Presented by :
1.SITI SARAH MUHAMMAD SHAFIE (GS32247)
2.NOR SHERINA MUSTAFFA (GS 39442 )
3.RASYIDAH YAHYA (GS 39443 ) )
2. Communicative competence
‘That aspect of our competence that enables us
to convey and interpret messages and to
negotiate meanings interpersonally within
3. Defining Communicative
• Pragmatic or sociolinguistic competence
• Knowledge necessary to use language in social
• Coined by Dell Hymes (1967) In reaction to
Chomsky’s linguistic competence.
4. Components of CC
5. Language competence
Grammatical Textual Illocutionary Sociolinguistic
Competence Competence Competence Competence
6. Language function
7. Language function
8. CALP & BICS
• Cummins (1979) proposes a distinction between
CALP and BICS.
9. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
•The examination of the relationship between forms and functions
•It is the language beyond the sentence. A single sentence can
seldom be fully analyzed without considering its context.
•In most oral language, our discourse is marked by exchanges with
another person or several persons in which a few sentences spoken
by one participant are followed and built upon by sentences spoken
• Production and comprehension of language are a factor of our
ability to perceive and process stretches of discourse, to formulate
representations of meaning not just a from a single sentence but
from referents in both previous sentences and following sentences.
10. Consider the following three different exchanges :
1. A : Got the time?
B : Ten-fifteen.
2. Waiter : More coffee?
Customer : I’m okay
3. Parent : Dinner!
Child : Just a minute!
A single sentence sometimes contains certain presuppositions
or entailments that are not overtly manifested in surrounding
sentence-level surface structure, but that are clear from the
11. All three of the above conversations contained such
presuppositions ( how to ask what time of day it is ; how to say
“no more coffee” ; how to announce that dinner is ready and
then indicate that one will be there in a minute)
In written language, similar intersentential discourse relations
hold true as the writer builds a network of ideas or feelings and
the reader interprets them.
12. Conversation Analysis
13. Grice’s maxims
H.P Grice (1967) once noted that certain conversational
“maxims” enable the speaker to nominate and maintain a topic
of conversation :
1. Quantity : Say only as much as is necessary for
understanding the communication.
2. Quality : Say only what is true.
3. Relevance : Say only what is relevant.
4. Manner : Must be clear.
Grice’s maxims have been widely used as criteria for analyzing
why speakers are sometimes ineffective in conversations, and
as suggestions for improvement of ones’s “power” over others
Pragmatics constraints on language comprehension and
production may be loosely thought of as the effect of context on
strings of linguistics events. Consider the following conversation :
[Phone rings, a 10-year-old child picks up the phone]
Stefanie : Hello.
Voice : Hi, Stef,is your Mom there?
Stefanie : Just a minute. [Cups the phone and yells] Mom!Phone!
Mom : [from upstairs] I’m in the tub!
Stefanie : [returning to the phone] She can’t talk now. Wanna
leave a message?
Voice : Uh, [pause] I’ll call back later. Bye.
15. Sociopragmatics and Pragmalinguistics
Sociopragmatic : The interface between pragmatics and social
Pragmalinguistics : the intersection of pragmatics and linguistics
Kasper and Roever (2005), Kasper and Rose (2002), Bardovi-
Harlig(1999), Kasper (1998),
LoCastro(1997),Turner(1996,1995),Scollon and Scollon(1995),
Kasper and Blum-Kulka(1993), Harlow(1990) and Holmes and
Brown(1987) have all demonstrated the difficulty of such
conventions because of subtle cross-cultural contrasts.
Variations in politeness and formality are particularly touchy :
American : What an unusual necklace. It’s beautiful!
Samoan : Please take it.( Holmes and Brown,1987,p.526)
American teacher : Would you like to read?
Russian student : No, I would not( Harlow,1990,p.238)
In both cases the nonnative English speakers misunderstood the
illocutionary force(intended meaning) of the utterance within the
17. Language and Gender
Differences between the way males and females speak :
MALES MALES FEMALES FEMALES
Interrupt more than
Place more value in
status and report
Use language that
tag questions, rising
the latter use more
A pattern that
confidence in what
18. Discourse Styles
In describing Communicative Competence , the way we use
language in different styles depending on the context of a
communicative act in terms of subject matter, audience, occasion,
shared experience, and purpose of communication.
Styles are not social or regional dialects, but sets of conventions
for selecting words, phrases, discourse and nonverbal language in
Martin Joos(1967) provided one most common speech styles
using the criterion of formality. There are five levels of formality:
19. 1. Oratorical style : used in public speaking before a large
audience; wording is carefully planned in advance, intonation is
somewhat exaggerated, and numerous rhetorical devices are
2. Deliberative style : used in addressing audiences, usually too
large audiences to permit effective interchange between
speaker and hearers, although the forms are normally not as
polished as those in oratorical. A typical university classroom
lecture is often carried out in a deliberative style
3. Consultative style : typically a dialog, words are chosen with
some care. Business transactions, doctor-patient conversations,
and the like are usually consultative in nature
20. 4. Casual style : Typical of conversations between friends or
colleagues sometimes members of a family ; in this context
words need not be guarded and social barriers are
5. Intimate style : One characterized by complete absence of
social inhibitions. Talk with family, loved ones, and very close
friends, where, the inner self is revealed, is usually in an
21. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
• Edward Hall (1959) called it as ‘silent
• Key importance: ‘it is not what you say, but
how you say it’.
• To convey message with body language,
gestures, eye contact, physical distance, etc.
22. Types of nonverbal communication
24. How do you express these statements:
25. Eye Contact
31. Olfactory Dimensions
32. CC IN THE CALSSROOM :CLT AND
• CLT : Communicative Language Teaching
• CLT is an approach, rather than method
(Richards & Rodgers,2001).
• Based on the nature of language and of
language learning and teaching.
33. Four (4) characteristics of CLT:
34. Task-Based Instruction
• Tasks are a subset of all techniques and
activities that one might design for classroom.
• Task-based is designed to equip learners with
the communicative language needed to give
• May be described as a pedagogical task with a
relationship to real- world situations, designed
to enable learners to complete the target task
of giving directions.
• An approach that urges teachers, in their
lesson and curriculum design, to focus on