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Achieving Sustainable Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda<br />Shenggen FanDirector General<br />International F...
Key messages<br /><ul><li>Achieving the MDG1 goal of cutting hunger is not on track
Emerging trends present further challenges for the future
Agenda for enhancing food security is urgently needed</li></li></ul><li>The number of hungry needs to fall by 73 mil. per ...
29 countries have “alarming“/“extremely alarming” levels of hunger (2009 GHI)<br />GHI components:<br /><ul><li>Proportion...
Prevalence of underweight in children
Under-five mortality rate</li></ul>Source: von Grebmer et al. 2009.<br />
Food prices fell from peaks, but remain high<br />Source: Data from FAO 2009 and IMF 2010.<br />
Domestic prices often increased, even when global prices fell <br />Maize prices, 2007-2009<br />Source: World Bank 2009.<...
Non-food factors continue to influence food prices<br />Energy: Oil prices have reached a 19-month high; Biofuel productio...
Emerging trends<br />Population growth and demographic changes<br />Land and water constraints<br />Climate change<br />
Rapidly growing population and demographic change<br />World population reaches 9 billion by 2050<br />All growth to come ...
Natural resource constraints are high<br />Projected water scarcity in 2025<br />Source: IWMI 2000.<br />
Climate change pressure on food production systems<br />Climate change impact on production: Rainfed maize, 2050<br />NCAR...
Climate change impact: Child malnutrition<br />Source:  Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009..<br />
Successes show that rapid food secuirty improvement is possible<br />Asia: Green Revolution (1965-85)<br />China: land ref...
New agenda for food security needed<br />Invest in agriculture and improve smallholder productivity<br />Keep trade open<b...
1. Invest in agriculture and improve smallholder productivity<br />Agric. expenditures as % of agric. GDP<br />Source:  IM...
2. Keep trade open<br />Eliminate harmful trade restrictions and refrain from imposing new ones<br />Complete the Doha Rou...
3. Promote productive safety nets<br />Scale up safety nets to: <br />Secure and smooth food consumption<br />Enable savin...
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Achieving Sustainable Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda

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Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 13, 2010

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  • As quoted by the WTO staff, examples of border measures are: Argentina has recently imposed non-automatic licensing requirements on products as auto parts, textiles, TVs, toys, shoes, and leather goods.India reportedly raised tariffs on some steel products in November 2008. On November 17, 2008, Mercosur members decided to raise their common external tariff, by five percentage points, on numerous items, like wine, peaches, dairy products, textiles, leather goods and wood furniture. - But it seems that this has not been really implementedOn November 26, 2008, Ecuador raised, between 5 and 20 percentage points, its tariffs on 940 products, including butter, turkey, crackers, caramels, blenders, cell phones, eyeglasses, sailboats, building materials, and transport equipment. Russia (a non WTO-Member) has announced its plans to raise import tariffs on cars and harvesters and continued to impose SPS measures. Ukraine‘s Parliament has been considering raising applied tariffs.In December 2008, Indonesia’s government implemented a regulation which states that imports on 500 individual tariff lines, including textiles, toys, and electronics will require special licenses granted conditionally upon the approval of domestic producers.In December 2008, the Republic of Korea announced that its tariffs on imports of crude oil will rise from 1 percent to 3 percent from March 2009.The European Union announced that it would re-introduce export subsidies for some dairy products from late-January 2009.Some measures emphasized by the WTO have been discussed at the domestic level in the beginning of 2008 -&gt; Before the Crisis
  • Transcript of "Achieving Sustainable Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda"

    1. 1. Achieving Sustainable Food Security: New Trends and Emerging Agenda<br />Shenggen FanDirector General<br />International Food Policy Research Institute<br />Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, April 13, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Key messages<br /><ul><li>Achieving the MDG1 goal of cutting hunger is not on track
    3. 3. Emerging trends present further challenges for the future
    4. 4. Agenda for enhancing food security is urgently needed</li></li></ul><li>The number of hungry needs to fall by 73 mil. per year to meet MDG1<br />
    5. 5. 29 countries have “alarming“/“extremely alarming” levels of hunger (2009 GHI)<br />GHI components:<br /><ul><li>Proportion of undernourished
    6. 6. Prevalence of underweight in children
    7. 7. Under-five mortality rate</li></ul>Source: von Grebmer et al. 2009.<br />
    8. 8. Food prices fell from peaks, but remain high<br />Source: Data from FAO 2009 and IMF 2010.<br />
    9. 9. Domestic prices often increased, even when global prices fell <br />Maize prices, 2007-2009<br />Source: World Bank 2009.<br />
    10. 10. Non-food factors continue to influence food prices<br />Energy: Oil prices have reached a 19-month high; Biofuel production is still growing, even though at a slower pace<br />Trade: Some export restrictions have been extended to 2010<br />Finance: Credit availability not yet restored to its pre-crisis level<br />
    11. 11. Emerging trends<br />Population growth and demographic changes<br />Land and water constraints<br />Climate change<br />
    12. 12. Rapidly growing population and demographic change<br />World population reaches 9 billion by 2050<br />All growth to come from urban areas<br />Most growth to come from developing countries<br />Source: FAO 2009.<br />Larger and more urban population will demand more and better food<br />
    13. 13. Natural resource constraints are high<br />Projected water scarcity in 2025<br />Source: IWMI 2000.<br />
    14. 14. Climate change pressure on food production systems<br />Climate change impact on production: Rainfed maize, 2050<br />NCAR A2a<br />Global production = -16%<br />Source: M. Rosegrant (IFPRI) 2009.<br />
    15. 15. Climate change impact: Child malnutrition<br />Source: Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009..<br />
    16. 16. Successes show that rapid food secuirty improvement is possible<br />Asia: Green Revolution (1965-85)<br />China: land reform (1978-84); higher rice yields (1977-now)<br />India: seed marketing (mid-1960s-now), dairy sector development (1970-96)<br />Kenya: unlocking fertilizer and maize markets (1990-2007)<br />Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda: pest- and disease-resistant cassava (1971-89)<br />Vietnam: Exiting from collective agriculture (1988-93)<br />Source: Spielman and Pandya-Lorch 2009.<br />
    17. 17. New agenda for food security needed<br />Invest in agriculture and improve smallholder productivity<br />Keep trade open<br />Promote productive safety nets<br />Invest in climate change adaptation and mitigation<br />Improve institutions and capacities<br />
    18. 18. 1. Invest in agriculture and improve smallholder productivity<br />Agric. expenditures as % of agric. GDP<br />Source: IMF GFS yearbook (various years).<br />Increase agric. spending, improve access to inputs and services, secure land rights, invest in rural infrastructure <br />
    19. 19. 2. Keep trade open<br />Eliminate harmful trade restrictions and refrain from imposing new ones<br />Complete the Doha Round <br />if tariffs increase to their current WTO limits (bound level): <br />11.5% loss of developing country exports <br />US$353 billion loss in world welfare<br />Potential costs of failed Doha Round could be high<br />Source: Bouet and Laborde 2009.<br />
    20. 20. 3. Promote productive safety nets<br />Scale up safety nets to: <br />Secure and smooth food consumption<br />Enable saving and investment <br />Build and diversify assets<br />Types of interventions e.g.:<br />Conditional cash/food transfers<br />Maternal and child health/nutrition programs<br />Public works<br />Insurance for the poor<br />Programs depend on needs, capacities, and resources<br />Source: Adato and Hoddinott 2008.<br />
    21. 21. 4. Invest in climate change adaptation and mitigation<br />Annual expenditure to counteract climate change effects on child nutrition by 2050 (million 2000 US$)<br />Source: Nelson et al. (IFPRI) 2009.<br />
    22. 22. 5. Improve institutions and capacities<br />Build up existing institutions and improve evidence-based policy making<br />Increase gradual implementation after careful experimentation as in Asian reform process (esp. China) <br />Increase investment in information gathering, monitoring, and evaluation <br />Strengthen human and administrative capacities through increased investment in education and training<br />
    23. 23. Rapid hunger reduction is achievable with effective country-led and country-owned actions<br />
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