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Forest Forest Document Transcript

  • Eileen A. Inocelda Jamyla P. Yala Pauleen Dilao DECIDUOUS FOREST Characteristics of deciduous Forest 1. 4 distinct seasons, summer, spring, autumn and winter 2. A good place for almost all sorts of birds and animals 3. A deciduous forest is a good source for water and food as well as good shelter for various species; 4. There are 4 ditinct zones in this kind of forest (see the details in the given link below) 5. The avarage temperature there in the forest is about 50 degree Deciduous Forest Plants and Animals Plants American Beech The American Beech tree grows in the southern and eastern parts of the United States. It grows in deciduous forests all over Maine and northern Massachusetts. It grows best in deep, rich, moist, well-drained soils. The American beech is a tall and wide tree. The mature tree size is anywhere from 90 to 100 feet tall, and spreads 50 to 70 feet. The bark that grows on the tree is very smooth, pale and gray. The growth buds have a yellow tinge, looking a little like a bullet. The leaves are bright green and are about three inches in length. They start wide, and then get smaller and smaller, until they come to a point. The leaves have distinct, strong veins and toothed edges. The American Beech tree does not like city living, probably because of the carbon monoxide. The American Beech tree has a shallow root system and likes bottom land, and upland soil. There are two reasons why it is hard to grow anything beneath the tree. The first is because the leaves that grow on the tree block the sunlight and keep the ground constantly in shade. The second reason is because much of the root system grows all over the ground's surface, and uses any moisture that may reach the ground. Carpet Moss Mosses are simple, rootless evergreen plants. They can live in a wide variety of habitats, but are most often found covering the ground, growing on stream beds, and on the base of trees in deciduous woodlands. Carpet moss grows in eastern North America and Europe. Carpet Moss, like its name, carpets the ground. In the spring the carpet moss is golden green, and turns dark green as it gets older. It looks almost velvety. Its leaves grow
  • parallel to each other and taper off to a point at the end. The edges of the leaves have long, narrow cells which grow in pairs and make the margins look serrated. Mosses originated from aquatic plants and still have a lot of things in common with them. Arctic moss actually survives the bitter cold of the arctic by growing under water. They absorb water through pores which always stay open, and require constant moisture. They don't have true roots, stems or leaves. They reproduce through spores and not through seeds. Common lime The common lime is a tall, stately tree, which grows in the deciduous forests of Europe, the British Isles, and the USA. In the USA it is known as a linden tree. It is the tallest broad-leaved tree in Britain. In the past it was found growing throughout the old growth forests of Europe. Today there are no original forests left there, but the common lime is still widespread because it is frequently planted along avenues and in gardens. The common lime can live up to 500 years. The tree can grow to a height of 120-130 ft (25 m). Bushy side shoots grow along the trunk from near the ground. The lower branches arch out, giving the tree an upside-down pyramid look. The leaves of the common lime growsingly along a stem but not opposite each other, and about 4-7 inches (5-10 cm) wide. They are roundish and slightly heart shaped with small, fine-toothed edges. Their color is a dull, dark green color above and lighter green underneath. The tops of the leaves are hairless but have tufts of white hairs at the junction of the veins underneath. The leaves often have small blisters caused by aphids and other sap-sucking insects. Guelder rose The Guelder Rose prefers to grow at low altitudes and in semi-shade in Scotland and England. It is native to the woodlands of the European deciduous forest. It is found at the edges of woods, hedgerows and marshes. In the United States it is found in agricultural zones 3 to 8, which is a relatively cool climate. It grows in both heavy clay and acidic soil. It was first cultivated in Gelderland, a Dutch province, then introduced to England The Guelder Rose is a deciduous shrub and a member of the honey-suckle family. This shrub is also like the Common Elder. The Guelder Rose's flower is snowy white with flat heads which are 3 to 5 inches across. The flower is wheel shaped and the outer flowers have five petals and are sterile. The inner flowers are fertile and very small. They provide nectar for the insects that pollinate them. The flowers turn into red berries. The Guelder Rose is beautiful in August when the berries are ripe, and the leaves turn to a bright red or rich purple before falling. It has maple-like leaves. This shrub can grow to 5 to 10 feet high.
  • Lady Fern You may have Lady fern in your own house. Many people use it to decorate their homes. You may see it hanging or potted. People in Victorian times were crazy about Lady fern. However, Lady fern is not only found in the house. It also grows in the wild, especially in deciduous forests and the taiga of North America and Eurasia. Lady Fern is a deciduous, perennial fern about 24 to 36 inches tall. Its light green, lacy leaves are about 24 to 30" long and 6 to 9" wide and tapered at both ends. The fronds are cut twice andgrow from a central base. The J-shaped spore casings, or sori, grow on the underside of the leaf. In the wild, Lady ferns can be found growing in meadows, open thickets, moist woods, and along stream beds. They also grow in the cracks of rocks. In the taiga it usually grows in the understory of white spruce, black spruce, Douglas-fir and western hemlock. Lady ferns prefer shaded areas. Northern arrowwood These plants have dark green, oval deciduous leaves which grow opposite each other on the stem. The tips of the leaves are pointed and the bottoms are rounded or heartshaped. The leaves are about 4 inches long and 3 inches across. Northern Arrowwood is different from other viburnums because its leaves have big spiky edges, but its surface is smooth. It has small white to pink flowers in flat-topped clusters about 4 inches across. The plant blooms from May to June. The leaves and flowers grow on the top of long shoots. The fruits of the arrowwood are fleshy and blue-black in color about 1/2 inch across. They are a favorite food of Ruffed Grouse and chipmunks. Deer love to eat the leaves and stems. The shoots were once used by Native Americans for arrow shafts. The bark of Northern Arrowwood is grey and smooth. This shrub can sometimes grow to fifteen feet in height. Pecan The pecan tree can grow to enormous heights, sometimes to heights of 180 feet, and has an upright growing pattern. The bark is pale gray or whitish brown, scaly, and deeply furrowed. The bark on the pecan tree is rough and scaly, and is pale grey or brown. The heartwood is solid brown and black. The leaves grow in groups of 11-17. Each leaf is slightly pointed at the tip. The width of the leaves are approximately 3 inches. Each full grown leaf is about 5 inches top to bottom. This tree is a perennial. The Pecan tree has a shallow root system. The flowers are tiny and hang down in tassels. The pecan uses wind topollinate. The pecan nut is long and pointed with a thin shell.
  • Shagbark Hickory The Shagbark Hickory tree has an ashy gray bark similar to birch trees except its bark separates into long strips, which give the trunk it's shaggy look. The Shagbark Hickory tree is tall and straight and can grow to about 100 feet tall. The Shagbark Hickories branches can spread to 25 feet, the lower branches somewhat droop while the upper branches are upright. The branches in the middle are just about horizontal. The wood of this tree is strong and tough. The Shagbark has both male and female flowers. Male flowers grow in bundles called catkins and female flowers are in clusters called petallets. Tawny Milkcap Mushroom The Tawny Milkcap Mushroom can be found in most deciduous forests. On the North American continent it can be found in southern Canada and the eastern United States. It is also common in Europe. In Japan it is known as chichitake and is used to make a flavorful broth. If you are a mushroom hunter, you may like to eat the Twany Milkcap. This species is edible and is a favorite of collectors. It is besteaten fresh because a white "milk", or sticky latex, seeps out and turns brown when the gills are cut, giving it the name Twany Milkcap. It has a strong fish-like odor, especially when dry. Their flavor is mild. White Birch The White Birch is a small to medium sized deciduous tree which grows to 70 or 80 feet in height. As far as trees go it doesn't live very long, only about 140 years. Small hear- shaped leaves are found at the ends of drooping twigs and branches. The paper birch has both male and female flowers called catkins. These turn into little winged nutkins, which ripen in early August to mid September. The wings help the seeds to fly away from the parent tree so there won't be competition for food and water White Oak The White Oak tree can grow from 80 to 100 feet tall ,3 to 4 feet in diameter around the trunk and can spread from 50 to 80 feet. The Oak tree grows upright and its bark is whitish gray . The life span of the Oak tree, if undisturbed is 500 to 600 years old. The Oak tree's leaves have 7 to 9 rounded points which resemble finger like lobes. In May and early June male flowers appear in slender catkins. Female flowers are not noticeable to the naked eye. The Oak tree's seeds are commonly known as acorns, they are small oval shaped nuts with a cap and they are mostly eaten by squirrels ,chipmunks and deer. Animals American Black Bear The American black bear is the most common bear species in North America. These bears hibernate in winters. They are omnivorous and feed on anything depending on the
  • location and availability. This native species communicate by grunting and marking trees using its teeth and claws. The American black bear is listed by the IUCN as Least Concern. American Burying Beetle The American burying beetle or giant carrion beetle is between 25 and 45 mm long and can be identified by its distinctive orange-red markings. These nocturnal species are critically endangered and are on the verge of extinction. A huge number of these beetles were found in the region east of the Rocky Mountains, but are now limited only to southeastern Canada. Bald Eagle Also known as the American eagle, bald eagles are birds of prey and feed on fish, small sea birds, reptiles and mammals. They are found in various habitats including the eastern deciduous forests of Quebec and New England. Bald eagles are listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. The female bald eagle is larger than the male. The bald eagle is also the national symbol of the US, and appears on its seal. Beaver Beavers are large semi-aquatic rodents who are known for building dams and canals. They build small lodges with the help of sticky mud, alongside water bodies. Beavers are herbivores and their diet includes tree barks, twigs, leaves and water plants. They have powerful front teeth which are used to cut trees as well as for food. Other characteristics include webbed hind-feet and a broad, scaly tail. They are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Bobcat The bobcat is an adaptable predator found in the deciduous and coniferous woodlands of North America. It is twice as large as the domestic cat but a little smaller than the Canada lynx. Their diet varies according to location, season, and abundance. These solitary predators mainly feed on rabbits, hares, chickens, small rodents, and deer. The bobcat is listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. Brown Bear Brown bears are comparatively larger than black bears and are often found in cool mountainous regions. They are omnivorous, mainly feeding on fish and fruit, though they are also known to eat small mammals and insects. Due to their big size, they are generally immune to predatory attacks, except from other bears. Brown bears hibernate in dens and are not sound sleepers like other hibernators, as they are easily awakened. They are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Coyote Although coyotes can live almost anywhere, deciduous forests are one of their favorite dwellings. Also known as American jackals, they usually hunt in pairs. Their diet consists of small mammals, reptiles, mice and fruits. Coyote packs are generally smaller than wolf packs, consisting of closely-related adults and offspring. Coyotes are listed as 'least
  • concern' by the IUCN. Duckbill Platypus The duckbill platypus is a semi-aquatic mammal only found in Australian deciduous forests. They have a very unusual appearance with beaver-like tail, duck-like mouth and webbed feet. Platypus is among the few mammals that are venomous, and it is also the only mammal to lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Platypus are carnivores, feeding mainly on annelid worms, insect larvae and freshwater shrimps. They are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Eastern Chipmunk The eastern chipmunk lives in deciduous wooded areas throughout eastern United States and southern Canada. It forages for food and prefers bulbs, seeds, fruits, nuts, green plants, mushrooms, insects, worms, and bird eggs. When there is excess food, chipmunks transport food by storing it in pouches in their cheeks. Eastern chipmunks are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Eastern Cottontail The eastern cottontail is one of the most common rabbit species in North America. Their diet largely depends on availability, they mainly forage for bark, twigs, leaves, fruit, buds, flowers, grass seeds, sedge fruits, and rush seeds. However, they also feed on insects at times. Eastern cottontail rabbits run in a zigzag fashion when chased, and can reach up to 18 mph. They prefer to live in forests, swamps, thickets, and bushes, where there are plenty of places to hide. This rabbit species is listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Eurasian Red Squirrel These red squirrels are arboreal, omnivorous rodents and can be found throughout Eurasia. They can live up to 15 years, and their predators include eagles, hawks, and coyotes. The numbers of Eurasian red squirrel have decreased drastically in Great Britain and Ireland because of introduction of the eastern gray squirrel from North America. They are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. European Hedgehog The European hedgehog is endemic to western Europe and Russia. Hedgehogs are usually related to porcupines because of their appearance but they are closer to the moles. Their diet includes slugs, earthworms, beetles and caterpillars. They are also known to eat mushrooms, fruits, and occasionally, frogs and small rodents. European hedgehogs are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Muskrat Muskrats are small, dome-shaped, semi-aquatic rodents that live around water marshes, lakes and streams. They mainly eat water plants and small shellfish, their predators include raccoons and foxes. Muskrats are often mistaken to be rats because of their appearance, however they are not related to rats. They are listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN.
  • Northern Cardinal The Northern cardinal is a beautiful bird with a vibrant red color and a tall head crest. Females are grayish olive in color. Gender of the species is also distinguished by the mask-like pattern on the face, which is black in males and gray in females. They eat insects, seeds and tree saps. They are territorial and tend to sing in loud whistles. This species has been listed as 'least concern' by the IUCN. Northern Copperhead Northern copperhead camouflages perfectly amidst fallen tree foliage, which help them in hunting and protection against predators. Young copperheads have a lighter shade of color. The bright-colored tail tip is a peculiar characteristic. They are listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. Opossum Opossums have a flexible diet, which make them successful survivors in diverse locations and conditions. Opossums can be found in deciduous forests of North America. They are nocturnal and opportunistic omnivores. Their varied diet includes fruits, berries, insects, lizards, snails and leftovers by other predators. One peculiar characteristic of this animal is that when threatened, they "play possum", which means that they act dead and also emit a foul smell of a sick or dead animal. They are listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. Raccoon Raccoons can adapt to a wide range of habitats, deciduous forest being one of them. The most distinctive feature of raccoons is the mask-like pattern on its face, and its front paws. This intelligent animal is usually nocturnal and is omnivorous, mainly feeding on fruits, nuts, bird eggs, insects, small mammals and reptiles. Since its diet consists of such wide variety of foods, raccoons are known as one of the world's most omnivorous animals. This species has been listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. Red-tailed Hawk The red-tailed hawk is one of the most common hawk species and can be found throughout most of North America. They are carnivorous and opportunistic feeders. Their diet ranges from mammals to rodents and insects to birds. Due to the abundance of rodent species, deciduous forests are one of the most preferred habitats by red-tailed hawks. Tawny Owl This owl species is found in deciduous and mixed forests across Eurasia. They are nocturnal, and mainly hunt rodents. Their physical characteristics, such as vision and hearing adaptations and silent flight, are perfect for hunting at night. Due to their nocturnal habits, appearance, and eerie cry, tawny owls are often associated with bad- luck. This species of owl is listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. White-tailed Deer: The white-tailed deer can be found all over the USA, parts of Canada, South America and Central America. They prefer deciduous vegetation, and forage for shoots, leaves, cacti,
  • and grasses. This deer species can be recognized by the characteristic white underside of its tail. The white-tailed deer is listed as 'least concern' by IUCN. Other deciduous forest animals • Wolf • Newt • Dhole • Turkey • Mallard Duck • Mountain Lion • Collared Peccary • Skunk • Wood Mouse • Elk • Salamander • Bison • Least weasel • Fat Dormouse Types of soil The soils found in deciduous forests are some of the most fertile in the world. Like grassland soils, these soils have been exposed to thousands of years of dense plant life. The decayed material from living things accumulates in deciduous forests soils to make them more suitable for sustaining plant and animal life. The soils found in these forests are deep, well drained and contain clay, sand, silt and ample organic matter. Soils are classified into 12 orders. The orders that that predominate in deciduous forests are Alfisols and Ultisols. Organic Matter • Deciduous forest soils are rich in organic matter. The particles that accumulate in the soil from the waste products of animals, leaf litter and dead plants and animals turns into the rich humus that darkens the color of the soil. Organic matter traps plants nutrients in the soil so that they can be absorbed by plants rather than washed out of the soil by water. Some deciduous forests are in regions with high enough temperatures and enough water that organic matter breaks down quickly in the soil. These deciduous forest soils are not as fertile as others. Parent Material • The material that a soil forms on is called its parent material. Parent material can be solid bedrock, an ancient lake bed, a dried-up river or material blown in from another area. Deciduous forests are defined by the type of trees that grow in them. The type of tree is determined by the temperature and amount of water that falls on an area. These two factors also change the way the soil is formed. Deciduous
  • forest soils can form on many different types of parent material, but since the amount of water received annually, temperature and fauna are similar, the soils of these forests are similar. Alfisols • Some of the soils found under deciduous forests are called Alfisols. Alfisols are known to have several layers called horizons. These horizons have varying amounts of clay, sand, silt and organic matter depending on how old the soil is and what it formed on. Alfisols are separated into five suborders: Aqualfs, Cryalfs, Udalfs, Ustalfs and Xeralfs. These suborders are defined by distinctive properties such as moisture, clay content and annual temperature. Ultisols • Other soils found in deciduous forests are Ultisols. This soil order is separated into five suborders: Aquults, Humults, Udults, Ustults and Xerolts. These soils are all less fertile, acidic and leached by heavy rains. Ultisols are very old and as such the mineral components of the soil are highly weathered. There is a lot of clay in these soils as well as less calcium, magnesium and potassium then in other soils. Ultisols can sustainably support old forests but are not suitable for intensive agriculture Climate in Deciduous Forest One thing that is interesting about this biome and its climate is that it has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 70 °F. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don't begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world's deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome. Climate is a mix of temperature and precipitation. Deciduous forests have almost 14 inches of rain in the winter months and more than 18 inches of rain in the summer. I hope you enjoyed my report on the climate of a deciduous forest and that you learned a few things from it. Just remember that next time you look out your window you could be looking at a deciduous forest.