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  • 1. APA Internal Citation Explained Stephanie Herfel User Services Librarian SUNY Orange, Newburgh Campus
  • 2. Internal Citation (in-text citation) aka, Parenthetical Citation = Citing your sources within your paper Why?  To tell the reader where the information comes from (reliable?)  To give credit to the author or authors for their ideas
  • 3. The “P” Word “To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism; to steal from many is research.” ― Stephen Wright, NYC novelist, professor at Princeton & Brown “Plagiarism has been around far longer than the Internet. In fact, I had a poem published in 'Seventeen' magazine when I was 15 years old. About a year later, I was informed that there was a girl who used that same poem to win a statewide poetry competition in Alabama. It took months for people to put together that this had happened.” ― Megan McCafferty, young adult fiction novelist (Jessica Darling series)
  • 4. “To Cite or Not to Cite…?” CITE any idea that doesn’t come from your own head (even if you put someone else’s ideas into your own words). DO NOT CITE Common knowledge- something the average person knows such as: The world is round, and a year has 365 days. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. DO NOT CITE Your own experiences, memories, thoughts, o bservations, and opinions.
  • 5. Paraphrasing and Examples Yanovski and Jones (2008) explained that sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (Yanovski & Jones, 2008). Paraphrasing is sometimes referred as indirect quoting. You read the author’s ideas and then put them into your own words.
  • 6. Direct Quoting and Examples Direct quotation with author’s name as part of the narrative: As researchers Depp and Stamos (2012) have explained, "Most college students are pressed for time, under a lot of stress, and can find themselves eating on the go." (p. 8). Depp and Stamos (2012) found that “most college students are pressed for time, under a lot of stress, and can find themselves eating on the go.” (p. 8). According to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004), “experts have pointed to a range of potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media” (p. 1).
  • 7. Page Numbers? Direct quotation with author’s name as part of the narrative: According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Direct quotation with parenthetical citation: Jones (1998) found that "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199). Indirect quotation: APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998). ONLY WHEN DIRECT QUOTING (USING QUOTATION MARKS)
  • 8. No Page Numbers When an electronic source has no page number, include whatever information (paragraph number or article headings or both) that would be helpful in locating the quote. Example: (Hall, 2008, para. 5). (Weight-Loss Drugs section, para. 6).
  • 9. No Date When no date is known, use “n.d.” for “no date.” Example: (Hall, n.d.).
  • 10. Unknown Author If no author is named in the source, then introduce the source with the name of the article or put the first words of the title of the article in parenthesis. Example: (“Exercise,” 2012). In the article “Exercise Changes Fat and Muscle Cells,” the author discusses how regular exercise can change our genes (2012). However, REMEMBER, sources that are lacking authors’ names and dates may not be the best source of information.
  • 11. Two Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports... (Wegener & Petty, 1994)
  • 12. Three to Five Authors A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. (Kernis et al., 1993)
  • 13. Six or More Authors Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses. Harris et al. (2001) argued... (Harris et al., 2001)
  • 14. The References Page 1. Do you have a header and page number (both on the same line)? 2. Do you center the word References at the top of your list? (Only the first letter is capitalized.) 3. Are your references double-spaced? 4. Are your references in alphabetical order by the author’s last name? 5. Is each reference indented in the second and subsequent lines? 6. Do you include at least 7 “college level” sources? 7. Is each citation in your paper included in your reference list? 8. Is each reference on your reference list cited in your paper? 9. Material that you read about in a secondary source, i.e., (Skinner, 1988, as cited in Tharp, 2002), should not be in the reference list. Tharp (1999) would be included, Skinner (1988) would not.
  • 15. References APA Style Checklist. (2008). Clarion University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.clarion.edu/202253/ Hacker, D. & Sommers, N. (2011). A writer’s reference, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Mischak, E. (2010). APA citation style. Retrieved from Chapman University, Leatherby Libraries: http://www1.chapman.edu/ library/reference/guides/APA-Style.pdf Paiz, J. M. et al. APA general format. (2013, March 1). Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL). Retrieved from https://owl.english. purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/