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Landlocked with bad neighbors

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  • 1. Gabriella Burnett Ashley Rotunno Kellie Joseph
  • 2.  Approximately one-fifth of the world's countries are landlocked and have no access to the oceans.  There are 44 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to an ocean or ocean-accessible sea (such as the Mediterranean Sea). ~They have the disadvantageous situation of needing to rely upon neighboring countries for access to seaports.  For example, Ethiopia relies on Eritrea for access to the Red Sea and recent conflicts have made that access difficult.  The most recent addition to the list of landlocked countries was Serbia, which formerly had access to the Adriatic Sea but when Montenegro became an independent country in 2006, Serbia lost its ocean access.
  • 3.  Africa  Botswana  Burkina Faso  Burundi  Mali  Niger  Rwanda  Swaziland  Asia  Afghanistan  Kazakhstan  Mongolia  Nepal  Uzbekistan  West Bank  Europe  Austria  Czech Republic  Vatican City  Hungary  Serbia  Slovakia  Switzerland  South America  Paraguay  Bolivia
  • 4.  There are two special landlocked countries that are known as doubly-landlocked countries, or completely surrounded by other landlocked countries.  The two doubly-landlocked countries are Uzbekistan (surrounded by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and, Turkmenistan) and Liechtenstein (surrounded by Austria and Switzerland).
  • 5.  Geography matters!!  Geography greatly affects a country's economy. Jeff Sachs proposed the point in his work that being landlocked clipped around half a percentage point off the growth rate.  However, being landlocked does not necessarily condemn a country to either poverty or to slow growth.  38% of the people living in bottom-billion societies are countries that are landlocked.  This has become an overwhelming African problem!
  • 6.  Landlocked countries have much higher transport costs according to Tony Venables from the World Bank's research department.  The transport costs for a landlocked country depend on how much its coastal neighbor had spent on transport infrastructure.  Landlocked countries are almost like hostages to their neighbors.  Being landlocked makes integration into global markets difficult for any products that require a lot of transport.  Certain countries have experienced difficulty depending upon the opportunities they are open to.  A country like Botswana could do well even though it is landlocked because it has a huge source of natural resources.  A landlocked resource-rich country is not at much of a disadvantage in exporting its resource wealth, since natural resources are usually so valuable that they ca be exported even though they have higher transport costs.  Most landlocked countries benefit from the growth of their neighbors from growth over spills. Countries like Switzerland disproportionately orient their economies to benefit the markets of their neighbors.
  • 7.  Strategy 1- Increase Neighborhood Growth Spillers  “Cross border Trade-Landlocked countries have a strong interest in reducing external trade barriers of the region.”  Strategy 2- Improve Neighborhood Economic Policies  “Once trade systems are integrated, the neighboring landlocked countries can benefit off the growth of its neighbors.”  Strategy 3- Improve of Costal Access  “Access to the sea is a vital interest but the cost of moving to areas near the sea depends on the transport infrastructure and the policies of costal neighbors.”
  • 8.  Strategy 4- Become a Haven for the Region  “If one country in the region manages to set policies clearly superior to those of its neighbors. It will attract these services and export them around the region.”  Strategy 5- Don’t Be Air-locked, be E-locked  “Reduce the cost of air services and increase their frequency. E- services help have good telecommunication and having workers with post primary education.”  Strategy 6- Encourage Remittance  The country should try to educate their people so that they are employable and enough that they can facilitate the finding of jobs in the poorer countries.
  • 9.  Strategy 7- Create a Transport and Investor-Friendly Environment for Resource Prospecting  “Low income countries are more than likely resource-scarce. The valuable resources haven’t been discovered yet. “  Strategy 8- Rural Development  “Policies for rural development should receive higher priority than in other countries.”  Strategy 9- Try to Attract Aid  The best way to help a landlocked country is to donate to them. Landlocked countries will always be poor, unless the attract a donor who would give them sizable donations.
  • 10. All of these strategies depend upon neighboring countries or international actors. The landlocked countries will be stuck in poverty unless we, us wealthy nations, help them more than we have already.
  • 11. We hope that you learned as much as we did.!! Gabriella Burnett Ashley Rotunno