More with Less: Dealing with Team Dysfunction in a Recession Economy Presentation by Shawn Herhusky
Sources of Conflict A Change Driver is a largescale force that producescomplex change in a systemThe fear of uncertaineconomic conditions broughtabout by the recession is onechange driver for a business
Sources of Conflict: The Recession as a Change DriverThe Recession and theeconomic difficulties it createshas a trickle down negativeeffect on the workplace:• limited resources• Unobtainable performance goals• Victim of Success• Fear of additional loss from a future W or double dip recession
Sources of Conflict: The Recession as a Change DriverThis could lead to:• more hostile incidents in the workplace• more vacation or sick time taken• More employees resigning or being termed• possible revenge effects (like a work slowdown)• Workers become more sensitive to micro inequities
Sources of ConflictThe Conflict Wheelas developed by Data ConflictsChristopher Moore Relationship Interest Conflicts Conflicts Value Structural Conflicts Conflicts
Sources of Conflict: The Conflict WheelData Conflicts are caused by: Data• Lack of information Conflicts• Misinformation Relationship Interest• Different views on what Conflicts Conflicts is relevant• Different interpretations of data Value Structural• Different assessment Conflicts Conflicts procedures
Sources of Conflict: The Conflict WheelInterest Conflicts are caused by : Data Conflicts• Perceived or actual competition Relationship Interest Conflicts Conflicts• Substantive (content) interests• Procedural interests• Psychological interests Value Conflicts Structural Conflicts
Sources of Conflict: The Conflict WheelStructural Conflicts are caused by:• A Destructive pattern of Data Conflicts behavior or interaction• Unequal control, ownership, or Relationship Interest distribution of resources Conflicts Conflicts• Unequal power and authority• Geographic, physical, or environmental factors that Value Structural hinder cooperation Conflicts Conflicts• Time constraints
Sources of Conflict: The Conflict WheelValue Conflicts are caused by: Data• Different criteria for Conflicts evaluating ideas or behavior Relationship Conflicts Interest Conflicts• Exclusive intrinsically valuable goals• Different ways of life Value Structural• Ideology Conflicts Conflicts• religion
Sources of Conflict: The Conflict WheelRelationship Conflicts are caused by: Data Conflicts• Strong emotions• Misperceptions or Relationship Interest Conflicts Conflicts stereotypes• Poor communication or miscommunication• Repetitive negative Value Conflicts Structural Conflicts behavior
Sources of Conflict: Stages of ConflictStage One Conflict• Requires little action• Day to day irritations• Anger is quick to pass• People want to work it out Stage One
Sources of Conflict: Stages of ConflictStage 2 Conflict• Competition – Win / Lose• People keep track of victories/ mistakes/ Stage Two who take sides• Alliances• Exaggerations/ generalizations Stage One
Sources of Conflict: Stages of ConflictStage 3 Conflict• Shift from wanting to Stage win to wanting to hurt Three• Neutrals are forced by competing parties to Stage take sides• Factions Two• Losers may leave, carry a grudge, or require Stage One replacement
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesResponses to Conflictbased on the criteria used Competitive Collaborativein The Thomas-KilmannConflict Mode Instrument Compromising Accommodating Avoiding
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesCompetitive:• Take a firm stand and know what they want.• Operate from a position of power Competitive Collaborative drawn from things like : – Position – rank – expertise – persuasive ability Compromising Accommodating• This style can be useful when – there is an emergency and a decision needs to be make fast – when the decision is unpopular – when defending against Avoiding someone who is trying to exploit the situation selfishly
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesCollaborative:• Try to meet the needs of all people involved Competitive Collaborative• Highly assertive but unlike the competitor, they cooperate effectively and acknowledge that everyone is important.• This style is useful when Compromising Accommodating – you need to bring together a variety of viewpoints to get the best solution – when there have been previous conflicts in the group Avoiding – when the situation is too important for a simple trade-off
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesCompromising:• try to find a solution that will at least partially satisfy everyone.• Everyone is expected to give up Competitive Collaborative something and the compromiser him- or she also expects to relinquish something• Compromise is useful when the – cost of conflict is higher than Compromising Accommodating the cost of losing ground – when equal strength opponents are at a standstill – when there is a deadline looming. Avoiding
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesAccommodating:• a willingness to meet the needs of others at the expense of the person’s own needs. Competitive Collaborative• The accommodator often knows when to give in to others, but can be persuaded to surrender a position even when it is not warranted.• This person is not assertive but is highly cooperative. Compromising Accommodating• Accommodation is appropriate when – the issues matter more to the other party – when peace is more valuable than winning Avoiding – when you want to be in a position to collect on this “favor” you gave
Sources of Conflict: ResponsesAvoiding:• seek to evade the conflict entirely Competitive Collaborative• delegates controversial decisions• accepting default decisions• not wanting to hurt Compromising Accommodating anyone’s feelings• It can be appropriate when – victory is impossible – when the controversy is trivial Avoiding – when someone else is in a better position to solve the problem
Sources of Conflict: A Positive View of ConflictWhy Conflict is Good• conflict is natural• Conflict prevents groupthink• Allows for greater creativity of ideas• Better understanding of your clients needs through a more diverse workgroup• More potential for innovation
Mythology of TeamsWhat is a Team?"A team is a small numberof people withcomplementary skills who arecommitted to a commonpurpose, performance goals,and approach for which theyare mutually accountable.“(Katzenbach and Smith, 1993)
Mythology of Teams• Everyone must get along • Some people are deferential by• Only professionals of equal nature, may never get to speak standings should be on work unless group is moderated teams • Some people talk to talk, maybe• No “I” in team (if there are 12 as a function of their learning people on the team, there are 12 style “I”’s) • Saving face• People like teams • Power differential / deferring to – Last kid picked for dodge ball management feeling • He or she who talks first is more – Anxiety important• Differences in Response time
Techniques For Dealing with Team DysfunctionWhen we say “More with Less”, what we mean is scarcity.
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcityDetermining Thresholdsand Tolerable Trade offs Functional ObjectivesBy what metric are yourcustomers rating your Social Emotionalservice / performance? Objectives Objectives
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcityFunctional objectives,relate to performance and Functionalreliability. Examples of Objectivesfunctional objectives include – "removes at least 95% of stains," – "charges in under an Social Emotional hour," Objectives Objectives – "works every time," – "requires no training."
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcityEmotional objectives, whichtypically are things thecustomer feels about Functional Objectivesthemselves. Examples ofemotional objectives include – "treat myself to the best" – "connect me with Social Emotional others" Objectives Objectives – "feel like I got good value"
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcitySocial objectives, whichtypically are things thecustomer perceives others Functional Objectivesfeel about them. Examplesof social objectives include, – "impress my peers,“ – "reflect my personal brand,“ Social Emotional – "withstand the Objectives Objectives withering glare of the ‘mom police."
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcityCompanies should thenunderstand:• Which of these objectives Functional are most important to the Objectives customer (market segment)• What thresholds have to be crossed to enter into the customers decision set• What tradeoffs the Social Emotional customer would tolerate Objectives Objectives between objectives .
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction : ScarcityThe trick is to ensure that youcross the basic performancethreshold on every criticaldimension • Selectively over-perform in areas that provide the most customer value • decrease performance along dimensions that dont matter a great deal to a given customer group
Techniques For Dealing with Team DysfunctionThe last part of the presentation will focus onteam dysfunction, specifically what we can do to address the effects our current economicsituation or any other high pressure situation has had on the employees.
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalDecide before the conflictoccurs on a mutuallyagreed upon form ofconflict resolution likemediation, arbitration,caucus, etc.Promote the idea of“Presumed Innocence”
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalIf employees have beentermed, address it. Reiterateto employees that thecompany has decided to invest itslimited resources into them.Before proceeding with any formof intervention, create an area ofsafety with set ground rules onbehavior where employees canfeel safe and empowered.
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalReferring back to the Wheel of Conflict to Data Conflicts deal with team dysfunction Relationship Interest Conflicts Conflicts Value Structural Conflicts Conflicts
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalPossible data interventions• Reach a consensus of Data Conflicts what data is important• Agree on the process to Relationship Interest collect data Conflicts Conflicts• Develop common criteria to assess data• Use a third party expert Value Structural to gain outside opinion or Conflicts Conflicts break deadlocks
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalPossible Interest Based Interventions• Focus on interests not Data Conflicts positions• Look for objective criteria• Develop integrative Relationship Conflicts Interest Conflicts solutions that address the needs of all parties• Search for a way to expand options or resources• Develop tradeoffs to satisfy Value Structural interests of different Conflicts Conflicts strengths
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalPossible Structural Interventions –• Clearly define and change roles• Replace destructive behavior Data patterns Conflicts• Reallocate ownership or control of resources• Establish a fair and mutually Relationship Interest acceptable decision making process Conflicts Conflicts• Change negation process from positional to interest based bargaining• Modify means of influence used by parties (less coercion, more persuasion) Value Structural• Change physical and environmental Conflicts Conflicts relationship of parties• Modify external pressures on parties, change time constraints
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalPossible value related intervention Data• Avoid defining problem in Conflicts terms of values• Allow parties to agree Relationship Interest Conflicts Conflicts and to disagree• Create spheres of influence where one set of values dominate Value Structural• Search for super ordinate Conflicts Conflicts goal that all parties share
Techniques For Dealing with Team Dysfunction: InterpersonalPossible Relationship Interventions• Control expression of emotions through procedures, ground Data rules, caucuses, etc. Conflicts• Promote expression of emotions by legitimizing feelings and providing a process Relationship Interest• Clarify perceptions and build Conflicts Conflicts positive perceptions• Improve quality and quantity of communication• Block negative repetitive behavior by changing structure Value Structural• Encourage positive problem Conflicts Conflicts solving attitudes
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