INTRODUCTION TO THE CLAUSE SYSTEMS The headteacher invitedall the teachers to his son’s wedding ceremony yesterday. SUBJECT VERB OBJECT MANNER PLACE TIME NOUNS THAT CAN BE MODIFIED the headteacher the teachers ceremony yesterday The headteacher who was formerly an English teacher invited all the teachers, who are very successful in their jobs, to his son’s wedding ceremony that is very special occasion in every culture yesterday when the school finished.
Ve bu “clause” lar daha önce bahsettiğimiz 6 tane fiil formlarıyla yapılır V0 V1 V2 V3 Ving toV
Clause (cümlecik) Cümlecikler, “who, which, that, whose, since, after....ve Ving, V3, toV” ile oluşturulur. ......who is my mother. ......where I was born. ......after visiting me. ......to land on Mars. .....derived from the Latin word “mono”.
Ancak “clause” lar tense’i belli edip etmediğine göre “finite (zaman belli)”, “infinite (zaman belirsiz)” olarak ikiye ayrılır. I know the man who murdered the president last year. (finite) Do you understand what I have told you.(finite) Who is the first man to land on Mars?(non-finite) Where did you find those men standing idle over there?(non-finite)
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE Cümledeki özne veya nesneyi veya her ikisini aynı anda niteleyen cümleciklerdir. 1. Subject Focus Adjective Clause Irepaired the television. The television was bought 5 years ago. S V O S V O I repaired the television that/which was bought 5 years ago. (5 yıl önce alınan televizyonu tamir ettim.) Many children are asocial. Many children play computer games. Many children who/that play computer games are asocial. (Bilgisayar oyunu oynayan birçok çocuk asosyaldir.) İnsanlar için “who/that” insan dışı non-human adlar içinse “that/which” kullanılır Ve subject focus ta bunlardan sonra VERB ve OBJECT gelir.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE 1. Subject Focus Adjective Clause with Comma (,) Bazen bu sıfat cümlecikleri nitelemekten ziyade isim hakkında ekstra bilgi vermek için kullanılır ve bu amaçla kullanıldıklarında yazın dilinde virgülle bunun belirtilmesi gerekir. Ve virgül geldiğinde that kullanılamaz. Atatürk, who was the founder of Republic of Turkey, died in 1938. Ankara, which is the capital of Turkey is in the middle of Turkey. The students, who are below the passing grade, aren’t allowed to go to the concert. (geçme notunun altında kalan bu öğrenciler konsere gidemez[bunlar zaten kalmış kimse gidemez]) The students who are below the passing grade aren’t allowed to go to the concert. (geçme notunun altında kalan öğrenciler konsere gidemez,[diğerleri gidebilir])
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE 1. Subject Focus Adjective Clause with Comma (,) My aunt, who is from İzmir, is going to visit me tomorrow. (Bir halam var ondan bahsediyorum) My aunt who is from İzmir is going to visit me tomorrow. (Birden fazla halam var İzmir li olandan bahsediyorum) Ve bunlar Türkçeye çevrilirken –en, - an ekleriyle söylenir.
Turkish Proverbs Acele giden ecele gider. Son gülen iyi güler. Erken kalkan yol alır, erken yatan döl alır. Sabreden derviş muradına ermiş. Bal tutan parmağını yalar. Sütten ağzı yanan yoğurdu üfleyerek yer. Çok bilen çok yanılırmış . Çok gezen mi yoksa çok okuyan mı bilir?
The one that
WHO ARE THEY? Atatürk Albert Einstein Mehmet Akif Ersoy Cem Yılmaz Mimar Kemaleddin Fatma Aliye Cahit Arf
Atatürk who commanded the Turkish effectively freed our ancestors from the enemy forces which attempted to share our land.
Einstein who is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass-energy equivalence was German-born theoritical physicist.
MehmetAkifErsoywho joined the civil service and conducted research on contagious diseases in various locations in Anatolia was the poet of Turkish National Anthem.
Cem Yılmaz who studied at Boğaziçi Tourism and Hotel Management Faculty is now a famed stand-up comedian, screenwriter, cartoonist and actor.
Mimar Kemaleddin who is known for his works in the early 20th century and was one of significant names of the “First National Arctitecture Trend” was a Turkish architect.
Fatma Aliye Topuz who publicated her first novel named “Muhadarat” which tries to invalidate the belief that a woman cannaot forget her fist love is regarded as the first female writer of Turkish Literature.
Cahit Arf who joined the Mathematics Department of the Middle East Technical University and continued his studies there until his retirement in 1980received numerous awards for his contributions to mathematics.
What are they?
Fish & Chips
Istanbul is the novel which has earned Orhan Pamuk The Nobel Prize. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale,which covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.
Jellyfish are marine invertebrates that belong to the Scyphozoan class.
The body of an adult jellyfish is composed of a bell-shaped, jelly-producing substance.
Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is a kind of sport which involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large rubber band. The tall structure is usually a fixed object, such as a building, bridge, or crane .
Buraya kadar “subject focus” cümleleri gördük, ve “subject focus” ta “who, which,that” bağlaçlarını kullandık, ve bunları takip eden cümlenin is VERB+OBJECT yapısında olduğunu gördük. Şimdi ise “object focus” a bir bakalım. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE OBJECT FOCUS SUBJECT FOCUS The scientists are now looking for the bones that will flesh out (zenginleştirmek) their theories .Theydiscovered anew species of human in Indonesia. The delegateslooked quite impressedby our hospitality.We entertainedthemwell. The scientists whodiscovered a new species of human inIndonesia last yearare now looking for the bones that will flesh out their theories. ... The delegateswhom we entertainedwelllooked quite impressed by our hospitality.
Object Focus The man whom I sawyesterday was very strange The book which you have recommended is very fascinating. Human +whom+SVO that 0 who Non-human+which+SVO that 0
Object Focus Seda,whom his brother rebuked before the guests, is mad at her brother. SEDA IS ANGRY. HER BROTHER REBUKED HER BEFORE THE GUESTS. The applicant whom/that/0/who we interviewed yesterday is suitable for the job. The book which/that/0 I bought yesterday is very interesting. The kind and amount of food which/that/0 we eat can just determine just how long we live
With prepositions agree on - approve of - refrain from - happy with - keen on – refer to – apply for – focus on E.g:Sesame Street, which educators approveof,is watched by childrenall over the world. Sesame Street, ofwhich educators approve, is watched by children all over the world. The Website which he refersto includes many scientific articals. he refers to to which herefers that he refers to
POSSESSION (İYELİK) İyelik bildiren “subject focus” lar WHOSE + NOUN/NOUN OF WHICH + V+O İyelik bildiren “object focus” lar WHOSE + NOUN/NOUN OF WHICH +S+ V+O Gandhi whose teaching influenced millions was a Hindu thinker. I decided to buy that car whose winshield/winshield of which is green. The girl whose brother I saw yesterday was also at the party. The boy whose nose I broke in the fight complained the police. This is the machine whose propeties/properties of which I described. The houses whose roofs/roofs of which I damaged are being repaired. This is the man whose daughter I am going out with these days. This is the man with whose daughter I am going out these days. Do you remember the man whose love afairs I told you about. Do you remember the man about whose love affairs I told you.
Iraq, whose petrolBush still wants very much, has been in turmoil for years now. Iraq, the petrol of whichBush still wants very much, has been in turmoil for years now. The Iraqis, inwhose petrolthe westis interested, have now been involved in a civil war. Human : whose+noun+SV Nonhuman: whose+noun+SV / the noun of which+SV
A- “Duydun mu? Ayşe o adamın evlenme teklifini kabul ETMEMİŞ….” B- “Hangi adamın?” A -“Hani şu arabası güzel mi güzel olan, Şöförü de özel mi özel olan. Hani beş yabancı dil bilen ve de son moda giyinen. XYZ Holding’in üç hissedarından biri olan … Hani şu tüm kızların bayıldığı yakışıklı adam, Geçen sene Bodruma giderken aynı uçakta seyahat ettiğimiz. B- Aaa Evet hatırladım ve Ayşe’nin onu reddetmesine de hiç şaşmadım.Çünkü, o adamın ruhu yok Onun için hiç mi hiç şansı yok.
Ayşe turned down the man who proposed to her last week. She turned down the man whose car is very beautiful. the man whose driver is very well- trained. She said ‘NO’ to the man who can speak five foreign languages. the man who dresses according to the trends in fashion. the man who is one of the three shareholders of the XYZ Company. She didn’t want to marry the man whom all girls are fond of the man whom we travelled with on the same plane while going to Bodrum. Ayşe turned down the man because he has no zest at all.
QUANTITY ALL MOST SEVERAL A LOT OF LOTS OF ANY MANY EACH EVERY NONE BOTH EITHER NEITHER THREE OF ONE OF BOTH OF WHICH They showed me two flats___________________ are spacious. NONE OF THEM THREE OF WHICH BOTH OF WHICH EITHER OF WHICH