On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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1.The cell is the basic
unit of all living
“building blocks of life”
2. Living things, or organisms, have
Grow and Develop
Needs Of Life
3. Organisms cannot carry out life activities without a few necessities
Living Things Need
Such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and water
4. Living things, or organisms, that are
made of a SINGLE cell are called
unicellular and are usually too small for
you to see.
5. Most organisms you can see are made
up of many cells and are more complex.
Organisms made up of many cells are
called multicellular .
6. The microscope led to
the discovery of cells.
The Discovery of Cells
7. In 1665, Robert
cells by examining
slices of cork under a
Robert Hooke saw cork cells like
8. In 1673, Anton van
Leeuwenhoek looked at
pond scum under the
microscope and saw creatures
he called animalcules or
Microscopic organisms like these
live in pond water.
The Discovery of Cells Continued….
• In 1838, Matthias Schleiden
concluded that all plants are made of
• In 1839, Theodor Schwann concluded
that all animals are made of cells.
• In 1858, Rudolf Virchow concluded
that all cells come from existing cells.
Every living thing is
made of one or more
Cells carry out the
functions needed to
Cells come only
from other living
10. There Are Two Types of Cells
• Prokaryotic cells
• No nucleus
• No separate
• Ex: Bacteria
• Eukaryotic cells
• DNA located in the
• Ex: All other cells
(plants, animals, fungi,
Examples of Prokaryotic Cells
Examples of Eukaryotic Cells
Human Liver Cells
Heart Muscle Cells
What are the cell parts?
Three Main Parts of a Cell
11. Most cells have
three main parts.
They are the
12. Each of these main
cell parts has a special
and important job to
13. The cell membrane is a protective
covering that encloses the entire cell. Any
material coming into or out of the cell must
pass through the cell membrane.
14. The cell membrane has three
1. protects the inside of a cell
2. supports and gives a cell its
3. controls the movement of
materials into and out
of a cell.
A cell membrane surrounds each of
15. The cytoplasm is a gelatin-like
material contained inside the cell
16. Most of the activities in the cell
take place in the cytoplasm.
The cytoplasm is colored yellow in
17. Most cells have a nucleus and are
18. The nucleus is the control center of a cell
and contains the genetic information.
19. The nucleus controls all the life
processes of a cell.
20. The nucleus also controls cell
21. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by
the nuclear membrane.
The nucleus of a cell can be seen by
using a microscope.
22. Chromosomes are a coiled
structure of DNA and protein that
forms in the cell nucleus during
23. DNA contains the instructions
for how the cell is supposed to
24. Nucleolus (a structure located
inside the nucleus) – the place
where ribosomes are made.
25. A cell is like a factory.
• Each machine in a factory has a special job.
• The machines work together to keep the factory
26. The "machines" of a cell are its organelles.
• Organelles are small structures that are
suspended in the cytoplasm.
27. Each organelle has a special job
•Organelles work to:
- produce energy
- transport materials
- get rid of waste
•Organelles keep the cell working
28. One kind of organelle is the mitochondrion.
29. Mitochondria are known as the "powerhouses"
of the cell.
30. They release energy that the cell can use.
31. The energy is used by the cell to carry out its life
32. The endoplasmic reticulum
is also known as the ER.
33. The endoplasmic reticulum
is a very small network of
tubes inside the cell.
34. The tubes are like a tiny
highway or transportation
system for the cell. Substances
move along these tubes from
one organelle to another.
35. Ribosomes are small, rounded
structures located within the cell.
36. Ribosomes make proteins.
37. The proteins are needed for growth and
are involved in all cell processes.
38. Some ribosomes appear as small
bumps attached to the ER.
39. Not all ribosomes are attached to the
ER, some are scattered throughout the
40. Cells contain many flattened and folded sacs called
Golgi bodies. (looks like a stack of pancakes)
41. The Golgi bodies are like a post office for the cell.
42. Proteins and other materials are sent to the Golgi
bodies through the endoplasmic reticulum.
43. Then, the Golgi bodies package and distribute the
materials to other parts of the cell. They also send
materials to the outside of the cell.
44. The vacuoles of a cell are small storage spaces
in the cytoplasm.
45. Vacuoles store food, waste, and water.
46. Plant cells usually have one large vacuole,
animal cells may have many small vacuoles.
47. Lysosomes are the cleanup crew of the cell.
48. Lysosomes contain powerful chemicals that
digest nutrient molecules in the cell.
49. When other organelles in the cell stop working
properly, the lysosomes break down and recycle
the old cell parts so they can be used again. The
chemicals in the lysosomes only break down
unhealthy cell parts.
Red Blood Cells
Model of a typical animal cell
Model of typical plant cell Actual plant
1. Cell Wall
• All plant cells have a cell
• Animal cells do not have
a cell wall
• The cell wall surrounds
the cell membrane of a
• Cell walls are made of a
hard material called
The cell wall has three jobs
• Protect the plant cell
• Gives the cell its shape
• Gives the plant cell support
• The number and sizes of vacuoles are
different in plant and animal cells
• Plant cells have only one or two large
• Animal cells have many small vacuoles
• Plant cell vacuoles store most of the water
in the cell
• Most plant cells have organelles
• They contain a material called
• Chlorophyll gives a plant its
• Plants use chlorophyll to make
food through a process called
• Animal cells do not have
chloroplasts or chlorophyll
What are levels of
*Some organisms are made of only one cell!!
These organisms are called unicellular.
*Other organisms, like plants, animals, and fungi
are made of many cells. These organisms are
*Multicellular organisms have levels of
Organization of Life
• Cells are the basic units of life.
• Cells that work together to perform a
specific job in the body are called tissues.
• A group of tissues that work together to
perform a specific job are called organs.
• Organs that work together in groups are
called organ systems.
• Organ systems come together to form an
organism that can live on its own.
In other words….
cells tissues organs organ systems organism