSpecifications (design, product, manufacturing)EvaluationS ony900920910On/Off
Fashion changes• Arts & Crafts movement• Art Nouveau• Modernism• Art Deco• De Stijl• Bauhaus• The Streamlined Age• Memphis• Post ModernismThe art and design movements of the last century have hadmajor influences of the style of products:
New ProductsCan you name a designer?Can you explain why their productsare successful?
Design IconsClassic design• Innovative• Often copiedEvery now and again designers and manufacturers produceproducts which are regarded as Design Icons, or ClassicDesigns. These set new standards for the products thatfollow.
Retro design• Modern products based on styling from the past• Keep nostalgic styling but incorporate the latesttechnology
Legislation/regulation• Seatbelts and booster seats in cars• Emissions laws linked to car exhaust systems• Use of foam in upholstery• Mobile phone usage whilst driving• Digital TV signals• Health & Safety at Work Act.......Consider some of the recent laws and regulations thathave influenced product design:
Technology push• Research and development in science is a major factorwhy products change.• New materials and new technologies are two areaswhere science has provided the basis for designers tocreate new products
Market pull• Environmental concerns• Latest technologies• Price• Exploitation of workers• Fair Trade• Energy costs......The power of the consumer is forcing continual changeswith needs and wants such as:
Continuous improvementManufacturers need to keep improvingtheir products to stay competitive or tomeet changing regulation/legislation.• Consumer/retailer feedback• Maintenance engineers• Production staff• Pressure groups (environment)• Financial savings…….
Continuous improvementKey questions:• How can products be made more sustainable?• Can you make links to the 6 “R”s?• Are continuous improvements a good or bad thing forthe environment?In the written examination these questionsallow you to discuss issues and give opinions
Product information• Symbols found on a range of productsand their packaging/labelling• Maintenance schedules• Assembly instructions• Handling instructions• Storage instructions
Product maintenanceKey areas:• Cleaning is most common maintenance task• Checking for wear in parts – replace/adjust• Checking for damage – repair/replace• Electrical safety checks – PAT tests• Lubrication
Product maintenanceCare labelsKey issues:• Language free• Match to wide range materials
The power of branding• Big brands influence the products we buy• How much do we know about their environmentalpolicies?• Do we make informed choices?
Brand identity• More than just a logo• A brand identity represents the companysvalues, services, ideas and personality• Often considered as brand values
Advertising• Where would be the best places to advertisea new Apple product?• TV?• Magazines?• Web?• Billboards?
Using ICT to develop products• Computer Aided Design• Computer Aided Manufacture• Computer Numerical ControlAdvantages:• Sharing information• Accuracy• Repeatability• Flexibility (ease of making changes)• Speed……
Computer Aided Design• Modelling• Simulations• Analysing and testing• Costing....
Computer Aided ManufactureModelling and making prototypes• Printers• Vinyl cutters• Milling/engraving machines• Routers• Lathes• Laser-cutters• Embroidery machines• Rapid prototyping
Just in Time• Shared information systems• Reduced lead times• Less finance tied up in stock• Products are bar-coded
Automation• Numerous interlinked sub-systems centrallycontrolled• Use of robots for repetitive/dangerous tasks• Monitoring/measuring• Logistics
Flexible Manufacturing• Benefits of one-off production at mass productionprices• Only possible with ICT• Materials handling• Reduced storage costs
Remote manufacturing• Very common especially in the printingindustry• Maximises savings by manufacturingabroad
Buy a Revision Guide• Written for this course• £4.99 each• Read it• Use workbook to checkyour understanding