Patterns Of Colonial Rule In Micronesia

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  • David Hanlon 1970: 1st came to Pacific (Peace Corps) until 1973: served on the island of Pohnpei as English language teacher1977-1980: returned to island taught at Community College1994: published article
  • Hanlon reveals the defining characteristics of each era & colonizing power in Micronesia to prove that there is a need for a closer evaluation into the perspectives of Micronesians and their view of their colonial pastBecause their view will tell a different story.
  • Hanlon does this by discussing the historical patterns of colonization of Micronesia by the Spanish, German, and Japanese.the depiction of each power’s ceremony of possession and strategy for domination
  • SummaryIntroductionColonial ClaimsCeremonies of PossessionStrategies for Domination
  • Challenges the canon’s view of the naming of the islands of “Micronesia”Like how we discussed in class..that “tiny islands” is a misrepresentation of the reality that MicronesiaIs actually larger than what its portrayed to be in the canon…Hanlon adds to this..Hanlon says that in the process of creating this name MICRONESIA- It marked a step from ….just words or text TOactual physical domination- reflected 19th century imperial world’s need to order, categorize, bound, know this part of Pacific for control purposes
  • Hanlon says that in the process of creating this name MICRONESIA- It marked a step from ….just words or text TOactual physical domination- reflected 19th century imperial world’s need to order, categorize, bound, know this part of Pacific for control purposes
  • Next, is the colonial claims
  • Story of how Spain, Germany, & Japan each had a turn in claiming Micronesia
  • SPANISHEarly exploration in Pacific (16th century) provided source for Spanish claims over Caroline, Mariana, and Marshall islandsSpanish showed little interest in Pacific area (except for Guam & rest of Marianas)
  • Until GERMANY came along 1878: Expanding German commercial activity threatened Spanish lazy claim to Micronesia - made treaty w/ Marshallese chiefs to establish control over Jaluit Atoll1885: Germans take over in a govt. ordered naval expedition - caused riots in Madrid, Spain - near war (Spanish vs. Germans)1898: Spain lost to US in Spanish-American War (give up all Pacific Territories) - Germany was sold the Mariana & Caroline Islands for 2.5 pesetas1899: Germany successful in its attempts to gain control over Spanish Micronesia
  • WAR would end Germany’s control over MicronesiaWWI in Europe: Germany’s possessions were distant, isolated & undefensibleOct 1914: Japan sailed into various harbors of islands & claimed them in a larger southern movement called the Nanshin-This was supported by Japanese Naval officers whose maritime interests would benefit by access to Micronesian harbors and waters.Whoever controls the tropics controls the world1919: League of Nations formally recognized Japan’s occupation of the islands through the award of a Class C MandateIn return Japan promised toFile progress reports with the LeagueGive up construction of any fortifications in the mandated territoryGuarantee the right of commerce within the territory of all nationsHanlon says this “fabricated guardianship” given by the League of Nations to Japan provided a cover for the Japanese occupation of Micronesia
  • Next is ceremonies of possession
  • Ceremonies of Possession section featuredThe Positive & Negative Aspects of the CeremoniesSPAIN – 1. Carolines (pomp, spectacle, ceremony) 2. Yap (procession) 3. Pohnpei (drum rolls, musket fire) 1. violent uprising (spanish..hostages) 2. local resistanceGERMANY – 1. Von Benningsen (gov. of German New Guinea) confidence in tranquil future for islands 1. violent rebellions against German colonial ruleJAPAN – 1. celebrate emperor’s birthday 2. Shrine to represent power & authority of japanese 1. most violent..soldiers stormsed catholic missions on pohnpei
  • Also included a discussion on Primitivism Ceremonies of possession are used to formalize the boundary between the colonizer and the colonized how colonizers used primitivism to their advantage Study of primitivism (had to be studied thoroughly so it could be exploited politically) So the Germans & Japanese sent their people to the islands to observe the peoplemicronesiansare primitive..so we must teach them to be modern
  • What colonizers identified to be primitive of the Micronesian cultures
  • Lastly, Strategies for Domination
  • Legitimize rule by seizing indigenous authorityUse vehicle of dominationIslander RESISTANCEMissionaries as positive agents of changeUse of EducationSegregation in Schools
  • Hanlon’s article is accurate, complete, informative, & relevantObjective (provides insight on both sides Colonizer vs. Colonized)Significance stems from Hanlon revealing to us the true motives and methods of the colonizers for colonizing Micronesia (eye-opener)
  • Hanlon’s article is accurate, complete, informative, & relevantCounter-canonical (in the beginning when he talks about micronesia, presents the positive AND negative aspects of the ceremonies of possession, how colonizers used primitivism to their advantage)

Transcript

  • 1. Patterns of Colonial Rule in MicronesiaBy David Hanlon
    Presented By
    Patricia Rodriguez
  • 2. Patterns of Colonial Rule in Micronesia
    David Hanlon
    • 1970: 1st came to Pacific (Peace Corps)
    • 3. until 1973: served on the island of Pohnpei as English language teacher
    • 4. 1977-1980: returned to island taught at Community College
    • 5. 1994: published article
  • Hanlon’s
    Hanlon reveals
    the defining characteristics of each era & colonizing power in Micronesia
    to prove that there is a need for a closer evaluation into the perspectives of Micronesians and their view of their colonial past
  • 6. Hanlon’s
    Hanlon does this by discussing
    the historical patterns of colonization of Micronesia by the Spanish, German, and Japanese.
    the depiction of each power’s ceremony of possession and strategy for domination
  • 7. Summary
    Introduction
    Colonial Claims
    Ceremonies of Possession
    Strategies for Domination
  • 8. Introduction
    Physical domination
    “tiny islands”
    Micronesia
  • 9. Introduction
    Physical domination
    “tiny islands”
    19th century imperial world’s need
    Micronesia
  • 10. Summary
    Introduction
    Colonial Claims
    Ceremonies of Possession
    Strategies for Domination
  • 11. Colonial Claims
    Spanish
    Germany
    Japan
  • 12. Colonial Claims
    Early exploration in Pacific (16th century)
    Spanish
    Showed LITTLE interest
  • 13. Colonial Claims
    1878: German Commercial activity
    Germany
    1885: Germans take over
    1898: Spanish-American War
    1885: Germans RULE!
  • 14. Colonial Claims
    1914: during WWI, sailed into harbors of islands & claimed them
    Japan
    1919: League of Nations & Class C Mandate
    Japanese RULE!
  • 15. Summary
    Introduction
    Colonial Claims
    Ceremonies of Possession
    Strategies for Domination
  • 16. Ceremonies of Possession
    Negative
    Aspects of
    Ceremonies of Possession
    Positive
  • 17. Ceremonies of Possession
    Primitivism
    formalize boundary between
    colonizer and the colonized
    colonizers used primitivism to their advantage
    primitivism had to be studied thoroughly
    so it could be exploited politically
  • 18. “incorrigible
    vegabonds”
    Steeped in SUPERSTITION, IGNORANCE, THIEVERY, UNRESTRAINED SEXUALITY
    Third-class people
    Distrustful
    APATHETIC
    TREACHEROUS
    Complained of POLYGAMY, DIVORCE, GROUP WIFE, DIFFICULTY WITH LANGUAGE, ALOOFNESS w/ Missionary Endeavors
  • 19. Summary
    Introduction
    Colonial Claims
    Ceremonies of Possession
    Strategies for Domination
  • 20. Strategies for Domination
    Legitimize rule by seizing indigenous authority
    Use vehicle of domination
    RESISTANCE
    Missionaries as positive agents of change
    Use of Education
    Segregation in Schools
  • 21. Historical Analysis
    Hanlon’s article is accurate, complete, informative, & relevant
    Objective (provides insight on both sides Colonizer vs. Colonized)
    Significance stems from Hanlon revealing to us the true motives and methods of the colonizers for colonizing Micronesia
    (eye-opener)
  • 22. Historiographical Analysis
    Hanlon’s article is counter-canonical & islander-centered
    Micronesia
    Positive AND Negative aspects of ceremonies
    Exploitation of primitivism