• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Pakistan ca
 

Pakistan ca

on

  • 72 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
72
Views on SlideShare
72
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Pakistan ca Pakistan ca Document Transcript

    • StrategicApproachtoInternationalChemical Management SAICM NationalCapacity Assessment forImplementationofSAICM InPakistan Dr.KhalidMehmood November,2009
    • InternationalCooperationWing,MinistryofEnvironment GovernmentofPakistan,Islamabad
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM The 2006-2009 pilot project in support of National SAICM implementation to "Strengthen Governance, Civil Society Participation and Partnerships within an Integrated National Chemicals and Waste Management Programme" in Pakistan has been supported by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) with the financial support of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pagei
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Acknowledgements The National Capacity Assessment was conducted as part of the SAICM project initiated under the Supervision of Mr. Abid Ali, Joint Secretary, International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment and Focal Person for SAICM from Pakistan. I acknowledge with gratitude the support of Mr. Zaheer Ahmed Gillani National SAICM Coordinator, National Project Manager, Multilateral Environmental Agreements Secretariat (MEAS) and Syed Hashim Raza, Subject Specialist SAICM and MEAS, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, who provided us guidance and their continued support throughout this project. This work could not have been accomplished without the generous and gracious cooperation and contributions of our stakeholders, especially, Federal Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, Commerce, Health, Labour and Manpower, Production, Law Justice, Industry, Communication, Science and Technology, Federal Bureau of Statistics and their departments; provincial departments of Agriculture and Environment; a large number of R & D organization and Non-Governmental Organizations(NGOs). I wish to extend our deep gratitude to United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) for providing guidance and financial support towards the production of this report and for supporting workshops related to this project. Special thanks are also extended to my all associates who worked diligently and provided support during the production of this document. We have endeavored to ensure our assessment based on situation analysis during preparation of National Chemical Profile and inputs provided by our stakeholders, however, we would invite commentonanyerrorsorinaccuracies. Dr.KhalidMehmood Senior Adviser and Team Leader for SAICMProject International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pageii
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM ExecutiveSummary The Capacity Assessment and Priority Setting for the Sound Management of Chemicals and National SAICM Implementation is a national project of the Government of Pakistan. The Ministry of environment is responsible for the implementation of the project. The primary objective of the project is to identify national priorities and needs for capacity building in the key areas of chemical management throughout their life cycle, with the aim of catalyzing domestic and / or externally assisted action to meet those needs in a coordinated and plannedmanner. The National Capacity Assessment was undertaken at three levels - individual, institutional, and systemic capacity. Individual and institutional capacities are well known concepts. Systemic capacity describes the policy and legislation framework and identifies relationships, collaboration, and linkages amongst institutions involved in chemical management and use. The national assessment also investigated cross-cutting issues such as povertyand decentralization, on sectors including the chemicalmanagement. Challenges to chemical management were identified and prioritized during the first part of capacity assessment. Although Pakistan has the ability to adequately address some of these challenges, there is a strong feeling that capacityconstraints centre around three themes: Financial shortfalls; Lack of equipment, tools, physical support, and infrastructure; and Shortage of trained and skilled personnel. From these, certain priority issues for action were identified: Lack or limited technical and scientific capacity; Indicatorsandmonitoringmeasuresforsound chemicalmanagement; Insufficient laboratories, technical research institutions, tools and equipments; Identification of adaptationmeasuresto chemicalmanagement challenges; Lack of legislation dealing with disposal transportation and storage of chemicals; Lack or limited data availability related to chemicals during its life cycle; and Promotion of synergies across the government and other related institutions. Thesepriorityissuesneed tobeapproached witha synergisticapproach. Duringcapacityassessment, it wasfound that awareness levelsand knowledge about the chemical management is very limited in the country. Within the implementing agencies, there is lack of awareness of existing regulatory framework. The decision-makers have limited knowledge of FAO and WHO specifications on pesticides. The decision makers and legislators are unaware of the chemical safety measures. Even the environmental managers have low level of awareness and knowledge of life cycle management concept. The academia and public are generally unaware of International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pageiii
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM the international conventions on chemical management and the concept of chemical management at all. Individuals and institutions that indicate awareness of the chemical management concept and conventions are not necessarily familiar with the contents as such. There is some level of awareness among NGOs and trade associations, and they are playing their role to raise public awareness to some extent, but they need capacity building exclusively in chemical management. People involved at various stages of the chemicals life cycle, are unaware of the health and environmental implications of the chemicals theyare exposed to. Pakistan is striving in the right direction with regard to chemical management and awareness related activities. There are key ministries, non-governmental organizations, and private institutions involved in the sound management of chemicals in the country. The mandates of ministries and departments are clearly defined and there does not exist any overlapping. There is no need for a separate ministry dealing with chemical management. Trade associations, research institutions and community groups are playing a vital role in creating awareness among public and implementation of voluntary initiatives like ISO standards 9000, 14000 and OHSAS 18001. They are also cooperating in Pak-EPA's SMART programme for self monitoring and reporting. NGOs especiallyare playing very important role in raising awareness and educating the public for effective participation in national environmental management initiatives (e.g. as stated in agenda 21 or the implementation of Stockholm Convention) as well as access to justice in environmental matters. Thepoorchemicalmanagementcanresultinincreaseindiseasescausedbyvariouschemicalssuch as cancer, abnormal births, etc; unbelievable damage to environment and chemical accidents causingfinancialand life lossas wellasdamage toenvironment.Therefore, chemicalmanagement should be given due consideration bythe government and funds should be allocated accordingly. Individual, institutional, and systemic capacity to address the concerns of the SAICM at the national level is present to some extent. In terms of institutional capacity, despite clearly defined mandates, relationships, collaboration, and linkages among institutions do not exist. An environmental advisory committee, NTACC, has been established to complement existing institutional capacity and enhance coordination among various institutions but the representation of some ministries, NGOs, industries and academia is lacking. There is also a capacity constraint in terms of identification of important information that could assist in the implementation of different activities. Lack of external financing has also been identified a concern for most government sectors. It has been found that government divisions that have access to additional funding from international donors have access to relevant information and they have acquired necessary capacity and facilities. Another major constraint identified is lack of technical human resource available to the institutions. There is also lack of infrastructure for chemical management. Capacity must be built in institutions so that they can capture data, negotiate effectively, and addressthelegalaspectsrelatingtothechemicalmanagement. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pageiv
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Individual capacity constraints identified are related to lack of knowledge and awareness of the concept of chemical management, lack of translation of expert knowledge to local communities, lack of training and work incentives, lack of relevant infrastructure, lack of authority and limited networking opportunities among technical experts and local environmental managers. Individual capacity needs to be strengthened as well. There are no specific courses available for chemical management. The additional modules are required in the curricula of the universities with reference to the chemical management, waste management, waste treatment etc. There is a need for the proper awareness and technical training of the workers. Most of the government institutions are overworked, they should be provided with proper work incentives like promotions, bonuses,etc. Systemic capacity is inadequate with regard to policy and legislative framework, because there is lack of coordination. Legislation related to different aspects of life cycle of chemicals, especially with reference to import, export, production, use and disposal is very comprehensive, but the legislation dealing with disposal transportation and storage of chemicals is insufficient. Most of the existing legislation was not enacted for the specific purpose of chemical life cycle management in particular. The penalties are not reformatory and stringent enough to deter the crime. The major drawbacks behind the ineffectiveness and non-enforcement of regulatory framework are with the inspections, monitoring, vigilance and public awareness. Therefore, no new acts are proposed but few amendments in existing laws will be sufficient. With regard to international conventions, a multilateral approach is being adopted for chemical management in the country through implementation of SAICM. The international conventions have been incorporated in the national legislation and are being implemented. Beside, GHS is yet to be implemented in the country. The major loophole to the implementation of international conventions is the poorly managed national data system related to chemical life cycle. It is therefore suggested that an integrated approach to the safe use of chemicals should be adopted byestablishing effective mechanismsfor following up and updating information on international instruments related to hazardous substances. Capacity at the systemic level requires effective implementation and monitoring impacts of laws andpolicies. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pagev
    • Acronyms BAT BEP CBOs CCI EIA EPA FAO FBR FBS GPA GHS GSP HDIP HEJ HIES IAC ICCM ICwing IFCS IGOs ILO ILO-OSH IMO INFOCAP IOMC ISO LFS LPG MDGs MEAs NARC NIAB NDMA NDMC NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM BestAvailableTechniques BestEnvironmentalPractices CommunityBoard Organizations Chambersof Commerce andIndustry EnvironmentalImpactAssessment Environmental Protection Agency Food and Agriculture Organization FederalBoardofRevenue FederalBureauofStatistics Global Plan of Action GloballyHarmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals GeologicalSurveyofPakistan Hydrocarbon development Institute of Pakistan Husein Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry HouseholdIntegratedEconomicSurvey Industrial Analytical Centre International Conference on Chemicals Management International Cooperation wing IntergovernmentalForum on ChemicalSafety Intergovernmentalorganizations International Labor Organization ILO guidelineson occupationalsafetyandhealth management System International Maritime Organization Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals International Organization for Standardization LabourForceSurvey Liquefiedpetroleumgas Millennium Development Goals Multilateral Environmental Agreements National Agricultural Research Centre Institute for Agriculture and Biology National Disaster Management Authority NationalDisaster Management Commission International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pagevi
    • NGOs NPRI NTACC OECD OHSA S OPS PAEA PBTs PCSIR PDS PEPA PIHS POPs PPD PRTRS QSP R&D SAICM SMAR T SOPs TDS TOC TRI UNEP UNITAR WHO WSSD NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Non-governmentalorganizations National Pollutant Release Inventory National Technical Advisory Committee on Chemicals Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OccupationalHealthandSafetyAssessmentSeries OverarchingPolicyStrategy PakistanAtomicEnergyAgency Persistentbio-accumulativeandtoxicsubstances Pakistan Council for Scientific & Industrial Research PakistanDemographicSurvey Pakistan Environmental Protection Act PakistanIntegratedHouseholdSurvey Persistent organicpollutants Plant Protection Department PollutantReleaseandTransferRegisters QuickStartProgramme ResearchandDevelopment Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management Self-Monitoring and ReportingSystem StandardOperatingProcedures TotalDissolvedSolidsTotal Organic Carbon ToxicReleasesInventory United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Institute for Training and Research World Health Organization World Summit on Sustainable Development International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pagevii
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Contributors MuhammadZafarIqbal Mrs.NuzhatMahmud HumaAfzal MuhammadUmairSheikh AishaSuddle FromMinistryofEnvironment SyedZaheerAhmedGillani SyedHashimRaza NationalSAICMConsultant, Environmental/AnalyticalChemist ResearchAssistant DataAnalyst ITSpecialist Editor/National SAICM Coordinator, NPMMEAsSecretariat,MoE Coordinator,MEAsSecretariat,MoE International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Pageviii
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM TableofContents 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.3.1. 2.4. 2.4.1 3. 3.1 3.2 3. 3.1 3.2. 4. INTRODUCTION ContextandOverview BackgroundonSAICM OverviewofSAICMOutcomesandDecisions LinkagesbetweenSAICMandAgenda21 NATIONAL SAICM CAPACITY ASSESSMENT Objectives MainComponentsofSAICMCapacityAssessment AssessmentoftheGovernanceFramework AreasforGovernanceAssessment AssessmentofCapacitiesforImportantChemicalsManagementIssues AreasforChemicalManagementAssessment PRIORITY ISSUES RELATED TO CHEMICAL LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN PriorityIssueRelatedtoGovernance PriorityIssuesRelatedtoCapacitiesforChemicalsManagement RECOMMENDATIONS RecommendationsforGovernanceIssues RecommendationsforImportantandUrgentChemicalsManagementIssues CONCLUSION 2 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6 14 14 26 26 27 29 29 30 32 ANNEXURES 38 Annexure1:WorksheetforGovernanceAssessment 39 Annexure2:WorksheetforIdentificationofImportantandUrgentChemicalsManagementIssues 69 International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page1
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM 1. Introduction 1.1. Context and Overview The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) was adopted by the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM) at its first session in Dubai in February 2006. An important objective of SAICM at the national level is to build upon existing chemicals management initiatives in various sectors and strengthen coordination and coherence among various government and stakeholder initiatives. A second important objective is to link these activities to national development planning (e.g. National Sustainable Development Strategies, UN Development Assistance Frameworks, Poverty Reduction Strategies, etc). In order to achieve these objectives, the SAICM Overarching Policy Strategy (OPS) states that: "To sustain an integrated approach to managing chemicals, each Government should establish arrangements for implementing the Strategic Approach on an inter-ministerial or inter-institutional basis so that all concerned national departmental and stakeholderinterestsare representedandallrelevantsubstantiveareasare addressed" (SAICM OPS,Para.23). SAICM provides valuable opportunities to build upon these activities and develop a long-term strategic approach at the national level towards reaching the WSSD 2020 goal for sound chemicals management. Such a strategic approach for national management of chemicals would need,as calledforbySAICM, action bygovernment and non-governmental stakeholders (including the business sector and non-governmental organizations), as well as between two or moreplayersinvolvedinchemicalsmanagement. 1.2. Background on SAICM The SAICM development process, which started formally through a series of sessions of a Preparatory Committee ("PrepComs") commencing in 2003, included a number of key milestones, including: UNEP Governing Council, February2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, September2002 World Health Assembly, May2003 International Labour Conference, June 2003 World Summit, NewYork, September 2005 SAICM PrepComs 1, 2 & 3 First session of the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM), February2006 The development process was multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder in nature, involving representatives of governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) drawn from sectors such as agriculture, environment, health, industry, and labour. UNEP, the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page2
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS)wereco-convenersoftheprocess. Development of SAICM culminated with its adoption by the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM) at its first session, which was held in Dubai in February 2006. SAICM consists of three core documents (see below), supplemented by four resolutions adopted by the ICCM on implementation arrangements, the Quick Start Programme, a tribute to the Government of the United Arab Emirates and on the IFCS. It is expected that the second session of the ICCM will be held in 2009 in order to review implementation and take stockofprogress. 1.3. Overview of SAICM Outcomes and Decisions The overall objective of the Strategic Approach is to support the achievement of the 2020 goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). The mainoutcomesof theSAICMprocessarethree keydocuments: i. Dubai Declaration on International Chemicals Management The Dubai Declaration, adopted by Ministers, heads of delegation and representatives of civil society and the private sector, provides an agreed overview of the political commitments made for SAICM. It reflects their "firm commitment to the Strategic Approach and its implementation." In particular, in reinforces the importance of issues such as the linkage of sound chemicals management to sustainable development and poverty eradication, contribution of SAICM to the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals), implementation of international agreements, and the roles of non-governmental stakeholders and importance of partnerships. ii. Overarching Policy Strategy (OPS) The OPS provides information on the scope of SAICM, identifies needs for effective SAICM implementation, and outlines objectives, principles, and financial and implementation arrangements.Thefive categoriesof SAICMobjectivesfound in the OPS are: Risk reduction; Knowledge and information; Governance; Capacity-building and technical cooperation; and Illegal international traffic. iii. The Global Plan of Action (GPA) The GPA is a more detailed document that outlines proposed work areas, activities, actors, timeframes, targets, and indicators of progress related to SAICM implementation. The GPA contains 36 work areas, and 273 activities, structured in accordance with the five categories of SAICM objectives set out in the OPS. It is recommended for use and further development as a working tool and guidance document for stakeholders implementing SAICM. Implementation International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page3
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM of the Strategic Approach at the national level (including the initial "enabling phase") is suggested to include the development of national implementation plans. Initial capacity building activities for implementation of Strategic Approach objectives are supported, inter alia, bya Quick Start Programme (QSP).3 The QSP contains a voluntary, time- limited trust fund, administered by UNEP, and may include multilateral, bilateral and other forms of cooperation. The objective of the QSP is to "support initial enabling capacity building and implementation activities in developing countries, least developed countries, small island developing States and countries with economies in transition" (ICCM Resolution I/4). 1.4. Linkages between SAICM and Agenda 21 From a national capacity building perspective, SAICM gives more specific guidance to countries for the implementation relevant provisions of Agenda 21, agreed at the Rio "Earth Summit" in 1992. When adopting Chapter 19, the Heads of State at the Rio Summit concluded that elements of sound national chemicals management should include the following: a. adequate legislation; b. information gathering and dissemination; c. capacity for risk assessment and interpretation; d. establishment of risk management policy; e. capacity for implementation and enforcement; f. capacity for rehabilitation of contaminated sites and poisoned persons; g. effective education programmes; and h. Capacityto respond to emergencies. In developing the approach and methodology for the national SAICM capacity assessment, a practical approach has been taken by building upon and bringing together the core elements outlinedabove. Pakistan is signatory to the SAICM. The Implementation of SAICM in Pakistan will affect a large number of stakeholders belonging to public, private sectors and civil society along with interest groups like labour organizations. The IC Wing Ministry of Environment is the focal point for implementation of SAICM in Pakistan which is striving to carve out a way forward in consultation with major stakeholders. First consultation with civil society organizations was held on 14th November 2008. First meeting for establishment of Inter-Ministerial Coordination Mechanism was held on 3rd January 2009. International Coordination has been established through UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research). A UNITAR Mission arrived in Pakistan from 19-27 January 2009 which held discussions with the Federal Minister, Secretary, Additional Secretary and Joint Secretary Ministry of Environment as wellaswith some otherstakeholderssuch asPakEPA and FBRetc. The Mission discussed in detail the possible course of action and possible pitfalls with the National SAICM Coordinator /National Project Manager MEAs Secretariat. Meeting of National Technical International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page4
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Advisory Committee on Chemicals (NTACC) was held on 21st April 2009 which made decisions on regulating manufacture, import, export and use of various chemicals falling under international conventions. The initial consultations built consensus that following actions need to be taken on priority for the development of an action Plan for integrated chemicals management in Pakistan: 1. Development of a National Chemicals Profile. 2. Capacity Assessment for Implementation of SAICM 3. Mass Awareness through Civil Society organizations about harmful effects of chemicals on daily life of citizens with special reference to labour working in industries and agriculture. NationalProfilePreparation Assessing and diagnosing the existing infrastructure for the sound management of chemicals is an important step towards building national capacity in a systematic way and is also an important element of preparing for SAICM Implementation. In order to provide baseline information about existing chemicals management infrastructure and activities, the National Chemical Profile was prepared through an extensive consultative process with the stakeholders from across the country. These stakeholders are involved in activities related to chemical life cycle. The National Chemical Profile has provided us a broader understanding of the current situation related to chemical life cycle i.e. production, import, export, transport, storage, use and disposal. It has also provided with the information about ministries/agencies which are involved in the field of chemicals management, and their respective roles, mandates, existing legal instruments, technical infrastructure, coordination mechanism and data available related to chemicalsinPakistan. CapacityAssessmentandPrioritySetting As called for by ICCM in relation to the SAICM QSP, an important enabling activity for national SAICM implementation is the development of a capacity assessment (including identification of priorities) as an essential step towards preparing a SAICM implementation plan. 2. NationalSAICMCapacityAssessment 2.1. Objectives Building on the information in a National Profile and other sources, the capacity assessment is intended to document and evaluate existing national capacities of Pakistan for SAICM implementation. Specific objectives of the Assessment include the following: to catalyze a process of collaboration between government and stakeholders towards understanding and identifying priority needs for SAICM implementation; to facilitate identification of action in government and within stakeholder groups which collectively contribute to SAICM implementation; to identify selected areas where partnership projects between government and stakeholdergroups,orbetween variousstakeholdergroups,maybefeasible;and International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page5
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM To set the stage for preparation of a SAICM Implementation Plan which is linked to, as appropriate, an integratednationalprogrammefor sound chemicalsmanagement. The Overarching Policy Strategy (OPS, paragraph 2) of SAICM calls for the involvement of government and all relevant non-governmental stakeholder groups. While developing the capacity assessment, the involvement of various stakeholder groups has been considered, for example, industry, labour organizations, environmental and health NGOs, research and academia, etc. In this regards the guideline developed byUNITAR have been followed. 2.2. Main Components of SAICM CapacityAssessment National Capacity Assessment for sound management of chemicals involves two main components: i) Anassessmentofthenationalgovernanceframework ii) Anassessmentofcapacitiesforselectedchemicalissuesandpriorities 2.3. Assessmentofthe Governance Framework Development of a governance framework for SAICM implementation is very significant for sound management of chemicals. Sound governance can provide an important enabling platform which can help to ensure that chemical management activities are effectively planned and co-ordinated, that working relationships for government and stakeholders in SAICM implementation are in place, and that chemical management issues are "mainstreamed" in national development planning. An assessment of governance issues and taking action where needed can assist in ensuring that there is high-level support to implement SAICM and provide a basis for developing a coordinated national programme for SAICM implementation. 2.3.1. i. ii. iii. iv. v. AreasforGovernanceAssessment Integrating chemicals management into national development priorities Sound institutional and programmatic national framework Effective project planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation Legislationandenforcement Participation of private sector and civil society in chemical management For each of the five issues during the assessment information was collected on the following; i. Strength of existing capacities (high, medium, low) ii. Existinggapsorproblemsiii. Possibleaction iv. Level of Priority The worksheet in Annex 1 has been developed to assist in compiling and analyzing the above information. Activities related Global Plan of Action (GPA) has been considered while making theassessment. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page6
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM 2.3.1.1. Mechanisms for Integrating Chemicals Management into Development Priorities Strengths: The backbone of Pakistan's environmental protection system is Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) 1997, which provides a comprehensive legislative authority to address the range of environmental issues with its jurisdiction over all environmental mediums and grant of broad powers to regulatory bodies to implement any rules developed under the act. Under the provisions of PEPA various rules have been made and implemented for national environmental quality standards, pollution charge for industry, environmental sampling, sustainable development fund, environmental impact assessment of development projects and establishment of environmental tribunals. Under the PEPA the federal government has the authority to delegate any of its environmental management functions and powers to provincial governments, government agencies, or local authorities. Provincial governments in turn may delegate powers to any lower-tiered government agency. This provision establishes a framework for environmental federalism within which environmental management responsibilities are shared among federal, provincial andlocalgovernments. The ministerial setup required for sound chemical management is well established with clearly defined mandates. No new ministry is required exclusively for chemicals management. Beside, due attention has been given to the pests and pesticide management in national and provincial sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction paper of Pakistan. SAICM is being implemented and the National Chemical Profile hasbeen prepared and capacityassessment is being carried out which will be followed by National Action Plan. Socio-economicdata which isessentialforchemical life cycle management isprimarilycollected and analyze by Federal Bureau of Statistics FBS. These data are collected from primary and Secondary Sources. The primary data are collected through different surveys such as Labour Force Survey (LFS), Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES), Pakistan Integrated Household Survey(PIHS), and Pakistan Demographic Survey(PDS) etc. Secondarydata such as Foreign Trade Statistics, Industrial Statistics, Transport and Communication Statistics, Social Statistics, Agriculture Statistics, Environment statistics etc. are collected from the records of concerned Ministries/Departments. Gaps: According to the Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration there is a need to promote the internalization of the environmental costs and the use of economic instruments. Adaptation of such approaches is required that polluter should bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page7
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM There is a lack of harmonized national chemical information system in Pakistan. Usually the information is collected for various other purposes on different parameters and synthesis of such data is difficult for chemical management. There is no inventory system related to chemical accidents, chemical poisoning cases, drinking water contamination, food contamination, hot spots of chemical pollution, stocks and storage sites of obsolete chemicals, transportation and storage of chemicals, required for chemical management. Although pest and pesticide management have been included in the national poverty reduction strategy paper but the capacity building for sound management of chemicals in general is not included. There is a limited coordination between policy makers industry and in policy making process. The capacity to undertake social and economic impact assessment of chemical production and use is also low in the country. There is a dire need of integrating capacity building policies for sound management of chemicals within ministries involved in chemical life cycle. Generally the capacities of government institutions in terms of technical human resource, financial resource and infrastructure are limited. The capacity building for sound management of chemicals in general is not included in the national poverty reduction and strategy paper and country assistance strategies. 2.3.1.2. ASoundInstitutionalandProgrammaticNationalFramework Strengths: A multilateral approach is being adopted for chemical management in the country through implementation of SAICM. For the implementation, the focal points are well defined, their duties are laiddown and implementations are at various stages. NTACC has a cross sectoral representation and will be playing a vital role in technical guidance and decision making process in future. At present some resources have been provided for implementation of various Chemical Conventions under National Development Framework. Chemical management in Pakistan is done through a well defined governmental structure where responsibilities and mandates of various ministries, agencies, and attached departments related to different aspects or categories of chemicals are defined through these legal instruments. By acts enacted by the parliament, specific institutions have been created and theirauthoritiesand powers have been defined to manage chemicals. Officials of ministries and government agencies often attend training courses, seminars, workshopson policyissues, legalframeworkandenvironmentalmanagementin general. Trade organizations/ chambers of commerce also participate in activities organized by ministries and other government institutions. A multi-stakeholder approach was adopted while preparing National Chemical Profile and Action Plan. This involved stakeholders from all relevant ministries, government departments, NGOs, CSOs, and industry. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page8
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Trade organizations are playing an important role in implementation of international voluntary initiatives like ISO etc. Few NGOs and trade organizations are also involved in information dissemination and policy analysis. Industries are cooperating to some extent in Pak-EPA's SMART programme and playing some role in raising public awareness. Integrated pest management strategies have been developed and implemented in the country. E-government has been established for the fast pace communication system within the government, for public to government as well as with other countries. Gaps: Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) are yet to be implemented in Pakistan. National information system related to chemical life cycle and global information network at national level for delivery of chemical safety information are not present. Government departments have low capacities to implement integrated pest management strategies at grass root level due to lack of financial and technical capacities. The cooperation and coordination among ministries is also lacking. There is a very limited interaction of trade organizations with inter-governmental institutions. Despite considerable role in awareness raising and implementation of voluntary programmes, there are no initiatives taken by trade unions and NGOs for capacity building and development of expertise for sampling, testing and research on environmental pollution caused by industrial processes. There is a need to create some mechanism of standardizing NGOs so that they can play some vital role in monitoring andinspections. The role of women is limited in chemical management especially in agriculture sector due to lack of awareness. Moreover, there is no harmonized data collection system, inventory and reporting system. Information network for early warning systems, for cross-boundarymovement of hazardous substances and chemical waste is lacking. Preliminary hazard analysis and guidelines for hazard identification for government institutions, industry, importers and exporters are also absent. Storage facilities are devoid of any health and safety measures. Clearing House Mechanism is not present in the country. Access to updated information in government departments and industry is difficult for academia and common public. There is no global information network established for early warning systems regarding cross- boundarymovement of hazardous chemicals in Pakistan. Such system may be developed with help of UNEP, ILO, WHO, and FAO etc. 2.3.1.3. EffectiveProjectPlanning,Implementation,MonitoringandEvaluation Strengths: To give due attention to environmental issues and sustainable development projects in the country funds are allocated in annual, Medium Term and Long Term Development Framework. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page9
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Gaps: The capacities of Planning Commission and provincial departments to plan projects relevant to management of chemicals are generally very low. The main constraints to project implementation are the lack of capacities of government departments due to lack of technical knowledge, poor infrastructure, and limited experienced human resource. Beside these, the funds are often diverted to cater other urgent needs due to financial crunches. The targeted chemical riskassessment approach isseldom seen in majordevelopment projects. The capacity and technical knowledge regarding the monitoring of priority contaminants is generally low. There is a lack of evaluation of socioeconomic and chronic impacts of chemicals used in different sectors. The disaster management, development planning and environmental management institutions operate in isolation. There is dearth of knowledge and limited capacity of hazard identification, risk assessment & management, and linkages between livelihoods and disaster preparedness related to chemical accidents, within disaster managementbodies. 2.3.1.4. LegislationandEnforcement Strengths: Pollution prevention concept is present in various legislations and environmental policies e.g. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Stockholm Convention, Rotterdam Convention, Basel Convention, ILO conventions and IMO conventions related to chemicals have been ratified and are being implemented in the country. The implementation plans have been made, whereas focal points are established and working for implementation of multilateral environmentalagreementsrelatedtochemicals. Pollution prevention concept is present in various legislations and environmental policies. Pakistan Environmental Act clearly defines pollution prevention and need to implement programmes and activities to control chemical pollution. There exists sufficient legislation related to different aspects of life cycle of chemicals, especially with reference to import, export and production. No new laws are required but certain amendments are urgently required to address the priority issues identified for chemical management in the country. For promoting private-public partnerships in the sound management of chemicals and wastes, National Technical Advisory Committee on Chemicals is established consisting of members from public as well private sector. The relevant international instruments on chemicals and hazardous waste e.g. Stockholm Convention, Rotterdam Convention, Basel Convention, ILO conventions and IMO conventions have been ratified and are being implemented in the country. Their implementationplanshavebeenmadeinmostcases. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page10
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Gaps: Most of the existing legislation was not enacted for the specific purpose of chemical life cycle management in particular e.g. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, The Motor Vehicle Act, The Railways Act, Explosive Substances Act, Mines Act, fatal Accidents Act, does not cover all aspects of chemical management. Therefore their environmental content is ancillary. There does not exist any law directly related to transport and storage, use and disposal of chemicals. Explosive act is present but that too does not cover all aspect of chemical handling and safety. Legislation related to consumer chemicals including food product is very poor. This is causing serious health hazards due to uncheck use of chemicals in consumer and food products. Penalties for environmental offences are generally punitive rather than reformatory. The approach is counterproductive since punishment may induce future restraint but it does not rectifythe damage committed. For anylawto be successfullyimplemented the penaltymust be stringent enough to deter the felon. A fine of Rs. 500 on an industrialist for discharging his units'industrialwaste inthe nearbystreammayprovidenodeterrence. The cases of adulterations in chemicals, if any are dealt with under the pure food rules. Similarly, no specialized legislation exists to control the import, production, storage, transportation, distribution, use/handling of any kind of chemicals except that the disposal/handling of toxic and hazardous substances are dealt with under the Pakistan Penal CodeandtheExplosivesAct,1884andHazardousSubstancesRules,2006. The effectiveness and enforcement of regulatoryframework is verypoor. The major drawbacks are with the inspections, monitoring, vigilance and public awareness. There is a serious lack of trained technical human resource in every related department. This can be enhanced with the properlyaccredited NGOsfor such purpose. Pakistan, at present, like manydeveloping countries of the world, does not have comprehensive occupational health and safety laws. The incidence of injuries and illnesses is probably very high in Pakistan because thousandsof workersare routinelyexposed to hazardouschemicalsin many industries and agriculture. However, there is no reliable data on occupational safety and health injuries and illnesses because a majority of accidents are not reported to the regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies do not have an effective enforcement policy or strict requirements for reporting injuries and illness at workplaces. An overview of current laws/regulations related to occupational safety and health shows that there are several laws on the book, such as Factories Act, 1934; Provincial Factories Rules; Hazardous Occupations Rules, 1963; Mines Act, 1923; West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969; Provincial Employees Social Security Ordinance, 1965; Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923 and Dock Labourers Act, 1934. The current regulations are, however, fragmented and there is no single comprehensive piece of legislation dealing with occupationalsafetyandhealth. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page11
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM There is no formal legislative process for setting up new standards, codes of practice and occupational exposure limits. Whatever exists on the book is frequently hampered with repeated martial laws. The current outdated Factories Act, established in 1934, requires only a very basic level of safety and health measures. There are no guidelines for minimum qualifications or employment of health and safety professionals in the industry. Several important sectors, such as agriculture, construction and informal/self-employed are not even coveredunderanylaw. Although, several occupational diseases, such as anthrax, Byssinosis, compressed air illness, poisoning by lead tetraethyl, poisoning by nitrous fumes, lead poisoning, phosphorus poisoning, mercury poisoning, poisoning by benzene & homologues, chrome ulceration, arsenic poisoning, pathological disorders due to X-rays, radium or radioactive materials, primary epithliomatous cancer of skin, silicosis, etc., are covered under the Social Security Ordinance and Workmen's Compensation Act but the reporting mechanism is so poor that veryfewgetthebenefits. The implementation of existing environmental laws, policies, international conventions, programmes and activities is low due to low level of technical and financial capacities of law enforcing institutions, lack of proper infrastructures, limited knowledge of FAO and WHO specificationson pesticides among decision makersand lowlevelof awareness and knowledge of lifecyclemanagementconceptamongenvironmentalmanagers. There is a need to develop national strategies for prevention, detection and control of illegal traffic, including the strengthening of laws, judicial mechanisms and the capacity of customs administrations and other national authorities to control and prevent illegal shipments of toxic andhazardouschemical. The Representation of ministry for Petroleum & Natural Resources, Labour, Railway, Communication, Ports & Shipping, National Disaster Management Cell, and Rescue 115 Service is lacking in NTACC. The participation of academia, heads of departments of chemical technology, chemistry and environmental sciences of the major universities of the country may also be included in the committee. A sustainable financial mechanism for capacity building of institutions is lacking consisting of incentive measures for skilled human resource. The same is also required for introduction of new technologies.We need also to consider approaches to facilitate and strengthen synergies and coordination between chemicals and waste conventions, including by developing common structures. In this regard pilot projects to pursue implementation of coordination between the national focal points of chemicals-related multilateral environmental agreements (Rotterdam, Stockholm and Basel Conventions and Montreal Protocol) may be developed to achieve synergies in their implementation. At present Pakistan has limited technical as well as financial capacitiesto implementtheseconventions. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page12
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM There is a low capacity of agencies responsible for compliance and accountability and effective enforcement and monitoring programmes. There is a little development and application of economic instruments for pollution control. The economic incentives should be given to industriesto reduce theirwaste emission and properdisposalof wastes. The measures taken to encourage sustainable and cleaner production technologies, in particular best available techniques and best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) are ineffective so far and their impact is very little. These technologies are very expensive therefore need specialincentive measuresto promote these technologies in the industry. 2.3.1.5. Participation of the Private Sector and Civil Society in Chemical Management Strengths: There are a large number of non-governmental organizations and community based organizations working in the country in areas like consumer protection, environment, natural resource management, pollution control, labour welfare, health and gender issues etc. These organizations are working in isolation. Participation of private sector and civil society in policy making and policy implementation is very important for chemical management in the country. Although in Pakistan these stakeholders are playing their role in policy making and implementation process but there participation is limited. The private sector and civil society fully participate in meetings, seminars, conferences and workshops. Some of the important NGOs, CSOs and trade associations are part of committees made for chemical management. These organizations are playing a vital role in implementation of international voluntary initiatives like ISO standards 9000, 14000 and OHSAS 18001. They are also cooperating in Pak-EPA's SMART programme for self monitoring and reporting. NGOs have direct linkage with local communities hence their role in dissemination of information and creating awareness among workers and local population is veryeffective. They arrange seminars, workshops, focal groups meetings and interact with common man. NGOs have right to access to environmental tribunals, labour courts and other similar institutions for any complaint related communities benefit. NGOs have the capacities for policyanalysis, legislation, and research on alternatives, trainings, education, data collection/dissemination and raising awareness. Only few NGOs have these capabilities collectively. The cross cutting capacities are very important to deal with the chemicalmanagement in the country. Gaps: International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page13
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM A good number of NGOs and CSOs are working for environmental issues but there is no NGO, CBO, working exclusively for chemical management in Pakistan. There role is indirect. NGOs and CSOs require capacity building in chemical management exclusively. There is very little coordination among these organizations and government agencies. There is need to develop a framework to promote the active involvement of these non-governmental organizations, CSOs, managers, workers and trade unions in all enterprises - private, public and civil service (formal and informal sector) - in the sound management of chemicals and wastes. Thereisaneedto create somemechanismof standardizingtheseorganizationssothattheycan play some vital role in monitoring and inspections. Once some mechanism for accredit non- governmental organization is brought in they can play better role in dealing with environmentalissues. Through an innovative consultation processes, such as mediated discussions, with the help of private sector, NGOs and CSOs, efforts should be made to find common ground and agreement amongaffected sectorsof societyon critical issuesthat impede effortsto achieve the soundmanagementofchemicals. There should be a broader representation of civil society and private sector in National Technical advisory Committee on Chemicals (NTACC), carrying out and monitoring SAICM implementation plans. Private sector should be encouraged for use of voluntary initiatives (e.g., Responsible Care and FAO Code of Conduct) to promote corporate social responsibility for the safe production and use of all products, including through the development of approaches that reduce human and environmentalrisks. 2.4.AssessmentofCapacitiesforImportantChemicalsManagementIssues The assessment of chemicals management capacities includes specific chemical management issues such as chemicals information generation and dissemination, risk reduction, import control, etc. 2.4.1 i. ii. iii. iv. v. AreasforChemicalManagementAssessment Information Generation and dissemination Risk reduction EducationandAwarenessraising Accident Prevention and Control Analyticaland LaboratoryCapacity While doing assessment of chemical management issues, classification and labelling, safe handling and use of pesticides, training and chemical accidents have been considered International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page14
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM important areas. For each of the five issues during the assessment information was collected on the following; i. Strength of existing capacities (high, medium, low) ii. Existinggapsorproblemsiii. Possibleaction iv. Level of Priority The worksheet in Annex 2 has been developed to assist in identifying the priorities of the various issues. The activities included in SAICM GPA have been considered while doing ChemicalManagementAssessment. 2.4.1.1. Informationgenerationanddissemination Strengths: Pakistan has implemented "Harmonized System" (HS) of nomenclature to assign specific HS codes to individual chemicals or group of chemicals listed in Annex III to the Rotterdam convention, adopted by World Customs Organization in June 2004. The HS Code system is a system of progressivelymore specificidentifiersfora commodity. EPA has setup emission inventory system in major cities. Pesticides residue research centers have been established in various cities in the country. Eco-toxicology centre has been established at NARC. A programme is being implemented through it to monitor pesticide residues in food and the environment. At present few toxicology centers are working in Karachi, Faisalabad Multan and Islamabad. Other facilities associated with manyhospitals are just treating the poisoning cases Gaps: Chemicals, through their life cycle, i.e. production, import, export, transport, use, storage and disposal pose a real danger to human health and environment. People of any ages, from children to elderly, using many different languages and alphabets, belonging to various social conditions, including illiterates, are daily confronted to dangers of chemicals and pesticides. To face this danger and keeping in mind the extensive global trade in chemicals and need for safe handling of these chemicals through their life cycle, a new system "Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of Chemicals" (GHS) has been introduce. This system addresses classification of chemicals by types of hazards, and proposes harmonized communication elements including labels and safety data sheets. GHS aims at ensuring that information on physical hazards and toxicity from chemicals is available in order to enhance the protection of human health and environment during chemical life cycle. The third revised edition has been published on GHS has been published in July2009. GHS is not implemented in Pakistan and the present capacities for its implementation in Pakistan are very low. In fact there is a very little knowledge about GHS in Pakistan. In this International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page15
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM regard, GHS awareness-raising, training and capacity-building, GHS action plan development, national situation analysis and implementation plan should be developed on priority basis. A key component of the sound management of chemicals, and one required in many international agreements, is the capacity to gather information. This is also a priority area in many developing countries. Information gathering and systemization may take the form of chemical inventories or lists, supplemented by a means for disseminating the gathered information (information exchange). This can be done by developing separate inventories of chemicals or emissions, or consolidate the efforts within more integrated approaches such as the development of Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRS). Pakistan has to yet initiate its toxic releases inventory (TRI) or National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Such inventories should include industries, residential, transportation, incineration, roads, forest fires and more. Pollutants from mobile sources such as trucks and cars, households, facilities that release pollutant on smaller scale by certain sectors such as agriculture, education, and mining activities mayalso be included. Pakistan has low capacities for assessment of exposure to different chemicals. There is a need for setting priorities for action for determining the impact of chemicals on human health. A mechanism has to be established to share and disseminate information that can be used to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment. Health surveillance programmes should be established with more poisoning information and control centers and systems for data collection and analysis and enhance the capacity of present facilities. The pesticide monitoring facilities are present in the countryin some regions but their technical capacities should be enhanced. At present few toxicology centers are working in Karachi, Faisalabad Multan and Islamabad. Other facilities associated with many hospitals are just treating the poisoning cases. Eco- toxicology centre has been established at NARC. These facilities are often facing shortage of trained human resource and technical facilities. Collection of data is very poor on the use patterns of chemicals to support risk assessment characterization and communication. There is a need to develop objective indicators for evaluating the influence of chemicals on human health and the environment. Institutional as well as individual capacities in Pakistan for risk assessment of chemical use and exposures are poor. Very few studies have been made by individual efforts but without developing indicators. There is a need to develop training and guidance programmes to assist in the preparation of initial national assessments of groups of chemicals posing risk for human health and the environment, including, persistent bio-accumulative and toxic substances, (PBTs); verypersistentandverybio-accumulative substances; chemicalsthatarecarcinogensor mutagens or that adversely affect, inter alia, the reproductive, endocrine, immune or nervous system; and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), children's environmental health, and the identification of priority concerns. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page16
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Infrastructure for research that may reduce uncertainty in risk assessment is required in related organizations. There is a big gap in scientific knowledge for risk assessment among concerned people. Public organizations as well as NGOs should develop a general framework for capacity building in risk assessment in order to improve understanding of the impact of natural disasters on releases of harmful chemicals and resulting human and wildlife exposures, as well aspossiblemeasurestomitigatethem. 2.4.1.2. RiskReduction Strengths: Programme for integrated pest management is being implemented. EIA has been made mandatory for all development projects. Chemicals listed in Rotterdam Convention have been banned in Pakistan. Lead has been eliminated from gasoline where as mercury programme is being implemented in the country. Pesticide registration and control system has been established which controls risks from the initial point of production and formulation. Few studies have been conducted to identify obsolete Pesticides contaminated sites under the implementation of Stockholm Convention. Very limited facilities for remediation of contaminated sitesand disposalof obsolete chemicals exist in somemajorcitiesin Pakistan. Gaps: There is lackof preventive strategiesforchemicalsafetyand targeted riskassessment approach in the country. FAO International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides is not being fully implemented. Pesticide registration and control system does not control the disposal of obsolete products or containers. Few studies have been conducted to identify obsolete Pesticides contaminated sites under the implementation of Stockholm Convention. There are limited facilities, know-how and technical expertise available for remediation of contaminatedsitesanddisposalof obsoletechemicals.Integratedpestmanagementprogramme is being implemented but there isno integrated vectormanagement programme. Present legislation related to health and safety of workers at their workplace is insufficient. There is a lack of health impact assessment system in development activities. Occupational health & safety policies are also not present in the country; therefore, there is lack of training and sensitization on chemical safetyfor those exposed to chemicals at various work places. The existing legislation does not cover the entire spectrum of work situations in which chemicals are handled, including such sectors as agriculture and health, to protect the health of workers and the public. Existing system of health and environmental impact assessment in chemicals handling is poorly managed such assessments should be incorporated in occupational safety and health programmes. ILO safe work standards, ILO guidelines on occupational safety and health management system (ILO-OSH 2001) are poorly implemented in industry in Pakistan. The chemical life cycle management approach is lacking in national occupational safety and health policies. Integrated health and safety programmes for public health and safety practitioners and International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page17
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM professionals with an emphasis on identification, assessment and control of occupational chemical risk factors at workplaces in industry as well as agriculture are established only in few enterprises. Workers are exposed to chemicals in most of the small and medium enterprises. They are not provided with appropriate protective equipment. There does not exist national inspection systemsfor the protection of employeesfrom the adverseeffectsof chemicalsand to encourage dialogue between employers and employees to maximize chemical safety and minimize workplace hazards. The role of Public media is limited in chemical-safety-related information dissemination among generalpublic. The know-how and technical expertise are not available for remediation of contaminated sites and disposal of obsolete chemicals. There are few incinerations facilities present in some hospitalsoperatedbyprivatesector.TheWastedisposalplanshavebeenpreparedandin some cases under implementation in fewmajor cities of Pakistan. The monitoring mechanism for chemical impacts of dumps and landfills and waste facilities on human health and national strategies for prevention, detection and control of illegal trans- boundarymovementsof wastearealsolacking. 2.4.1.3. EducationandAwarenessRaising Strengths: The education related to chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering and chemical technology is well established in nearly all universities in Pakistan in public as well as private sector. Chemistry is taught as a compulsory subject in schools and as elective in colleges. Workshops, seminars and lectures are arranged on chemical issues and pollution in public organizations as well as by NGOs. Health and safety awareness raising measures are taken in large enterprises especially in multinational organizations. Ministry of Environment celebrate Environment Days and walks are arranged for awareness of common public on environmental issues. Gaps: With reference Chapter 19, Agenda 21, a national Chemical Information system is required by standardization of chemical information on electronic data interchange formats according to UN EDIFACT procedures. Pakistan is lacking such harmonized chemical information and dissemination system. There is no Toxic Releases Inventory (TRI) or National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) system developed with free access to general public in the country. There isalso nonational inventorysystemfor chemicaluse, transport, storage and disposal. Chemical risk assessment and chemical hazard assessment studies and chemical life cycle management issues and requirements are not included in university curricula. At present, there are no degree programs in the environmental health and safety (EHS) discipline in the country. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page18
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Few institutions, such as the Institute of Public Health, Lahore, and the University of Lahore, however, offer some basic courses. Also, there are no guidelines on EHS core curriculum at national level. Several limitations have prevented the development of occupational health and safety (OHS) culture in the country. The lack of formal education, absence of a national focal institution for providing training and advisory services, lack of strict requirements by the enforcement agencies for authentic data collection and reporting, lenient enforcement of the law, lack of technically qualified personnel for inspection services that can recognize and evaluate occupational hazards, lack of Inter-agency coordination at the government level, inadequate funding for OSH programs and limited expertise at the policy making level, as well as illiteracy of the workforce are some of the handicaps which have inhibited growth of safety culture. TheseissuesneedtobeaddressedbeforeOSHculturecanestablishitsrootsinPakistan. There are limited opportunities for trainings of people at risk to chemical exposure on safe handling of chemicals, policy makers and planners. In small industries workers are uninformed of the hazards posed by the chemicals they are using at their workplace. Illiteracy and poverty are the main causes among others for it besides the lake of capacities and knowledge of law enforcing agencies. There are no measures taken for awareness raising of waste handlers and small-scale recyclers from the hazards of handling and recycling chemical wasteacrossthecountry. Training opportunities needed to develop capacity in legislative approaches, policy formulation, analysis and management, to detect and prevent illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous goods and hazardous wastes, cleaner production techniques and to create linkage between trade and environment, including needed negotiating skills are required. R & D organizations have very few training programmes for necessary testing of chemicals for their management across their life cycle. The know-how of technical manpower engaged in these organizations is limited for safe handling and chemical management issues. The capacitiesandknow-howof emergencyresponseagenciesispoorindealingchemicaldisasters. Moreover, the knowledge for cleaner production technologies is low. Awareness of consumers, in particular on best practices for chemical use, about the risks that the chemicals they use pose to themselves and their environment and the pathways by which exposuresoccurislow.Consumersarealwaysatriskof chemicalhazardsposedbypreservatives and other chemicalsusedin food items. 2.4.1.4. Accidentpreventionandcontrol Strengths: National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) headed by the Prime Minister and the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has included Industrial/Chemical Accidents Contingency Plan in its major initiatives. NDMA has been mandated to established International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page19
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM technical committees to assist local, provincial or national authorities in identifying issues and problems and devising solutions in areas like, Industrial and mines accidents, Major transportation accidents, Marine disasters, including oil spills, Nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological accidents, Urban and forest fires, etc. Roles and responsibilities described in this part refer to functions that are expected to be performed by concerned stakeholders with relation to disaster risk reduction, preparedness, response and recovery after disasters. The Ministry of Environment is responsible for following; Develop disaster risk management plan for risk reduction and response with relation to Ministry'smandate; Incorporate Natural Disaster RiskAssessment in theEnvironmentalImpact Assessment guidelines; Develop technical capacities of the staff of ministry to undertake disaster risk assessment and disaster risk reduction activities in the environment sector; Undertake assessment of vulnerability of natural resources (forest, lakes, streams, mangroves, coral reefs, protected areas, coastal areas) to natural and human induced hazards; Implement programmes for conservation and rehabilitation of natural resources in order to reduce risks of natural hazards; e.g. reforestation, mangrove plantation, combatingdesertification,conservation of specialnaturalresources; e.g. wetlands, lakes, reefs,mangroves,andcoastalareas; Allocate resources for implementation of programmes to conserve and rehabilitate the natural resource base,particularlyin up-stream areas of the IndusRiverbasin; Develop mechanisms for assessment of environmental losses and damages in the aftermath of disasters and their rehabilitation; Ministry of Industries, Production and Special Initiatives is responsible for following; Develop disaster risk management plan with regards to the mandate of the Ministry; Develop guidelines for industrial sector to ensure safety of industry and its production processesinhazard-proneareas; Establish systems to monitor implementation of guidelines by industrial sector; Develop system of incentives and disincentives for industry to promote application of disastersafety; Implement awareness raising programmes for industrial sector including Chambers of Commerce and Industry (CCI) on integrating disaster risk assessment and vulnerability reduction in project planning and implementation stages; Prepare inventories of industries based upon the type of chemicals and raw materials used in theirproductsand the dangersposed byvarious typesof industries; Initiate demonstration programmes on industrial disaster preparedness; International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page20
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Develop safetycodesfor all industries to reduce risks of industrial and chemical hazards and to ensure vulnerability reduction from natural hazards; DevelopSOPsforemergencyresponsetoindustrialdisasters; Develop physical capability to manage all types of likely industrial disasters including chemicaldisasters; Monitor and encourage implementation of safety codes in industry; And Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources is required to; Develop disaster risk management plan with regards to the mandate of the Ministry; Develop guidelines for safety in oil/gas, fire and mining sectors; Integrate risk assessment and risk reduction in planning and implementation of projectsintheabovesectors; Implement awareness raising programmes for staff in the oil, gas, fire and mining sectors; DevelopSOPsforemergencyresponsetodisastersintheabovesectors; Through the GeologicalSurveyof Pakistan (GSP)conduct research on hazard mapping andproduceuserfriendlymaps; Gaps: There is no formal or informal mechanism in place to investigate a chemical incident and its outcome in the country, a standardized format for collecting the information about the incident should be developed by the Pak-EPA. Investigations leading to a formal enquiry about the causes and responsibilities of various parties involved are often made these investigations never lead to a follow-up activity, in general. The record for chemicals incidents and disasters is never kept in organized manners at any agency. The do not exist any follow-up surveillance and rehabilitation mechanism in the health service for exposed persons who may suffer long term disabilities and sequelae and Government level. Generally some NGOs are involved in such surveys and rehabilitation activities. Disaster management in Pakistan basicallyrevolves around flood disasters with a primaryfocus on rescue and relief. After each disaster episode the government incurs considerable expenditure directed at rescue, relief and rehabilitation. The Disaster management related to chemical accidents though part of framework but still not implemented. Disaster management, development planning and environmental management institutions operate in isolation and integrated planning between these sectors is almost lacking. Within disaster management bodies in Pakistan, there is a dearth of knowledge and information about hazard identification, risk assessment & management, and linkages between livelihoods and disaster preparedness. Disaster management policy responses are not generallyinfluenced by methodsand toolsfor cost effective and sustainable interventions. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page21
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM There does not exist any mechanism for inventories of installations and transport routes at risk of chemical incidents. Fire, police and other emergency services does not have specific equipment, including protective clothing, to deal with chemical incidents and staffs are not specifically trained for such incidents. There are no chemical hazard identification systems both in the transport and industrial/commercial sectors except in very few large enterprises. There are no dedicated chemical emergency services in the country. Only few hospitals have proper patient decontamination facilities and stocks of antidotes, medicines, and appropriate equipment for chemical emergencies. But in small towns and agricultural rural areas there are no such facilities to meet the emergency situation like pesticides poisoning. Health or emergency services are not properly trained and equipped for transportation of chemically exposedpersons. There is no special training programme to prepare the emergencyservices (e.g. fire, police, and civil defence) personnel in dealing with a chemical incident, as well as medical and paramedical staff in handling and treating chemically exposed persons. Only in major cities veterinarians are available and not all of them have enough knowledge/trainings concerning treatment of exposedanimalstotoxicsubstances. The capacities for remediation of contaminated sites caused by chemical accidents are limited. The National Disaster Management Plan does not include strategies for chemical accidents/industrial accidents. In Karachi, Faisalabad, Multan and Islamabad, few poison treatment and control centers have been established with reasonable technical and monitoring facilities. 2.4.1.5. AnalyticalandLaboratoryCapacity Strengths: For support of national legal instruments, policies and plans related to chemical management, numerous R & D organizations, institutes and laboratories have been established throughout the country over the last decades. The main objectives of these facilities are quality control of chemicals includingpetroleum products, residue analysis, and research on unknown substances and monitoring of harmful effects of chemicals. Among them a number of laboratories have been accredited through National Accreditation Council of Pakistan, where the laboratory quality standards are being maintained. But still there are other laboratories which still require certification. Laboratories established under Pakistan Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) in Karachi, Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore and Islamabad have capacities for investigation and R&D on organic, inorganic and microbiological contamination in water, wastewater, foodstuff, industrial emission, automobile emission and particulate matters analysis, ambient air monitoring, pharmaceutical chemicals/ products, Plastic and Polymers, marine products, food products, fuels, leather industry chemicals and for chemical characterization and analysis of International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page22
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM ores and minerals. PCSIR laboratories are also conducting research on industrial wastes treatment and designing of treatment plants, preparation of environmental impact assessment, carrying out environmental impact assessment, evaluation / characterization of materials and wastes, carryingoutenvironmentrelatedsurveys. Hydrocarbon development Institute of Pakistan (HDIP) is the sole R & D Institution in energy sector of Pakistan. HDIP has established state of the art Petroleum Testing Labs for checking of quality, standards and specifications of hydrocarbons including crude petroleum, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in downstream petroleum sector and geochemicallabsinupstreampetroleumsector. The Geochemical labs in HDIP have facilities for Bitumen Classification, Source Rock Typing, Gas Analysis by Chromatography, TOC and Rock Eval (S1, S2, S3 and Tmax), Gas Chromatography of Saturated Hydrocarbons, Biological Marker Analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, Natural Gas Analysis by Gas Analyser, Calorific Value and Gravity Estimation of Gas by Calculation Method, Compositional Analysis of LPG, Density Estimation by Calculation Method, Light Hydrocarbon Analysis by Head Space Gas Analyser. The Combustion Engineering Labs of HDIP have facilities for study of environmental pollution for the CO2, CO, Soots, Nitrogen and Sulphur, in ppm level, Exhaust Emission Study, Energy Conservation Study for the Industries, Study for the Substitute Fuel Performance in I.C. Engine, Efficiency Monitoring of Domestic Heating Appliances. HDIP has also expertise in Environmental analysis for Water Portability (Dissolved), Alkalinity, Conductivity, pH, Chloride, Iron, Bicarbonate, Nitrate, Sulphate, Carbonate, Sodium, Hydrocarbons, TDS Hardness, Calcium and Magnesium,Water Salinity (Dissolved), Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, pH, Potassium, Sulphate, Sodium and Conductivity. Studies for Trace Elements in Salt/Sediments/Water, Trace Metal Analysis by Atomic Absorption (15 Elements) arealsodone. Industrial Analytical Centre, IAC, (HEJ), Karachi is involved in wide range of chemical analysis, microbiological testing, food science, biotechnology, pharmacology, and material testing. Surveillance of pesticide poisoning is done through National Poisoning Control Center Karachi at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi. This centre is acting as a registry, information investigation, treatment and research centre at Federal level. The provincial centers at different hospitals are only acting as treatment centers for pesticides cases. The Nutrition Division of NIH, Islamabad is running programme for quality testing of food and feed. The pesticide residue study programme was started in 1981 and a project on food contamination studyand control in Asia and Far East was completed. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page23
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM The Plant Protection Department (PPD) has a network of laboratories throughout the country. PPD labs are dealing with pesticides formulations being marketed in the country. Pesticide Chemistry Lab, nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad under administrative control of Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEA) is conducting pesticides residue analysis by employing radio labelled techniques for elucidating fate of pesticides in different agro-ecological conditions. In addition to these there are some analytical facilities established by private sector which have capacitiesto conduct variouschemicalanalysis. Gaps: Although education in chemistry, chemical engineering, environmental management and environmental studies is available in the country but there are no specific course available related to life cycle chemical management. The additional modules are required in the curricula of the universities with reference to the chemical management, risk assessment and risk reduction, waste management, waste treatment etc. Due to lack of qualified and well trained human resource in related R & D organizations their capacity in above mentioned areasofchemicalmanagementispoor. Institutional capacities are needed to be strengthened in terms of improved availability of information, filling gaps in the understanding of chemicals related health issues, risk assessment methods, protection of vulnerable groups including children, workers and population in general, promotion of safe alternatives and needs for prevention. There is a dire need for development of emergency response infrastructures in the country fro chemical disaster management. The National Disaster Management Plan does not include chemicalaccidentsresponseandmanagementplan init. The capacities of analytical laboratories are low to medium. Monitoring and analytical capacities of chemical and social data are low as well. Most of the institutions lack proper funds to acquire and maintain equipment. Surveillance of pesticide poisoning is through National Poisoning Control Center Karachi at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre Karachi. This centre is acting as a registry, information investigation, treatment and research centre at Federal level. The provincial centers at different hospitals are only acting as treatment centres for pesticides cases. The existing poison control centers are insufficient for catering the needs of the large population. There is an urgent need to increase such facilities with required technical human resource and infrastructure. The capacity building of existing poison control centers in terms of trained persons and technical support isalso required. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page24
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM The inter-linkage of National Poison Control Center and Provincial Centers is also very important. There is a need for coordination mechanism between these centers, registration authority at Plant Protection Department, and Ministries of Health and Environment. There is a need for strong National Public Health Pesticides Resistance Monitoring System. Public health authorities need to be involved in the licensing process of public health pesticides. Ministry of Health should be involved in the national information exchange system and strong public health pesticide management awareness should be done, in collaboration of ministry of health. To address the poisoning due to different agents, whether acute or chronic, the integrated and collaborative approach of government, nongovernmental organizations along with industries and private sector representatives is required. Most of the Pesticides monitoring laboratories/ institutes conduct research on the efficacy trials of pesticides and developing pest management packages. Very little attention is paid to ecological studies. Whereas all the provincial institutes are mainly concerned with the quality of the pesticides, the institute of Ecotoxicology has gone beyond and is looking into the residues in cropsand food products. Although some federal and provincial institutes conduct research on fertilizer production, use and formulating recommendations for improving crop productivity through balanced fertilizer application, there is no independent institute and /or non-governmental body/entity in existence to carryout research on detrimental effectsof overuse of fertilizers. The Standard Reference chemicals are very expensive and there availability in the country is insufficient. The laboratory grade chemicals required for lab analysis are although available in the country on demand but their quality standards are required to be monitored as the practices of adulteration iscommon. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page25
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM 3. PriorityIssuesRelatedtoChemicalLifeCycleManagementinPakistan 3.1PriorityIssueRelatedtoGovernance i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Insufficient legislation dealing with transportation, storage, use of chemicals and disposal obsolete chemicals/pesticides as well as protection of health of workers in their working environment. There is no provision about remediation of contaminatedsitesinthelaws. There are certain gaps in implementation of existing environmental laws, policies, project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation due to various factors, i.e., low capacities of implementing government agencies, lake of proper infrastructures, lake of funds, lake of trainings, low salary structure, corruption, social values,socio-economicissuesetc. Poor capacities of government institutions for sound management of chemicals in terms of technical human resource, awareness, technical know-how, financial resourcesand infrastructure. Penalties for environmental offences are not generally reformatory and stringent enough to deter the felon. Pesticide related laws do not control the storage, use and disposal of obsolete pesticides. Complete FAO and WHO codes for use and disposal of pesticides is not fully implemented in the country. There is a low level of awareness and knowledge of life cycle management concept among environmental managers including limited knowledge of FAO andWHO specifications on pesticides. Lack of Occupational Health & Safety (OHS) and Environmental Health and Safety (EHS)policiesand lawsand protective measuresfrom chemicalexposuresforworkers attheir workplaces. Disaster management, development planning and environmental management institutions operate in isolation. There is a lake of preventive strategies for chemical safety. National Disaster Management Plan does not include strategies for chemical accidents/industrial accidents and remediation mechanism. The capacities and technical knowledge for remediation of contaminated sites is poor. The capacity building for sound management of chemicals in general is not included in the nationalpovertyreduction and strategypaperand countryassistance strategies Lack of cooperation and coordination among ministries and other related institutions. Limited coordination between policy makers and industry in policy making process. Stakeholders from some ministries related NGOs, academia, labour unions and civil society neither are nor present in NATCC. Lack of initiatives by trade unions/private sector for capacity building and development of expertise for sampling, testing and research on environmental pollution caused by industrial processes. There is a very limited interaction of trade organizations with inter-governmental institutions International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page26
    • xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM There is a need to create some mechanism of standardizing NGOs so that they can play some vital role in monitoring and inspections. The role of women is limited in chemical management especially in agriculture sector duetolackofawarenessandeducation. Role of electronic media in dissemination of information about chemical hazards is very limited especially for consumer products/house hold products containing hazardouschemicals. In this regardslackof consumer societiesforawarenessof such harmful products is another bottleneck. Limited evaluation of socioeconomic impacts and chronic impacts of chemicals used in different sectors. Lack of preliminary hazard analysis system and guidelines for hazard identification for government institutions, industry, importers and exporters. Hazard information on chemicals used in industry is seldom displayed. Targeted chemical risk assessment approachisseldomseeninmajordevelopmentprojects. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) are yet to be implemented in Pakistan. Absence of continuous monitoring system for trans-boundary movement of hazardous waste. Lack of critical infrastructure, trained human resource and financial resources required for monitoring. The information management and dissemination system for chemicals is absent in the country which play a critical role in life cycle management of chemicals. Non availabilityof relevant and harmonized data, absence of inventorysystem and records by industry as well as related institutions, related to chemical accidents, chemical poisoning cases, drinking water contamination, food contamination, transportation and storage of chemicals is the key obstacle to sound management of chemicals Information regarding unknown chemicals imported which are used in numerous micro-levelunits isalso lacking. 3.2PriorityIssuesRelatedtoCapacitiesforChemicalsManagement i) Poor technical infrastructure for recycling, recovery and disposal of obsolete pesticides as well as lack of sustainable monitoring mechanism for obsolete storage sitesofobsoletepesticides ii) iii) Inadequate patient poison control/decontamination facilities and stocks of antidotes, medicines, and appropriate equipment in hospitals for chemical emergencies like pesticidespoisoning. Lackof poison analysis, research and information centres. Majority of farmers are uneducated and unaware of health and environmental implications of use of agricultural chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers. Due to illiteracy farmers do not have access to information about integrated pest management and proper pesticide/fertilizer use. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page27
    • iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Dearth of knowledge and limited capacity of hazard identification, risk assessment & management, and linkages between livelihoods and disaster preparedness related to chemical accidents, within disaster management bodies. The industries do not have any chemical disaster management plans and training programme developed for workers. Fire fighting departments do not have necessary facilities/ equipment know- howto cope with chemical fires. Lack of degree programmes in universities about chemical management, risk assessment/prevention, occupational health and safety, environmental health and safety issues, waste management, waste treatment technologies, cleaner production technologies and international environmental Conventions and Protocols. Cleaner production technologies were introduced by the private sector with the technical assistance of Cleaner Production CenterSialkot few years back especiallyin leather tanneries. In order to bring about environmental and economic improvement a program to promote cleaner production technologies in every industrial sector in Pakistan is needed. These technologies are very expensive and the there is a limited know-how about thesetechnologies, therefore incentiveshould begivenandcapacity building programmes for SMEsmaybeinitiated. Absenceof integrated vectorcontrolprogrammeand pestmanagementprogramme. There are very few poison control and information centers working in the country. These centers are not fully equipped with necessary technical infrastructure according to guidelines of IPCS. There is an urgent need of establishment of new poison control and information centers especially in industrial and agricultural hubs of Pakistan. The capacities of analytical laboratories are low to medium. Generally there is a lack of sustainable financial mechanism required for R & D in environmental sector. There are no special allocations for chemical management/research in Pakistan. The other bottle neck is lack of technical human resource. During the last two decades due to economical crises in the country there was a brain drain from the institutions. This has become a critical issue. The relevant institutions lack critical monitoring infrastructure. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page28
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM 3. Recommendations 3.1RecommendationsforGovernanceIssues Establish a centralized chemical information management and dissemination system for including chemical hazard data sheets and inventory system of chemicals use, storage, transportanddisposalsystem. Build capacity of industries and EPA to establish Pollutant release and Transfer Registers(PRTRs) The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) should be implemented in the country. Develop the recyclingandrecoveryfacilitiesfordisposalof obsolete pesticides. Additional poison control centers should be established near agricultural hubs, with technical human resource and medical facilities required for treatment of pesticides/otherpoisoningcasesaccordingto the IPCS guidelines. Capacity building for sound management of chemicals should be given priority in national development plans and poverty reduction strategies. Sufficient financial resources should be allocated for capacity building of ministries and related institutions forlife cycle management strategies includingeconomicimpact assessment of chemical use. Stakeholders from trade and industry should be involved in policy making process and a coordinationmechanism should be evolved. Addition of Representatives of Ministries for Petroleum & Natural Resources, Labour, Railway, Communication, Ports & Shipping, National Disaster Management Cell, EmergencyServices, is required. Academia, industries and NGOs should also be given representation. A broader representation should be ensured in NTACC to bring synergiesfrom related initiativeson chemicalmanagement. A mechanism should be evolved to enhance cooperation between trade organizations with inter government issues through participation in their initiatives for global chemicalmanagement. Mechanism to accredit NGOs should be brought in so that they can play better role in monitoringthe chemicalmanagementissues. Training and awareness programme is required exclusive for women workers including agriculture workforce. Need for improvement in advertisement laws with reference to include safety concerns of chemicals used in agriculture and consumer products for public awareness. Enhance the capacity and role of electronic media for information dissemination on chemical hazards. Develop a Clearing House Mechanism for information on chemical safety for optimum useofresources International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page29
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM A sustainable monitoring system should be established for trans-boundarymovement of hazardous waste and illegal chemicals and law enforcing agencies should be provided necessaryequipmentand training. There is a need to further enhance public private partnership for exchange of information, technologyand expertise required for chemical management Explore cooperation with other countries and IOMC organizations in the field of education,scienceandtechnology. Global information network may be developed with help of ILO, WHO, UNEP and FAOetc. Enhance integration planning between disaster management, development planning and environmental management institutions. University curricula should be revised to include courses related to chemical life cycle managementandintegratedwastemanagement. Implement/introduce voluntary initiatives like environmental management system to prevent pollution in industry and R & D institutions. Give incentives for introduction of pollution prevention technologies like cleaner production technologies and enhance corporate responsibility of environmental managementincorporatesector. Penalties to be made reformatory and stringent by increasing the amount of fine so that they deter the offence and beside penalties economic incentives should be given to industriesto reduce theirwaste emission and properdisposalof wastes. 3.2. RecommendationsforImportantandUrgentChemicalsManagementIssues Develop harmonized data elements on occupational health and safety for recording relevant workplace data in company specific databases. Set time frames for industry, in cooperation and coordination with other stakeholders, to generate hazard information for high-production volume chemicals not addressed under existing commitments Promote training in risk/hazard assessment, classification and preparation of safetydata sheets and implement GHS in the country. Establish more poisoning information and control centers and systems for data collection and analysisand enhance the capacityof presentfacilities. Develop PRTRs tailored to variable national conditions as a source of valuable environmental information for industry, so that risks are communicated in a timely and accurate fashion without unduly alarming the public. Fill gender specific gaps in scientific knowledge (e.g., gaps in understanding of endocrinedisruptorsandspecialwomenconcernsrelatedtochemicalexposures) Develop and establish targeted riskassessment approachesto evaluatingexposureand impacts, including socio-economic impacts and chronic and synergistic effects of chemicals on human health and the environment Harmonize chemical safetynorms) Encourage full implementation of the FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page30
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Promote integrated pest and integrated vectormanagement in Pakistan. Develop national occupational health and safety and environmental health and safety policiescontaining specifictext on chemicalsmanagement. Develop a system of health and environmental impact assessment in chemicals handling, and incorporate it in occupational safety and health programmes Develop, enhance, update and implement ILO safe work standards, ILO guidelines on occupationalsafetyandhealthmanagementsystem(ILO-OSH2001) Promote the establishment of national inspection systems for the protection of employees from the adverse effects of chemicals and encourage dialogue between employersandemployeestomaximizechemicalsafetyandminimizeworkplacehazards Provide appropriate training and sensitization on chemical safety for those exposed to chemicalsat each stage from manufacture todisposalto protect them from diseasesand occupationalcancers,causedbychemicals. Identify contaminated sites and hotspots, and establish infrastructure for analyzing and remediation of contaminated sites to reduce risks to the public and to the environment. Apply life-cycle management approaches to ensure that chemicals management decisionsare consistent with the goalsof sustainable development. Develop and implement life cycle based integrated solid waste management plan for wasteminimizing, recyclingand reuse. Develop national and local capacities to monitor, assess and mitigate chemical impacts of dumps, landfills and other waste facilities on human health and the environment Promote research for use of safe and effective alternatives, including non-chemical alternatives to organic chemicals that are highlytoxic, persistent and bio-accumulative. Undertake awareness-raising for consumers, in particular by educating them on best practices for chemical use, about the risks that the chemicals they use pose to themselvesandtheirenvironmentandthepathwaysbywhichexposuresoccur Develop national training/awareness raising programme on hazards and management of solid waste,health sectorwasteandhazardouswasteproducedbyindustry. Provide training to emergency response services personnel for chemical disaster management. Develop national capacity building programme to government agencies to monitor/prevent illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous goods and hazardous wastes, g in cleaner production technologies to industries and relevant institutions, negotiating skills at international level, project development and monitoring etc. Establish national or regional laboratory facilities, complete with modern instruments and equipment, including those necessary for testing/monitoring emissions and industrial effluents and wastes according to national/international standards. Build capacity of existing research and monitoring facilities. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page31
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM 4. Conclusion Chemical management is an important issue; it needs to be addressed urgently. There is low awareness to and understanding of poor chemical management, there are inadequate facilities and unclear responsibilities. At present chemical use, production and import are on the increase and if appropriate capacities are not built in the country as a matter of urgency, resultant negative impactson health, environment, societyand economyare going to escalate. In Pakistan, an approach to address chemical management issues took a head start with the efforts to implement SAICM. As a result of it, National Chemical Profile was formed in 2000. Now the National profile is being again formulated along with capacity assessment and plan of action. Therefore, this capacity document is a part of this project. This document serves to developabaselineassessmentofPakistan'scapacitytorespondtochemicalmanagementissues throughout the life cycle of chemicals. Moreover, it serves to highlight a number of priority issue areas that should be considered by the Ministry of Environment and other related institutions in future. The main, overarching problem that was identified from the capacity assessment is that the government institutions lack capacity for the sound management of chemicals due to financial shortfalls, shortages of tools, equipment, physical support and infrastructure, and lack of trained and skilled human resource. This should be a first step, before tackling any of the more specific issues identified in the document. The data required for the sound chemical management is compiled by the government institutions such as EPA, Federal bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Environment, etc. This data is non-reliable and non-harmonized as well as data related to disposal, storage, chemical accidents and transportation is missing. These gaps in data are due to absence of inventory system and centralized database. GHS is not yet implemented in the countryand no efforts vis- a-vis its implementation being made. Steps should be taken to implement GHS in the country on priority basis. Information management systems for hazard information according to GHS guidelines should be established and training in hazard classification should be promoted. Although EPA has setup emission inventory system in major cities, but the present capacities for assessment of exposure to different chemicals are very low. PRTRs tailored to variable national conditions should be used as a source of valuable environmental information for industry, so that risks are communicated in a timely and accurate fashion without unduly alarming the public. Risk reduction is another major area being continuously ignored by the government. The present capacities for assessment of exposure to different chemicals are very low in the country. There is lackof preventive strategiesforchemicalsafetyand targeted riskassessment approach. FAO International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides is not being fully implemented. Integrated pest management programme is being implemented but there is no International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page32
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM integrated vector management programme. Present legislation related to health and safety of workers at their workplace is insufficient. There is a lack of health impact assessment system in development activities. Occupational health & safety policies are also not present in the country, therefore, lack of training and sensitization on chemical safety for those exposed to chemicals at various work places. The targeted risk assessment approaches to evaluating exposure and impacts, including socio-economic impacts and chronic and synergistic effects of chemicalson human health and the environment should be developed and established. Beside, there is a need to develop, enhance, update and implement ILO safe work standards, ILO guidelinesonoccupationalsafetyandhealthmanagementsystem(ILO-OSH2001) Chemical risk assessment studies and chemical life cycle management issuesare not included in university curricula. There is also lack of information dissemination system. There are limited opportunities for trainings of people at risk to chemical exposure on safe handling of chemicals, policy makers and planners. The capacities and know-how of emergency response agencies are usually limited. There is a need to include a range of preventive strategies, education and awareness-raising and capacity-building in risk communication. Training in cleaner production techniques should be provided to industries and relevant institutions. The training on links between trade and environment, including needed negotiating skills; and in the concept of protected areas should also be promoted. Moreover, there is a need to establish and implement national action plans with respect to waste minimization and waste disposal. The capacities for remediation of contaminated sites caused by chemical accidents are limited. The National Disaster Management Plan does not include strategies for chemical accidents/industrial accidents. The national infrastructure needs to be established or strengthened, including for information management, poison control centers and emergency response capabilities for chemical incidents. In Karachi, Faisalabad, Multan and Islamabad, few poison treatment and control centers have been established with reasonable technical and monitoring facilities. The capacities of analytical laboratories are low to medium. National or regional laboratory facilities should be established with complete modern instruments and equipment, including those necessary for testing emissions and operating according to national standards. In short, Pakistan is faced with the challenge of slow pace of developing national capacity to assess, devise, and implement related chemical management activities. The development of a national capacity on the whole nevertheless remains uneven, with key institutions, especially in administration, academia and the private sector, largely uninitiated in terms of technical knowledge, relevant activities and awareness of possible benefits. There are a number of ongoing initiatives in the country to strengthen the required capacities for the sound chemical management; but they are insufficient. There is a capacity in the country to manage chemicals but they needed to be strengthened. There exists a tremendous scope in Pakistan for the transfer of suitable technical and technological expertise in the area of chemical management as well as the development of infrastructure and financial support. There is already a International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page33
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM substantial capacity in the country to provide the momentum for SAICM implementation for developingchemicalmanagementmechanisms, whichshouldbefullytakenadvantageof. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page34
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Annexure Annexure1:WorksheetforGovernanceAssessment 39 Annexure2:WorksheetforIdentificationofImportantandUrgentChemicalsManagementIssues 71 International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page38
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Annexure1:WorksheetforGovernanceAssessment A.1 IntegratingChemicalsManagementintoNationalDevelopmentPriorities Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsandGaps Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing importance capacities: oftaking High/ action: Medium/ High/ Low Medium/ Low 1.1MechanismsforIntegratingChemicalsManagementintoDevelopmentPriorities Develop national profiles and Medium Strength: Developacentralizedchemical High implement action plans for The National chemical Profile management information soundmanagementof hasbeenPrepared.Capacity system. chemicals assessmentisbeingcarriedout which will be followed by National Action Plan. Gaps: Non availability of relevant andharmonizeddata,absenceof inventorysystem related to chemical accidents,chemical poisoningcases,drinking water contamination, food contamination, transportation andstorageofchemicals required for preparation of chemicalprofile. Give appropriate priority to Low Strengths: •Capacity building of law High pestandpesticide PestsandPesticide enforcingagenciestoincrease International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page39
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM managementinnational Managementhasbeengiven their technical know-how and sustainabledevelopment due attention in national and provide infrastructure/ strategiesandpoverty provincialsustainable equipment for monitoring of reduction paperstoenable developmentstrategiesand illegal traffic of banned and accesstorelevanttechnical povertyreduction paperof obsoletepesticideacross andfinancialassistance, Pakistan. borders. including appropriate Gaps: • DevelopLawsdealingwith technology •Therearelowcapacitiesto disposal, transportation and monitor illegal trafficking of storageofpesticides pesticides • Developrecyclingandrecovery •Poor technical infrastructure facilities for disposal of forrecyclingandrecoveryas obsoletepesticides wellasfordisposalof obsolete • Capacity building of NGOs for pesticides monitoringof pesticidesuse •Lack of sustainable monitoring anddisposal mechanismforobsolete • Establish additional poison storagesitesofobsolete controlcentersnear pesticides agricultural hubs with •Insufficient legislation dealing technicalhumanresourceand with transportation, storage medical facilities required for anddisposalofpesticides treatmentof pesticides •Poorcapacitiesof law poisoningcases enforcingagencies •Inadequate patient poison control/decontamination facilitiesand stocksof antidotes,medicines,and appropriate equipment in hospitalsforchemical emergencieslikepesticides poisoning International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page40
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Establishthecapacityto Medium Strengths: •Develop harmonized chemical High collectandanalyzesocialand •Socio-economicdatais management information economicdata primarilycollectedandanalyze system byFederalBureauofStatisticsFBS. •Thesedataare collected from primaryandSecondary Sources. •The primarydata are collected through different surveys such as LabourForceSurvey(LFS), HouseholdIntegrated EconomicSurvey(HIES), PakistanIntegrated Household Survey(PIHS),andPakistan DemographicSurvey(PDS)etc. •Secondarydatasuchas ForeignTradeStatistics, Industrial Statistics, Transport and Communication Statistics, Social Statistics, Agriculture Statistics, Environment statisticsetc. are collectedfrom therecordsofconcerned Ministries/Departments. Gaps: •There isnoharmonized system for collection of data. Usually the information is collected for variousotherpurposeson International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page41
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM differentparametersand synthesisofsuchdatais difficult for chemical management. Considerandapply Low Gaps: •Penalties for environmental Medium approachestothe •Penalties for environmental offencesshouldbemade internalization of the costs to offencesarenotgenerally reformatory i.e. punishment humanhealth,societyand reformatory may not only induce future the environment of the •Penalties are not stringent restraint but also rectifies the productionand use of enough to deter the felon damagecommitted. chemicals,consistent with •Penaltiesto bemade stringent Principle 16 of the Rio byincreasingthe amount of Declaration. fine so that theydeter the offence. •Besidepenaltieseconomic incentivesshouldbe given to industriesto reduce theirwaste emissionandproperdisposalof wastes. Include capacity-building for Low Strengths: •Give priority in national High thesoundmanagementof •Pestandpesticide developmentandpoverty chemicalsasoneofthe managementhavebeen reduction strategiesof capacity priorities in national poverty included in the national building for sound reduction povertyreductionstrategy managementofchemicals strategiesandcountry paper. assistancestrategies Gaps: •The capacity building for soundmanagementof chemicalsin generalisnot included in the national povertyreductionandstrategy International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page42
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM paperandcountryassistance strategies Ensuremutual Low Gaps: •Stakeholders from trade and Medium supportivenessbetweentrade •Limited coordination between industry should be involved in and environment policies policymakers and industry in policymakingprocess.Some policymakingprocess coordinationmechanism shouldbeevolved. Integratethesound Low Strengths: •Allocate sufficient financial High managementofchemicals •Ministerial setup required for resourcesforcapacitybuilding capacity within ministries soundchemicalmanagement of ministries like induction involved in supporting is wellestablished with clearly training of technical human chemicalsproduction,use definedmandates. resourceandestablish andmanagement Gaps: infrastructure required for •Poorcapacitiesof government soundmanagementof institutions for sound chemicals. managementofchemicalsin termsof technicalhuman resource and infrastructure •Lackofawarenessofexisting regulatory framework within implementingagencies •Meagrefundsavailable •Most of the staff ministries andrelateddepartmentsare overworked •Few financial/career incentives available to technicalhuman resource •Lack of critical infrastructure required for monitoring Establishthecapacityto Gaps: •Establishsustainable Medium International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page43
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM undertakesocialand •Lack of critical infrastructure mechanism foreconomic economicimpactassessment required for monitoring impactassessment •Non-availability of relevant data A.2 ASoundInstitutionalandProgrammaticNationalFramework Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsand Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing Gaps importance capacities: oftaking High/Medium action: /Low High/ Medium/ Low 2.1EstablishinganInter-ministerialCoordinationMechanism Articulate an integrated Low Strengths: •Implementation of Globally High approachtochemicals •Multilateral environmental HarmonizedSystemof managementtakinginto agreementshavebeen Classification and Labelling of account multilateral integrated into environmental Chemicals(GHS) environmentalagreements lawsofPakistan. andstrategiesthattargeta •SAICM pilot project is under broadspectrumofchemicals implementation •For the implementation of International Chemical ManagementProgrammethefocal points are well defined, their duties laid down and implementationsareat variousstages •A multilateral approach is beingadoptedforchemical International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page44
    • managementinthecountry through implementation of SAICM Gaps: •GloballyHarmonizedSystem of Classification and Labellingof Chemicals(GHS) is yet to be implemented in Pakistan NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Withregardtotheimplementationofnationalprogrammes: •Developcomprehensive High NationalchemicalProfile has - High national profiles; beenprepared •Formalize inter-ministerial andmulti-stakeholder coordinatingmechanismson chemicalsmanagement issues,including coordination of national Government and multi- stakeholder positions in international meetings; High Strength: National Technical Advisory CommitteeonChemicals (NTACC) including member from all related ministries has beenformedwhichis working effectively. Gaps: Representation of ministry for Petroleum & Natural Resources,Labour,Railway, Communication, Ports & Shipping, National Disaster ManagementCell,Rescue 115 Service isnot there in NTACC Addition of Representatives of High ministry for Petroleum & NaturalResources,Labour, Railway, Communication,Ports & Shipping, National Disaster ManagementCell,Rescue115 Service,isrequired. •Develop national chemical High Strength: National Action Plan will High safetypolicies outlining National Action Plan for includeallnecessaryactions strategicgoalsandmilestones SAICMisunderprocess neededtoachievetargetsof International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page45
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM towardsreachingthe Johannesburg2020goals JohannesburgSummit2020 goal; •Developnationalchemicals Low Gaps: Efforts should be made to High safetyinformationexchange At present there isno establishasustainable systems; nationalchemical mechanism fora National informationexchangesystem ChemicalInformation System present in the country. A toassistsoundchemical proposalisunderwayto managementinthecountry establishachemical information system in Ministry of Environment •Developnationalstrategies Low Strengths: Asustainablemechanismfor High to mobilize national and Atpresentsomeresources resourceallocationshould be externalresourcesandto havebeenprovidedfor developed. raisetheimportanceplaced implementation of various onchemicalsmanagement Chemical Conventions under within national sustainable NationalDevelopment developmentframeworks; Framework Gaps: Availableresourcesare insufficient for sound chemicalmanagementinthe country •Developpoliciesof High Strengths: Abroaderrepresentation Medium systematicstakeholder Stakeholderinvolvementis should be ensured in NTACC involvement, bringing alreadyensured in NTACC to bring synergiesfrom related synergiesfromrelated Gaps: initiatives on chemical initiativeson chemicals Stakeholdersfromsome management. management ministries, related NGOs, International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page46
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM academia,labourunionsand civilsocietyarenorpresent in NATCC Establish national multi- High Strength: stakeholder coordination National Technical Advisory bodiesonchemicalsto Committee on Chemicalsis provide information and alreadyfunctioning. increaseawarenessof theirrisks Incorporate capacity-building Low Strengths: Aproactiveapproachshouldbe High strategiesandpromote Officials of ministries and adoptedtoenhancethe activitiestoenhance governmentagenciesoften capacitiesofgovernment country'slegaland attendtrainingcourses, functionariesto ensure institutional framework seminars,workshopson chemicalsafetyacrossthe for implementing chemical policyissues,legalframework country through implementing safetyacrossallrelevant and environmental policiesand legalframework. ministries and Government managementingeneral. agencies Gaps: Activities for capacity building of government institutions to enhance countrieslegaland institutional framework for safe chemicalhandlingare verylimited Encouragecooperation Low Strengths: •Amechanismshouldbe Medium betweensecretariatsof •Trade organizations/ evolvedtoenhancecooperation multilateral trade and chambersofcommerce betweentradeorganizationsof multilateral environmental participate in activities Pakistan with inter government agreementsindevelopment organized byministriesother issues through participation in ofprogrammesandmaterials government institutions their initiatives for global International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page47
    • toenhancemutual understanding of the rules and disciplines in the two areasamongGovernments, intergovernmental institutions and other stakeholders 2.2SettingNationalPriorities •Tradeorganizationsarealso memberof NTACC where theyactivelyparticipate and coordinate with various government institutions Gaps: •There is a very limited interaction of trade organizations with inter- governmental institutions NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM chemicalmanagement Workto ensurebroad and meaningful participation of stakeholders, including women,atalllevelsin devisingresponsesto chemicalsmanagement challengesandinregulatory anddecision-making processesthatrelateto chemicalsafety Strengths: •NTACChasacrosssectoral representationand isplaying a vital role in technical guidanceanddecision makingprocess •Tradeorganizationsare playing an important role in implementation of international voluntary initiatives like ISO etc. •Industries are cooperating in Pak-EPA'sSMART programme •Important role in raising member/publicawareness •Trade unionsaremoderately active in information dissemination and policy •Improve the understanding of communicatorsand themedia concerningchemicalsafety issuesforbetter communicationoftheseissues to the public in order and to improve understandingand promotechemicalsafety actions by the public and civil societyingeneral •Mechanism to accredit NGOs should be brought in so that theycan playbetter role in monitoring the chemical managementissues. •Training and awareness programmeisrequired exclusiveforwomenworkers including agriculture High International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page48
    • analysis •Someof theNGOsare involved in dissemination of information and creating awareness Gaps •Lack of initiatives by trade unions for capacity building anddevelopmentofexpertise forsampling, testing and researchonenvironmental pollution caused by industrial processes •Needtocreatesome mechanismofstandardizing NGOssothattheycanplay some vital role in monitoring andinspections. •The role of women is limited inchemicalmanagement especiallyinagriculturesector duetolackofawareness NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM workforce Havein placemulti-sectoral High Strengths: - - andmulti-stakeholder •A multi-stakeholder approach mechanismstodevelop wasadoptedwhilepreparing national profiles and priority National Chemical Profile actions and Action Plan. This involved stakeholders from all relevantministries, governmentdepartments, NGOs, CSOs, and industry International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page49
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Strengthenmechanismsfor Low Gaps: •Develop chemical information High reporting and consolidating •Absenceof harmonized data managementsystematnational informationnecessaryto collectionsystemon aswellasprovinciallevel producebaselineoverviews production, storage, •Develop sustainable financial that will help transport,useandwaste mechanismrequiredfordata determinedomestic disposalofchemicals collection managementprioritiesand •Lack of inventory and •Develop capacityof trade gaps(e.g.,PRTRsand reportingsystemforchemical unions, industry, and NGOs inventories), taking into storage,transportand for self reporting initiatives account industry reporting industrialaccidents initiatives) •Absenceof recordsof occupationalaccidents, chemicalaccidents,chemical poisoning, chemical injuries, drinking water contamination, food contamination, anddeaths causedduetochemical accidents,byindustryaswell as related institutions 2.3InformationExchangeMechanisms Develop mechanisms to share Low and disseminate information thatcanbeusedtoreduce uncertaintyinriskassessment Provideextensionand advisoryservicestofarmer organizationswith information on integrated Gaps: Absenceofnational information system related to chemicallifecycle Strengths: •Integratedpestmanagement strategieshavebeen developedandimplemented Develop chemical information systemwithproper disseminationmechanism •Capacity building of governmentdepartmentsand NGOs is required to provide advisoryservicesand High Medium International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page50
    • pestmanagementstrategies andmethods in the country •Agriculture extension and advisoryservicesareavailable withthe government departments •NGOs are involved in awarenessraisingon integratedpestmanagement Gaps: •Majority of farmers are uneducatedandunawareof health and environmental implications of use of agriculturalchemicals •Governmentdepartments havelowcapacitiesto implementintegratedpest managementstrategiesat grassrootlevel •Due to illiteracy farmers do nothaveaccessto information about pest managementandproper pesticideuse. NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM information on integrated pest managementtothefarmerso field; Generateandshare information detailing the inherent hazardsof all chemicalsincommerce, giving priority to hazard information for those chemicalsthathavethe Gaps: •Lack of preliminary hazard analysis •Absence of Globally HarmonizedSystemfor Labellingof chemicals •Hazard information on •Need for improvement in advertisementlawswith referencetochemicalsusedin agricultureandconsumer products •Capacity building of related stakeholdersforhazards High International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page51
    • greatest potentialfor substantial or significant exposures Establish national priorities for information generation forchemicalsthat arenot produced in high volumes Low chemicalsused inindustryare seldomdisplayed •Majority of farmers are uneducatedandunawareof health hazardsof agricultural pesticides •Poor capacities of monitoring andlawenforcingagencies •Lack of information regardingunknownchemicals imported which are used in numerousmicro-levelunits •Storage facilities are devoid of anyhealthandsafety measurements. Gaps: Absence of information on chemicalsimportedandused in small quantities NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM identification •Dissemination of information regardingchemicalshazards andsafetymanualsrequired •Requirement of Statutory bodies /funds/technical support •Implementation of GHS for labellingof chemicals Introduce inventory system Medium onchemicalsimported, producedandusedin smallquantities Promotetheestablishment of Low Gaps: •Capacity building for hazard Medium generallyapplicable Absenceof guidelinesfor identification and risk guidelinesontherespective hazard identification for assessmentisrequiredfor roles, responsibilitiesand government institutions, Government institutions and accountabilitiesof industry, importers and industry; Governments,producingand exporters; •Integrate planning between importingenterprisesand disastermanagement, suppliersofchemicals developmentplanningand concerningthe generation environmentalmanagement andassessmentof institutions; hazard information Establisharrangementsfor Low Strengths: •Developaneasilyaccessible High International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page52
    • thetimelyexchangeof information on chemicals, includingwhatisnecessaryto overcomebarriersto informationexchange (e.g., providing information in locallanguages) •Electronic Data Management Systemhasbeenintroduced to interlink all government offices through internet for informationexchange Gaps •Website of each ministry is present but not regularly updated •Not all information uploaded onwebsites •Time consuming and lengthy proceduresforgetting information from ministries •Allpeopledonothaveeasy accesstoinformation• Lack of financial and technicalcapacities •Information are usually not availableinlocallanguages NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM chemicalinformation system; Considerestablishinga Gaps: •Develop a Clearing House High clearing-housefor •Absenceof ClearingHouse Mechanism for information on information on chemical Mechanism chemicalsafetyforoptimum safetytooptimizetheuse of useofresources resources Ensure that all Government High Strengths: - - officials from developing •Officers and staff of all countries and countries with Ministriesand attached economies in transition departmentshavebeen responsiblefor provided with personal chemicalsmanagementhave computers with Microsoft Page53
    • accesstotheInternetand training in its use windowoperatingsystem,MS Office tool, email, high speed internet,systemmanagement andsecurityclients, departmental servers for print sharing,localarea networking,directoryservices andnetworkingbetweenthe Divisions •Trainingprogrammesalso beingarrangedfor governmentofficersandstaff inthisregard NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Strengthentheexchangeof Low Strengths: •Develop afast trackand High technical information among •E-governmenthasbeen updated technical information the academic, industrial, establishedforthefastpace systemrequiredforanalysisand governmentaland communication system within academicpurposesonchemical intergovernmental thegovernmentaswellasfor management sectors publicto government •Exchange of information with othercountriesispossible through internet Gaps: •Accesstoupdated information in government departmentsand industryis difficult for academia and commonpublic •Lengthyand time consuming proceduresof obtaining information from ministries International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page54
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM andrelateddepartments• Lack of cooperation and coordination among ministries Improve the information Low • Lackofawarenessamong •Awarenessraisingcampaigns High base, including via electronic people about their right to are required forcommon mediasuchasthe Internet information on chemicals public and CD ROMs, in particular used in their daily life •Enhancethe capacityandrole in developingcountries, • Absence of information in of electronic media for ensuring that information locallanguages information dissemination on reachesappropriatetarget • Role of electronic media in chemicalhazards. groupstoenable their dissemination of information empowermentandensure aboutchemicalhazardsisvery their right to limited know Establish information- Low Gaps: •A permanent monitoring High exchangemechanismson •Absence of continuous systemmaybeestablishedfor contamination in border monitoring system fortrans- trans-boundarymovementof areas boundarymovementof hazardouswaste; hazardouswaste Encourageandfacilitate Strengths: •There is a need to further exchange of information, •In most of the institutions in enhancepublicprivate technologyandexpertise publicaswellasprivatesector partnershipforexchangeof within and among countries regular trainings/visits are information, technology and byboth the public arrangedforexchangeof expertise required for chemical and private sectorsforrisk information on new management reduction and mitigation technologiesusingexpertise •Explore cooperation with other from other countries; countries in the field of •Public private partnership education,scienceand alsoexistforexchangeof technology information on new International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page55
    • technologies Gaps: •The existing opportunities do not fulfil the requirement of capacitybuilding for chemical managementinthecountry; NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Facilitateaccesstoresearch Low •Most of the farmers are •Improve coordination between Medium resultsrelated to alternative uneducatedandresearch R & D institutions and farmers pest control (both chemical resultsonintegratedpest andnon-chemical)andcrop management,cropprotection protectionmeasuresby methodsandhealthhazards pesticideusers,thoseexposed seldomreachtothem topesticidesandextension •Unawarenessamongpeople services atrisktopesticides contamination Strengthenglobal Low •Absenceofanyglobal •Global information network Medium information networks in the information network at maybedevelopedincluding sharing,exchangeand national level for delivery of ILO, WHO, INFOCAP and deliveryofchemicalsafety chemical safetyinformation FAOetc information (e.g. ILO, WHO, INFOCAP) Promotethedevelopment of Low •National Chemical •Develop Chemical high databasesbasedonscientific Management Information Management Information assessmentandthe SystemisabsentinPakistan Systematnationalaswellas establishmentof centersfor provinciallevel the collection and exchange of information at the national, regional and international levels Developandenhancethe Low •Poorsystemtoacquire, •Development capacitiesof High capacitytoacquire,generate, generate,store,disseminate concerneddepartments International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page56
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM store,disseminateandaccess andaccessto information involved in chemicaldata information, including regardingchemical management INFOCAP management Create a global information Low Absence of information Create a global information Medium network, including early network for early warning network for early warning warningsystems,across systemsforcross-boundary systemsregardingcross- international borders, movementofhazardous boundarymovementof especiallyattheregional substancesandchemical hazardouschemicals level) wasteinPakistan International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page57
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM A.3EffectiveProjectPlanning,Implementation, MonitoringandEvaluation Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsandGaps Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing importance capacities: of taking High/ action: Medium/Low High/ Medium/ Low 3.1ProjectPlanning Developcompetenciesand Low Lowlevelof capacitiesof •Capacity building of planning Medium capacities for the national PlanningCommissionand commission and provincial planning of projects relevant provincial departments to departments and institutions tothemanagementof plan projectsrelevant to •Provide training, technical and chemicals managementofchemicals financial support to the relevant institutions Developresourcesfor Medium Strengths: •Develop sustainable High national implementation Fundsareallocatedin mechanismtomobilize plansandprojects annual, Medium Term and resourcesrequiredfor LongTermDevelopment implementation of projects by Frameworkto cope with exploring opportunities of environmentalissuesand foreign findings; sustainabledevelopment •Develop Capacities in terms of projects technicalknow-how,human Gaps: resource, infrastructure •Poorcapacitiesof government required for implementation departmentsto implement ofprojects; projectsarethemain constraintsdue to lake of technical know-how, poor infrastructure, limited International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page58
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM experiencedhumanresource;•Due to financial crunches the funds are often diverted to caterotherurgentneeds 3.2MonitoringandEvaluation Developandestablish •Targetedchemicalrisk •Capacity building of project targetedriskassessment assessmentapproachis implementersand approachestoevaluating seldomseeninmajor administrators is required for exposureandimpacts, developmentprojects; riskassessmentand includingsocio-economic •Limited evaluation of socioeconomicof impactsandchronicand socioeconomicimpactsand •Requirement of integrated synergisticeffectsofchemicals chronicimpactsof chemicals planningbetweendisasteron human health and the usedindifferentsectors management,development environment •Disastermanagement, planning and environmental developmentplanningand management institutions environmentalmanagement institutions operate in isolation •Dearth of knowledge and limited capacity of hazard identification,riskassessment& management,andlinkages betweenlivelihoodsand disasterpreparednessrelatedto chemical accidents, within disaster managementbodies Evaluate whetherdifferent Low •No such data isavailable •Conduct studies on different Medium segmentsof thepopulation •Onlyfewstudieshavebeen segmentsof populationhaving (e.g.,children,women)have madeonpesticideseffecton different susceptibility or different susceptibility and/or working women in agriculture exposureonchemicalsto International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page59
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM exposureonachemical-by- sector chemicalbasis chemicalbasisinorderof priority Develop,validateandshare Low •Lowlevelof capacityand •Capacity building is required of High reliable, affordable and technicalknowledge institutions involved in practicalanalyticaltechniques regarding the monitoring of monitoring of chemical for monitoring substances for priority contaminants contaminationacrossthe which there is significant country. concern in environmental •Allocate sufficient funds for mediaandbiologicalsamples. Technicalhumanresource Developatargetedprocessto development , trainings, assessandmonitor infrastructure and equipment levelsof adiscretenumberof requiredtodevelopprocesses priority contaminants in the for monitoring of priority environment contaminants; Develop scientificknowledge Low • Lowcapacitiesofacademia •Capacity building of High tostrengthenandaccelerate forinnovative research departmentsof chemistry, innovation, research, relatedtochemical chemicalengineeringand development, training and management chemicaltechnologywith educationthat • Absenceofcoursesrelatedto specificreferenceof chemical promote sustainability chemicalmanagementwaste lifecyclemanagement management, waste treatment • Revise curricula to include etc chemicalmanagementissues Develop common principles Low • Lack of reporting system and • Develop harmonized reporting Medium forharmonizedapproaches capacitiesforhealthand mechanismandcapacitiesforfor performing and reporting environmental risk health and environmental risk health and environmental assessments assessmentsinEPAsandhealth riskAssessments departments; Undertake capacity-building Low • Presentcapacitiesofrelated •Build capacity for identifying Medium in identifying and monitoring institutions are verylow and monitoring biological biological indicators indicators International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page60
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM A.4 LegislationandEnforcement Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsand Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing Gaps importance capacities: oftaking High/Medium action: /Low High/ Medium/ Low 4.1Legislation,RegulationsandPolicies-General Consider legislation to Medium •Existing legislation is •Improve labour laws, factories High protect the health of workers insufficient regarding Act, pesticide rules to include and the public, covering the protection of health of issues related to protection of entire spectrum of work workers in their working industrial and agricultural situations in which chemicals environment including workers are handled, includingsuch pesticidesuse inagriculture sectorsasagricultureand health Incorporate the concept of Low Strengths: •Implement/introduce Medium pollution prevention in •Pollution prevention concept environmentalmanagement policies,programmesand ispresent in various system in to prevent pollution activitiesonchemicals legislationsand in industry and R & D management environmental policies. institutions Pakistan Environmental Act •Give incentives for clearly defines pollution introduction of pollution preventionand need to prevention technologies implementprogrammesand activities to control chemical pollution. Gaps: •Poor implementation of International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page61
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM policies,programmesand activities due to lowlevel of capacity Support the further Low •Limited knowledge of FAO •Develop training programmes Medium development andadoption of andWHO specifications on to improve knowledge of FAO andWHO pesticidesamongdecision decisionmakersand specificationsonpesticides makers environmentalmangerson international initiatives on pesticidesmanagement Utilize the life-cycle Low •Lowlevelofawarenessand •Develop capacityof High managementconceptto knowledgeoflifecycle environmentalmangersand identify priority gaps in managementconceptamong policymakerstodesignactions chemicalsmanagement environmentalmanagers forsafelifecyclemanagementof regimesandpracticesandto chemicals designactionstoaddressgaps in order to identify opportunitiestomanage hazardousproducts, unintentional toxic emissions andhazardouswastesatthemost advantageouspointin thechemicallifecycle Promote ratification and Strength: •Develop capacitytoupgrade High implementation of all Stockholm Convention, national institutions related to relevant international Rotterdam Convention, Basel chemicalmanagementand instrumentsonchemicalsand Convention, ILO conventions responsible for implementation hazardouswaste,encouraging and IMO conventions related to of international Conventions; and improving partnerships chemicalshavebeenratifiedand •Explore for availability of funds and coordination (e.g., are being implemented in the within the financial framework International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page62
    • Stockholm Convention, Rotterdam Convention, Basel Convention, ILO conventions and IMO conventions related to chemicalssuchastheTBT Convention) and ensuring thatnecessaryproceduresare put into place country. The implementation planshavebeenmade; Gaps: •Pakistan has limited technical aswellasfinancialcapacities toimplementthese conventions; •The institutional strengths are weak with limited trained humanresources,equipment andtechnologies •Limited financial resources NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM of theseConventions; Considerapproachesto Low •At present no such •Follow synergistic approach to Medium facilitate and strengthen approacheshavebeen planactivitiestoachieve synergiesandcoordination developedtoestablish commongoals betweenchemicalsandwaste synergiestochalkout conventions, including by commonstrategies developingcommon structures Considerevaluatingthe low •Limitedawarenessand •Capacity building for improved High possibilities and potential potential exist in the understandingofthese benefitsofusingtheBasel institutions for such conventionsisurgently and/or Stockholm evaluations required Conventionwaysandmeans forwastemanagementand disposalofwastesof reclaimedozone-depletingsubstances regulatedunder the Montreal Protocol Develop pilot projects to •Focalpointsareestablished •Develop pilot projects for Medium pursue implementation of and working for creationofsynergiesamong International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page63
    • coordination between the national focal points of chemicals-related multilateral environmental agreements(Rotterdam, StockholmandBasel Conventions and Montreal Protocol)toachieve synergiesintheir implementation implementation of multilateral environmental agreementsrelatedto chemicals; •Tocreatesynergiesabetter coordinationmechanism is required NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Conventions related to chemicalstoachievecommon goalsofchemicallifecycle management Addressgapsatthedomestic Medium •There are certain gaps in •Develop sustainable financial High level in implementation of implementation of existing mechanismforcapacity existinglawsandpolicy environmentallaws, policies building of institutions, instruments promulgated in due to variousfactors, i.e., introduceincentivemeasures the context of lowcapacitiesof forskilled human resource, national environmental implementing government introduction of new managementregimes, agencies,lakeofproper technologiesetc including with respect to infrastructures, lake of funds, meetingobligationsunder lake of trainings, lowsalary international legally structure, corruption, social binding instruments valuesetc. Developframeworksfor Low •NTACC is established •The composition of NTACC Medium promoting private-public consistingof membersfrom mayberevisedtoincrease partnerships in the sound publicaswellprivatesector participation of NGOs, trade managementofchemicals which can playan important unions, research institutions andwastes role insoundmanagementof andcommunitygroups chemicals; •Representation of ministry for Petroleum & Natural Resources,Labour,Railway, Communication, Ports & Shipping, National Disaster International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page64
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM ManagementCell,Rescue115 Service in NTACC •Enhance participation of academia;headsofdepartments of chemicaltechnology, chemistryand environmental sciencesofthemajor universities of the countrymay also be included in the committee Promote a culture of Low • Penaltiesforenvironmental •Penalties for environmental High complianceand offencesarenotgenerally offencesshouldbemade accountabilityand effective reformatory reformatory i.e. punishment enforcement and monitoring • Penaltiesarenot stringent may not only induce future programmes,including enough to deter the felon restraint but also rectifies the through the developmentand damagecommitted. application of economic •Penalties to be made stringent instruments byincreasingthe amount of fine so that theydeter the offence. •Beside penalties economic incentivesshouldbe given to industries to reduce their wasteemissionandproper disposalofwastes. Establisheffective Low • Poor capacities of monitoring • Enhance capacities of Medium implementation and and law enforcing agencies government monitoring monitoringarrangements likeEPAs agencieswitheffectiveincentive measures Developnationalstrategies Low • Insufficient regulatory •Introduce improved legislation Medium for prevention, detection and framework f or control of and judicial reforms for quick International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page65
    • control of illegal traffic, including the strengthening of laws,judicialmechanisms andthecapacityofcustoms administrations and other national authorities to control and prevent illegal shipmentsof toxic and hazardouschemical 4.2PesticidesLegislationandPolicies illegal traffic of hazardous chemicals •Judicialprocessisveryslow• Poor capacitiesand lake of knowledge of officials of custom department and other agencies NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM justicesystem •Improve knowledge through regular trainings of officials of lawenforcingagencies,custom departmentandports. Improveaccesstoanduseof Moderate •Information dissemination •Develop awarenessraising and Medium information on pesticides, system forhighlytoxic information development particularly highly toxic pesticidesisweakinthe mechanism on highlytoxic pesticides,andpromote country pesticides alternative saferpest control •Integratedpestmanagement •Improve coordination of measuresthroughnetworks programmeisbeing academiaandresearch suchasacademia implemented in NARC organization on pest control •There issome involvement research for introduction of of academia in promotion of alternatesafermeasures saferalternatepestcontrol measures; Evaluatetheefficacyof Low •Low level of implementation •Capacity building is required High pesticide risk reduction of pesticides risk reduction programmesandalternative programmesdue to limited pestcontrolmethods capacities currentlyimplemented and planned by international organizations,Governments,the pesticide, agriculture and tradesectorsandother International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page66
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM stakeholders Developbroadstrategies Low •Only few individual studies •Developstrategiestoaddress Medium specificallydirected to the havebeenmadesofaron health of children and young health of children and young healthissuesrelatedtouseof people families pesticides, inthisregard strategiesarerequiredtobe developed; 4.3PoliciesforPollutionPreventionandCleanerProduction Encouragesustainable Low •Cleaner production strategy •Developanaggressive High productionanduseand hasbeenadoptedinPakistan programme to introduce promote the transfer, but still it requires further cleanerproduction implementation and promotion technologies in the country adoption of pollution prevention policiesandcleaner production technologies, in particularbestavailable techniquesandbest environmentalpractices (BAT/BEP) Encouragemanagement Low •Verylittlemeasureshave •Environmentalmanagement Medium practicesthat take into beentakensofar; systemshouldbeimplemented account the full life-cycle in the industry approachtosustainable chemicalsmanagement, emphasizingfront-end pollution prevention approaches Enhanceeffortsto Low •Corporate sector is partially •Takepropermeasuresto Medium implementvaluesof involved in environmental enhanceenvironmental corporatesocialand and socialresponsibility responsibilityof corporate International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page67
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM environmental responsibility sector 242. Promote the transferof Low •Cleaner production •Incentivemechanism along Medium technologyandknowledge technologiesarevery with promotion of cleaner for cleaner production and expensivewhichneed technologies manufactureof alternatives incentives for their promotion in the industry International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page68
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Annexure2:WorksheetforIdentificationofImportantandUrgentChemicalsManagementIssues B.1Informationgenerationanddissemination StakeholderInput Levelof SummaryofStrengthsandGaps Possibleaction Urgencyand Category existing importance (andrelatedGPAactivities) capacities: oftaking High/ action: Medium/ High/ Low Medium/ Low Hazard Identification, Low •GHS is not implemented in •Develop harmonized data High Classification and Labelling Pakistan elementsonoccupational (GHS) health and safetyforrecording relevant workplacedata in companyspecificdatabases •Establish roles and responsibilitiesof employers, employees,chemicalsuppliers and Governments in the implementation of GHS •Encourage the use of IPCS healthandsafetycards (internationalchemicalsafety cards,orICSCs) •Set time frames for industry, in cooperation and coordination with other stakeholders, to generatehazard informationfor high-production volume International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page69
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM chemicalsnotaddressedunder existingcommitments • Ensurethateachpesticideis testedbyrecognized proceduresandtestmethodsto enable a full evaluation of itsefficacy, behaviour, fate, hazard and risk, with respect to anticipated conditions in regions or countries where it is used • Establish information managementsystemsfor hazard information • Preparesafetydatasheetsand labels • CompleteGHSawareness- raisingandcapacity-building guidance and training materials (including GHS actionplan development guidance, national situation analysisguidanceandother training tools) and make them availabletothestakeholders. • Establishprocedurestoensure thatanyhazardousmaterial put into circulation is accompanied,ataminimum, byappropriate and reliable safetydatasheetswhich International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page70
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM provide information that is easytoaccess,readand understand, taking into accountGHS • Articlesand products containinghazardous substancesshouldallbe accompaniedbyrelevant information for users, workplacesandatdisposal sites • Reviewnational legislation and align it with GHS requirements • Promote training in hazard classification • Makeavailablesufficient financial and technical resourcesto support national andregionalGHScapacity- building projects in developing countries and countries with economies in transition) ExposureAssessment Low •Presentcapacitiesfor • Fillgapsinabilitiestoaccess, High assessmentofexposureto interpret and applyknowledge differentchemicalsarevery • Developbettermethodsand low criteria for determining the impact of chemicalson human health for setting priorities for action, for the detection of chemicals and for monitoring International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page71
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM theprogressofSAICM •Developmechanismstoshare and disseminate information thatcanbeusedtoreduce uncertaintyinriskassessment •Establish health surveillance programmes •Establish more poisoning information and control centersandsystemsfordata collectionandanalysisand enhancethecapacityof presentfacilities. •Establish programmesfor monitoring chemicalsand pesticidestoassessexposure 1.3Toxicology Low •At present few toxicology •Harmonize principles and High centersare workingin Karachi, methodsforriskassessment, FaisalabadMultanand e.g.,methodsforvulnerable Islamabad. Other facilities groups,forspecific associatedwithmanyhospitals toxicologicalendpointssuchas are just treating the poisoning carcinogenicity, immuno- cases toxicity, endocrine disruption •Eco-toxicologycenterhasbeen andeco-toxicology,fornew establishedatNARC tools Epidemiologyand Monitoring Low •Pesticidesresidueresearch centershasbeenestablishedin various cities in the country •There is very little coordination among these institutions •Aprogrammeisbeing •Collect data on the use patterns High of chemicals for which there is areasonablebasisofconcern wherenecessarytosupportrisk assessmentcharacterizationand communication International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page72
    • implemented to monitor pesticideresiduesinfoodand the environment at NARC EcotoxicologyCenter NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Promotetheuseof comparable indicatorsofchildren's environmental health aspart of anationalassessmentand prioritization process for managingunacceptablerisksto children'shealth •Develop criteria related to chemicals considering potential exposuresand vulnerabilitiesof children •Develop objective indicators for evaluating the influence of chemicalsonhumanhealth and the environment) PRTRs Low •Emissioninventorysystemhas •Use PRTRstailored to variable High beensetupbyEPAinmajor nationalconditionsasa source cities of valuable environmental information for industry, Governmentsand the public andasmechanismstostimulate reductionsinemissions; •Developmanualsand implementation guides to explain in a simple form the benefitsprovidedbya registry andthestepsnecessaryto developone •Establish the required framework for creating national PRTRs International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page73
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Promote a politicalconsensus in favourof publicaccessto national environmental information •Manage information disseminationfromPRTRsso that risksare communicated in Risk reduction of Chemicals •timely and accurate fashion without unduly alarming the public •Promote harmonization of environmentalperformance requirements in the context of international trade •Promote within the industrial sectortheadoptionof PRTRs and cleanerproduction methods) 1.6RiskAssessment Low •Limited existing capacity for •Developandusenewand High riskassessment harmonized methodsforrisk assessment •Develop guidance materialsto assist in the preparation of initialnationalassessmentsof children'senvironmentalhealth and the identification of priority concerns; •develop and implement action plansto addressthose priority concerns International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page74
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Establish needed infrastructure for research that will reduce uncertaintyinriskassessment •Prioritizeforassessment and relatedstudiesgroupsof chemicalsposingriskfor humanhealth and the environment, including, persistentbio-accumulativeand toxicsubstances,(PBTs);very persistentandverybio- accumulativesubstances; chemicalsthatarecarcinogensor mutagensorthatadversely affect, inter alia, the reproductive, endocrine, immuneornervoussystem;and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) •Establish knowledge on risk assessmentprocedures,building onexistingproductssuchas thosegeneratedbyOECD; •Fill gaps in scientific knowledge (e.g., gapsinunderstandingof endocrine disruptors) •Responsible public authorities shouldestablishgeneral frameworksforriskassessment proceduresandcontrols •Improve understanding of the International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page75
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM impact of naturaldisasterson releasesofharmfulchemicals and resultinghuman and wildlifeexposures,aswellas possiblemeasurestomitigate them •Ensurethatpesticidesand chemicalsissuesareconsidered within environmental impact assessmentscoveringprotected areas •Evaluate the dispersion of pollutant releases(air, water andground)inprotectedareas B.2 RiskReduction StakeholderInput Levelof SummaryofStrengthsandGaps Possibleaction Urgencyand Category existing importance (andrelatedGPAactivities) capacities: oftaking High/ action: Medium/ High/ Low Medium/ Low ChemicalSafety-General Low •Lake of preventive strategiesfor •Build capacities for abilities to High chemicalsafety access,interpretandapply •Lakeoftargetedriskassessment knowledge approach •Include a range of preventive •Programmefor integrated pest strategies International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page76
    • managementisbeing implemented NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Developandestablishtargeted riskassessmentapproachesto evaluatingexposureand impacts, includingsocio- economicimpactsandchronic andsynergisticeffectsof chemicalsonhumanhealth and the environment •Harmonize chemicalsafety norms) SafeHandlingandUseof Low •FAO International Code of •Encourage full implementation High Pesticides Conduct on Distribution and of the FAO International Code Use of Pesticides isnot fully of Conduct on the Distribution implemented andUseofPesticides •Pesticide registration and •Basenationaldecisionson controlsystemhasbeen highlytoxic pesticides on an established which controlsrisks evaluation of their intrinsic from the initial point of hazardsandanticipatedlocal production and formulation. exposuretothem Thismechanismdoesnot •Promotedevelopmentanduse controlthe disposalof obsolete of reduced-riskpesticidesand productsorcontainers substitution for highly toxic •Integratedpestmanagement pesticidesaswellaseffective programmeisbeing andnon-chemicalalternative implemented but there is no meansofpestcontrol. integratedvectormanagement •Promote integrated pest and programme; integratedvectormanagement •Introduce incentive measures for industry to extend product stewardship and to withdraw voluntarily highly toxic International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page77
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM pesticideswhicharehazardous • Establishpesticidemanagement programmestoregulatethe availability, distribution and use of pesticidesand considering the FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides; • Ensureproperstorage conditions for pesticides at the pointof sale,in warehousesand onfarms • Licenseandsellpesticide products in containers that are readyto use, unattractive for re- use,inaccessibletochildren and labelled with clear, unambiguous directions that areunderstandableforlocal users 2.3 ChemicalSafetyin the Medium •Present legislation related to • Revise legislation to protect the High Workplace healthandsafetyof workersat health of workersand the their workplace is insufficient; public, covering the entire •EIA is mandatory of all spectrum of work situations in developmentprojects; whichchemicalsarehandled, •Lack of health impact includingsuchsectorsas assessmentsystemof agriculture and health developmentactivities; • Developasystemofhealthand •Lack of training and environmentalimpact sensitizationonchemicalsafety assessmentinchemicals forthoseexposedtochemicals handling and incorporate it in International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page78
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM atvariousworkplaces occupationalsafetyandhealth •Lack of occupational health & programmes safetypolicies • Develop,enhance,updateand •Poor protection measure from implement ILO safe work chemicalexposuresat standards, ILO guidelineson workplacesi.e. useof protective occupationalsafetyandhealth equipment managementsystem(ILO-OSH 2001) • Develop national occupational safetyandhealthpolicies containing specific text on chemicalsmanagement • Establishintegrated programmes for all public health and safetypractitioners andprofessionals, withan emphasis on identification, assessmentandcontrolof occupationalchemicalrisk factorsinallworkplaces(such as industrial, rural, business andservices) • Avoid workerexposure through technicalmeasureswhere possible;provideappropriate protective equipment; improve theacceptanceofwearing protective equipment and stimulatefurtherresearch on protective equipment to be used under hot and humid International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page79
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM conditions • Promoteresearchonthe development of appropriate protective equipment • Promotetheestablishment of national inspection systemsfor theprotectionof employees fromtheadverseeffectsof chemicalsandencourage dialoguebetweenemployers andemployeestomaximize chemicalsafetyandminimize workplacehazards • Strengthenchemical-safety- related information disseminationamongsocial partners and through public media at the national and international levels • Provide appropriate training andsensitizationonchemical safetyforthoseexposedto chemicalsateachstagefrom manufacturetodisposal(crop growers,industries, enforcementagents,etc. • Support efforts to implement an integratedapproach tothe safeuseofchemicalsatthe workplacebyestablishing effectivemechanismsfor International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page80
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM following up and updating information on international instruments related to hazardoussubstances Chemical-SpecificRisk Low •Lead hasbeen eliminated from • Protectworkersfromdiseases High Reduction gasolineinPakistan andoccupationalcancers, •Mercuryprogramme isbeing causedbychemicalsincludedin implemented in the country; Rotterdam Convention •Chemicals listed in Rotterdam • Promote reduction of the risks Conventionhavebeenbanned posed to human health and the inPakistan; environment,especiallybylead, mercuryandcadmium,by sound environmental management • Consider the need for further action on mercury, considering a full range of options, including the possibility of a legally binding instrument, partnershipsand otheractions; • Take immediate action to reduce the risktohuman health and the environment posedonaglobalscaleby mercuryin productsand productionprocesses(basedon UNEP Governing Council decision 23/9) Industry-sectorSpecific Low •Lack of proper protective • Avoid workerexposure through RiskReduction measuresatworkplaceswhich technicalmeasureswhere posehealthhazardsthrough possible;provideappropriate International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page81
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM exposuretochemicals protective equipment; • Encourageindustrytoextend product stewardship and to withdraw voluntarily highly toxicpesticideswhichare hazardousandcannotbeused safelyunderprevalent conditions • Eliminateworkplacehazards posedbychemicalsthrough simple, practical methods, in particular chemical control banding) ObsoletePesticidesand Low •Fewstudieshavebeen • Identifycontaminated sites Wastes conducted to identifyobsolete andhotspotsanddevelopand Pesticidescontaminatedsites implement contaminated site under the implementation of remediation plansto reduce Stockholm Convention risks to the public and to the •There are limited facilities, environment know-howandtechnical • Ensure the remediationof expertiseavailablefor contaminated sites, including remediation of contaminated thosecausedbyaccidentssites anddisposalofobsolete • Establish infrastructure for chemicals analyzingandremediating contaminatedsites.Provide training in rehabilitation approaches. • Developcapacityto rehabilitate contaminated sites. Develop remediation techniques.Increase International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page82
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM international cooperation in the provision of technical and financialassistancetoremedy environmentalandhuman healtheffectsofchemicals causedbychemicalaccidents, mismanagement,military practicesandwars) Prevention and Control of Low •Basalconventionhasbeen • Applylife-cyclemanagement Chemical Pollution and ratified and is being approachestoensurethat Waste implemented in Pakistan chemicalsmanagement •Little researchon waste decisionsareconsistent with management thegoalsofsustainable •Lack of monitoring mechanism development forchemical impactsof dumps • Establishandimplement and landfills and waste facilities national action plans with on humanhealth respect to wasteminimization •Lack of national strategies for andwastedisposal prevention, detection and • Supportresearchonbest control of illegal trans-boundary practicesinwastemanagement movementsofwaste • Implement capacity-building programmesonwaste minimization and increased resourceefficiency • Develop national and local capacitiestomonitor,assess andmitigatechemicalimpactsof dumps, landfills and other wastefacilitiesonhuman health and the environment • Undertake training International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page83
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM programmesforpreventingthe exposureofwastehandlersand recyclers,particularlywaste scavengers,tohazardous chemicalsandwaste. • Strengthennationalstrategies for prevention, detection and control of illegal trans-boundary movementsofwaste • Promote effortsto prevent illegal traffic of waste PromoteSaferAlternatives Low •Very little research is conducted • Undertakedevelopmentofpest- onsaferalternativesof anddisease-resistantcrop chemicalsandtechnologiesthat varieties arelessresourceintensiveand • Promotetheuseofsafeand lesspolluting; effective alternatives, including non-chemicalalternativesto organicchemicalsthatare highlytoxic, persistent and bio- accumulative • Promotewastepreventionand minimization byencouraging production of reusable/recyclableconsumer goodsandbio-degradable productsanddevelopingthe infrastructure required • Promoteresearchinto technologiesandalternatives thatarelessresourceintensive andlesspolluting International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page84
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Establish ecologicallysound andintegrated strategiesforthe managementofpestsand, whereappropriate, vectorsfor communicablediseases •Promote information exchange onalternativeandecological agricultural practices, including onnon-chemicalalternatives B.3 EducationandAwarenessRaising StakeholderInput Levelof SummaryofStrengthsandGaps Possibleaction Urgencyand Category existing importance (andrelatedGPAactivities) capacities: oftaking High/ action: Medium/ High/ Low Medium/ Low Education Low •Chemicalriskassessment •Include a range of preventive High studiesareandchemicallife cyclemanagementissuesare not included in university curricula International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad strategies,educationand awareness-raisingandcapacity- building in risk communication •Incorporate life-cycle issues in university curricula •Promote education and training onchildren'schemicalsafety •Incorporate chemicalsafetyand especiallyunderstandingof the Page85
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM labelling system of GHS into school and university curricula) Information Low •Workshops,seminarsand • Promoteexchangeof High Dissemination lecturesarearrangedon information on chemical chemicalissuesand pollution occupationalsafetyandhealth in publicorganizationsaswell • Developanddisseminateas byNGOs. chemicalsafetydatasheetsto •Healthandsafetyawareness assistenterprisesinprotecting raisingmeasuresaretakenin theirworkers largeenterprisesespeciallyin • Provideextensionandadvisory multinational organizations. servicesandfarmer •Environmentaldaysand walks organizations with information arearrangedforawarenessof onintegratedpestmanagement commonpublic. strategiesandmethods •No national inventory system • Implementwarningsystems existschemicaluse,transport, with regard to the risksposed storageanddisposal bythe production, use or •Lackof harmonized chemical disposalofchemicals information and dissemination • Forallchemicalsincommerce, system appropriate information detailing their inherent hazards shouldbemadeavailabletothe publicat nocharge and generatedwhereneededwith essentialhealth,safetyand environmental information madeavailable. • Undertakeawareness-raisingfor consumers, in particularby educatingthemonbest practicesforchemicaluse, International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page86
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM about the risks that the chemicalstheyuseposeto themselvesandtheir environmentandthepathways bywhichexposuresoccur • Strengthenchemical-safety- related information dissemination through public media • Undertakeawareness-raising andpreventivemeasures campaigns in orderto promote safeuseofchemicals) Training Medium •Limited opportunities for • Ensure training of agricultural trainings of agricultural workers in safe application farmers,wastehandlers, methodstoallowthesafeuseof recyclers,scientificresearch products staff, custom staff andhealth • Provide training in alternative personnelon safe handling of and ecologicalagricultural chemicals; practices, includingnon- •Lack of trainings required for chemicalalternatives necessarytestingofchemicals • Carryout measuresthat will fortheirmanagementacross inform, educate and protect their life cycle; wastehandlersandsmall-scale •Limited training opportunities recyclersfromthehazardsof forpolicymakersand planners; handlingand recycling •Limited capacities and know- chemicalwaste howofemergencyresponse • Establishprogrammesfor agencies scientific and technical training •Limited knowledge for cleaner of personnel, including customs production technologies; personnel. International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page87
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM •Establishthenecessarytraining and infrastructure for undertakingthenecessary testing of chemicals for their managementacrosstheirlife cycle •Develop trainingprogrammes inriskassessmentand management-relatedhealth techniquesand communication •Address training needed to developcapacityinlegislative approaches, policyformulation, analysisandmanagement •Provide training in emergency response •Providethenecessarytechnical training and financial resources for national Governments to detect and prevent illegal traffic intoxicanddangerousgoods andhazardouswastes •Provide training in cleaner production techniques •Provide training on links betweentradeand environment, including needed negotiating skills •Provide training in the concept ofprotectedareas International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page88
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM B-4 Accidentpreventionandcontrol Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsand Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing Gaps importance capacities: oftaking High/Medium action: /Low High/ Medium/ Low ChemicalAccidents Low •Lowcapacitiesfor •Build capacities of institutions remediation of contaminated sitescausedbychemical accidents •National Disaster ManagementPlandoesnot include strategiesfor chemical accidents/industrial accidents International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad responsible for remediation of contaminated sites, including thosecausedbyaccidents •Develop integrated national and international systemsto prevent major industrial accidentsandforemergency preparednessandresponseto allaccidentsand natural disastersinvolvingchemicals •Develop an international mechanism forresponding to requestsfromcountries affectedbychemicalaccidents •Address gaps in the application of safetyproceduresrelevantto the operationof chemical- intensive facilities, including the environmentallysound managementofhazardous Page89
    • PoisoningPrevention, Treatment and Control Medium •A few poison treatment and controlcentershavebeen establishedinKarachi, Faisalabad,Multanand Islamabadwithreasonable technical and monitoring facilities. NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM substancesandproducts •Build capacities of country to deal with poisoningsand chemical incidents to minimize theoccurrenceof poisonings anddiseasescausedby chemicals •Establish or strengthen national infrastructure, including for information management,poisoncontrol centersandemergency responsecapabilitiesfor chemicalincidents •Establish and strengthen poison control centers to provide toxicological information and advice; develop relevant clinicaland analytical toxicological facilities accordingtotheneeds identifiedandresources availableineachcountry) B.5 AnalyticalandLaboratoryCapacity Category Levelof SummaryofStrengthsand Possibleaction Urgencyand (andrelatedGPAactivities) existing Gaps importanceof capacities: takingaction: High/Medium High/ /Low Medium/ Low International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page90
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM Analyticaland Laboratory Low-Medium •The capacitiesof analytical •Applyscience-based high Capacities laboratoriesare lowto approaches,asdescribedby medium. IOMC organizations on, inter •Most of the institutions lack alia,test guidelines, good proper funds to acquire laboratorypractices, mutual /maintain equipment acceptanceofdata,new •Monitoring and analytical chemicals,existingchemicals, capacitiesofchemicaland toolsandstrategiesfortesting socialdataarelow andassessment •Develop, validate and share reliable, affordable and practicalanalyticaltechniques for monitoring substances for which there is significant concern in environmental mediaandbiologicalsamples •Establish the capacity to collect andanalyzesocialand economicdata •Establish national or regional laboratoryfacilities, complete with modern instruments and equipment, including those necessaryfortestingemissions and operatingaccordingto nationalstandards •Establish needed infrastructure for research into the impact of exposuretochemicalson childrenand women •Establish accredited testing International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page91
    • NationalCapacityAssessmentofPakistanforImplementationofSAICM facilities for chemicals. •Establish accredited testing facilities to undertake testing ofhazardcharacteristicsof chemicalsforclassification and verification of label information International Cooperation Wing, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad Page92