Türkçe karşılığı ettirgen çatı olan causative, ingilizcede “have” “get” ve “make” fiilleriyle elde edilir. Üçü anlamaca birbirine çok yakın olmasına rağmen grammar ve anlam bazında sadece çok küçük değişikleik gösterirler.
Kişinin doğal görevini yaptığı işlerde kullanırız; tamirciye araba tamir ettirmek, terziye elbise diktirmek vb.
Yesterday, I had the mechanic repair my car. (Dün, arabayı tamirciye tamir ettirdim.) I will have the plumber fix the leak tomorrow. (Sucuya yarın sızıntıyı tamir ettireceğim.) HAVE SOMEBODY DO SOMETHING
My brother is going to________________________________________.(clean /jacket) have the dry-cleaner clean his jacket
I will__________________________________(my tooth / pull out) have the dentist pull out my tooth
Why don’t we_______________________________________?(take photo/us) have the photographer take photo of us
I have________________________________________(make/wonderful suit) had my tailor make a wonderful suit
Ama eylemi gerçekleştiren kişiden ziyade genellikle eylemin kendisi önemlidir. Yani eylemi gerçekleştiren kişiden söz etmediğimizde causatve “have” şu yapıyla karşımıza çıkar.
HAVE SOMETHING DONE (BY SOMEONE) by the mechanic. by the plumber. by the dry cleaner. Yesterday, I had my car repaired. I will have the leak fixed. My brother is going to have my jacket cleaned.
EXERCISES have the cleaner clean the house have the house cleaned.(by the cleaner) had the repairman clean the windows. had the windows repaired (by the repairman.) had the painter paint the house. had the house painted (by the painter.) have the roofer fix the roof. have the roof fixed (the roofer.) to have the hairdresser cut her hair. to have her hair cut (by the hairdresser.) have the plumber fix the leaking pipe. have the leaking pipe fixed (by the plumber) Anıl will Anıl will Habib has Habibhas Buket had already Buket had already Ebru must Ebru must Devrim isn’t supposed Devrim isn’t supposed Öznur had better Öznur had better
“ get” birini ikna ederek bir işi yaptırma anlamına gelir.
My mother is a good tailor, but she doesn’t want sew any more. I want to get her to make me a dress for my graduation ball. Yesterday, I got my friend to write a composition for me. She is rather lazy. She always gets her sister to clean their room . GET SOMEBODY TO DO SOMETHING İşi yapanı belirtmeden, sadece yapılan işten bahsederken ise; GET SOMETHING DONE (BY SOMEONE) I got my car mended . (by the mechanic)
GET & HAVE
Bazen de eylemi yaptıran ve ona aracı olma durumları vardır.
My boss had his secretary get the flowers sent. My boss got his secretary to have the flowers sent.
“ GET” gibi fiiler
“ Get” gibi fiiller derken Verb+Noun/pronoun+to Verb yapısı.
advise allow appoint cause challenge command compel convince direct enable encourge forbid force hire instruct invite motivate oblige order permit persuade remind request require teach tell urge warn SOMEBODY TO DO SOMETHING
“ Have” gibi fiiller
SOMEBODY DO SOMETHING
Birine işleri zorla yaptırmak anlamına gelir.
I made my son do his homework before he went outside to play.
The film made us laugh a lot.
His broken leg made him stay in bed for two months.
MADE SOMEBODY DO SOMETHING
“ MAKE” 2. “make” in passive biçimi “get” ve “have” in passive biçiminden farklıdır. Passive anlam için “make” kendisi passive dönüşür ama “have ve get” te böyle bişey yoktur.(get/have something done) The film made me cry. I was made to cry. His friends made him laugh during the class. He was made to laugh by his friends during the class. BE MADE TO DO SOMETHING (BY SOMETHING)
“ MAKE” 3. MAKE+PRONOUN/NOUN kalıbından sonra fiil kullanmadan direk Sıfat ta gelebilir. Bu kullanım “get ve have” için mümkün değildir. His coming late made feel angry. His coming late made me angry. Her strange behaviours make everyone feel surprised. Her strange behaviours make everyone surprised. (“surprised” sıfatır)
“ HAVE” ile ilgili bir not
“ have” fiilini bazı passive cümlelerin ifade ettiği anlamı vermek içinde kullanabiliriz.
He had his wallet stolen on the tairn on his way to Ankara.
(Ankaraya gelirken cüzdanını çaldırmış.)
His wallet was stolen on the train on his way to Ankara.
(Ankara gelirken trende cüzdanı çalındı)
They had their house broken into last week.
Their house was broken into lasr week.
You might have had your hair harmed while getting it permed.
Your hair might have been harmed while it was being permed.