Hispanics who may be of any race, were 98.9% of Puerto Rico’s population
Official Language1) Spanish2)EnglishSpanish is the primary language
Language has been a central issue in Puerto Rican education and culture since 1898.Until 1930. US authorities insisted upon making English the language of instruction in the schools.1) They wanted students to speak English in order to expose them to American culture.2) However, Puerto Ricans strongly resisted the effort to impose English as the primary language in schools.The policy was changed in 1948,when Spanish replaced English in the school system.English became a second language, although students were required to study English at every school level. in 1993 Puerto Rico declared both Spanish & English the island’s official languages.
75% of pop. Is Roman Catholic, although a much smaller number regularly attends religious services1) As is typical throughout Latin America, a number of Puerto Ricans practiced religions that blend Catholicism with other traditions.
After US acquired Puerto Rico in 1898, Protestantism grew in influence and popularity, with all major sect represented
D. Some islanders ascribe to spiritualism 1) a belief that the spirits of the dead inhabit the island
E. Others practice Santeria 1) an Afro-Caribbean belief system brought to Puerto Rico from Cuba. F. There is also a small Jewish community
IV. Music & Dance A. P.R. has a long tradition of folk songs and romantic ballads based on African & Spanish rhythms such as 1) decimas - The décima is the root of what we call jíbaro or country music. This folk music genre originated in Southern Spain is probably the earliest example of the fusion of native rhythms to the lyrics and melodies of Spanish music. 2) coplas
B. Ballads are very popular in Puerto Rico 1) most famous composer of ballads is Rafael Hernandez 2) His ballads composed in the 1st part of the 20th century, continue to be widely sung in the US & Latin America
C. Puerto Rican musicians on the island and on the mainland have contributed greatly to the creation of 1) Latin jazz 2) & more recently to innovations in salsa, a genre of Latin music - many Puerto Ricans salsa musicians have experimented w/ a fusion of island rhythms & Musical influences from the mainland (particularly frm New York City area) 3) among the most important of these musicians are Tito Puente and Willie Colon
G. Opera, ballet and popular concerts also take place throughout the year. 1) The Fine Arts Center in San Juan is the island’s main artistic venue
H. Puerto Ricans are also dedicated to dance. 1) In the island’s interior, the seis is the representative dance of the peasant farmers - it is usually danced by six couples, to the accompaniment of a guitar
2) the bomba is the predominant dance among Afro-Puerto Ricans in coastal regions - it came to P.R with slaves from Africa - played with 2 drums and maracas, accompanied by vocals
V. Art A. Introduction 1) P.R. has enjoyed a long history of artistic expression. 2) many artists and writers have explored the island’s identity in their works. 3) the P.R. govt. has long supported arts & culture on the island & runs a number of artistic events
B. Arts & Literature 1) The most famous Puerto Rican painter of the 18th century was Jose Campeche -the most significant Puerto Rican painter of portraits and religious imagery.
5) A persistent theme in much of the island’s literature is the quest for individual and national identity 6) Puerto Rican writers often focus on political and social topics. 7)Prominent 19th-century writers include - Salvador Brau- Eugenio Maria de Hostos
8) Poetry has played an important role in Puerto Rico’s cultural and social history - Manuel A. Alfonso help define the Puerto Rican identity
IV. Types of FoodA. Although Puerto Rican cooking is somewhat similar to both Spanish and Mexican cuisineB. it is a unique tasty blend of Spanish, African, Taíno, and American influencesC. using such indigenous seasonings and ingredients as 1)coriander2) papaya3) cacao4)nispero5)apio6)plantains7)yampee
Introduction To The Cultural Aspect Of Puerto Rico
Introduction to the Cultural Aspect of Puerto Rico<br />Brought to you by these fine folks:<br />Patti Rodriguez<br />Joe Tenorio<br />Mike Camacho<br />Carissa Pangelinan<br />
Although Puerto Rican cooking is somewhat similar to both Spanish and Mexican cuisine<br />It is a unique tasty blend of Spanish, African, Taíno, and American influences<br />
D. Locals call their cuisine "cocinacriolla"(Créole cooking)<br />1) can be traced back to the Arawaks and Tainos, the original inhabitants of the island<br />2)who thrived on a diet of corn, tropical fruit, and seafood. <br />3)When Ponce de León arrived in 1493 the Spanish added <br />- beef, pork, rice, wheat, and olive oil to the island's foodstuffs<br />4) Soon after, the Spanish began planting sugarcane and importing slaves from Africa,<br />- who brought with them okra and taro (known in Puerto Rico as yautia). <br />E. The mingling of flavors and ingredients passed from generation to generation among the different <br /> ethnic groups that settled on the island, resulting in the exotic blend of today's Puerto Rican cuisine.<br />