Game Design @ ITP • Games are a major entertainment form of the 21st   century. As a design discipline, digital game form ...
Game Design @ ITP • Effective design operates within set constraints;   the basic design criteria of digital game form i.e...
What is a game?    Excerpts from Salen & Zimmerman (2004)•    A formal game has a twofold structure based on ends and     ...
What is game design? • “Design is the process by which a designer   creates a context to be encountered by a   participant...
Game Design @ ITP • Salen, K & Zimmerman, E. (2004) Rules of Play: Game Design   Fundamentals. London: MIT Press. ISBN: 0-...
Gameplay modelling     Reality is amazingly complex. The only     way our minds are able to get by at all     is by simpli...
Gameplay modelling Tuesday, July 03, 2012   Emma Westecott   7
Gameplay modelling     Our mind does this with everything     we make sense of e.g.     images, human     relationships, d...
Approaches to game design • Blue-sky (assuming no constraint) • Slow boil (given a theme uses extensive   research) • Mech...
Types of design in games• World design (back story, setting, theme)• System design (rules, mathematical  patterns)• Conten...
Csikszentmihalyi - Flow              Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow – the Psychology of Optimal Experience.       ...
Csikszentmihalyi - Flow    Key components for flow:    1. Clear goals    2. No distractions    3. Direct feedback    4. Co...
Iterative developmentGame design, like most forms of design, is aniterative process. This means that the game isquickly pr...
A game schema Tuesday, July 03, 2012   Emma Westecott   14
A game schema Tuesday, July 03, 2012   Emma Westecott   15
What is a game prototype?     Prototyping lies at the heart of good game     design. Prototyping is the creation of a work...
What is a game prototype?     There are many types of prototypes, including     physical prototypes, visual prototypes, vi...
Prototyping tips • Answer a question, i.e. is our core gameplay   fun? How do we judge this? • Forget quality. • Don’t get...
Turning ideas into games Key questions to ask yourself are: •   What is the conflict in my game? •   What are the rules an...
Fleshing out game structure Key questions to ask yourself are: • Define each player’s goal? • What does a player need to d...
GAME DESIGN PROJECT:   Converting digital to physical    Overview:    This oft-used game design exercise enables the stude...
GAME DESIGN PROJECT:   Converting digital to physical   Assignment Overview:   1.Literal conversions attempt to re-create ...
GAME DESIGN PROJECT:   Converting digital to physical   Assignment Overview:   3. Mechanic conversions take a particular, ...
GAME DESIGN PROJECT:   Converting digital to physical   PICK A GAME, ANY GAME   You have been contacted by Indiecade and a...
GAME DESIGN PROJECT:   Converting digital to physical   Method:   1.Choose your game.   2.Choose a method.   3.Determine p...
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Game design@itp v3

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  • NOT 3D, but the representation of the gameplay mechanics built within game form
  • NOT 3D, but the representation of the gameplay mechanics built within game form
  • It is the dynamic challenge of the response between ongoing skill acquisition against increased difficulty that is central to maintaining an ongoing flow state..
  • Focus on the Formal ElementsFormal elements are the underlying system andmechanics of the game.
  • Focus on the Formal ElementsFormal elements are the underlying system andmechanics of the game.
  • Game design@itp v3

    1. 1. Game Design @ ITP • Games are a major entertainment form of the 21st century. As a design discipline, digital game form combines game worlds, rule sets and play to actively engage a player in an ongoing acquisition of skill. • You will iteratively design, visualize, develop, document and test unique game concepts to a proof of concept stage. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 1
    2. 2. Game Design @ ITP • Effective design operates within set constraints; the basic design criteria of digital game form i.e. What is the point of the game? How do you play? How does the game-play feel? etc. provide an excellent framework within which to pose wider questions. Games provide a context for a fresh investigation of the meaning of and the relationship between the roles of artist, designer and player. The basic building blocks of game structure; the game world, the game rules and the player provide a schema for experience design. Starting from an understanding of how current commercial games function this session introduces students to the discipline of game design. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 2
    3. 3. What is a game? Excerpts from Salen & Zimmerman (2004)• A formal game has a twofold structure based on ends and means; Ends: It is a contest to achieve an objective. Means; It has an agreed set of equipment and of procedural “rules” (Parlett, D)• Reduced to its formal essence, a game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context. (Clark C. Abt)• [Play is] a free activity standing quite consciously outside “ordinary” life as being “not serious”, but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner.” (Huizinga, J)• Playing a game is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles. (Suits, B)• A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome. (Salen & Zimmerman) Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 3
    4. 4. What is game design? • “Design is the process by which a designer creates a context to be encountered by a participant, from which meaning emerges.” (Salen & Zimmerman: 41) • “The game designer envisions how a game will work during play. She creates the objectives, rules, and procedures, thinks up the dramatic premise and gives it life, and is responsible for planning everything necessary to create a compelling player experience.” (Fullerton: 2) Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 4
    5. 5. Game Design @ ITP • Salen, K & Zimmerman, E. (2004) Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. London: MIT Press. ISBN: 0-262-24045-9. • Splits field into primary schemes: RULES PLAY CULTURE Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 5
    6. 6. Gameplay modelling Reality is amazingly complex. The only way our minds are able to get by at all is by simplifying reality so that we can make some sense of it. Thus our minds do not deal with reality but with models of reality. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 6
    7. 7. Gameplay modelling Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 7
    8. 8. Gameplay modelling Our mind does this with everything we make sense of e.g. images, human relationships, decision- making, etc. Games work as models, they are less work for our brain than the real world. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 8
    9. 9. Approaches to game design • Blue-sky (assuming no constraint) • Slow boil (given a theme uses extensive research) • Mechanic (e.g. Mario’s jump; Katamari’s roll) • MDA (http://mahk.8kindsoffun.com) • IP (based on specific franchises) • Story • Research (e.g. flOw) From Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 9
    10. 10. Types of design in games• World design (back story, setting, theme)• System design (rules, mathematical patterns)• Content design (characters, items, puzzles, missions)• Game writing (dialogue, text, story)• Level design (layout of maps, placement of objects and challenges)• User interface (player input, game feedback) • From Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 10
    11. 11. Csikszentmihalyi - Flow Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow – the Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Perennial. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 11
    12. 12. Csikszentmihalyi - Flow Key components for flow: 1. Clear goals 2. No distractions 3. Direct feedback 4. Continuously challengingCsikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. (1990). Flow – the Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Perennial. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 12
    13. 13. Iterative developmentGame design, like most forms of design, is aniterative process. This means that the game isquickly prototyped, played and refined againand again before it is finalized. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 13
    14. 14. A game schema Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 14
    15. 15. A game schema Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 15
    16. 16. What is a game prototype? Prototyping lies at the heart of good game design. Prototyping is the creation of a working model of your idea that allows you to test its feasibility and make improvements to it. Prototypes are like sketches whose purpose is to allow you to focus on a small set of the game’s mechanics or features and see how they function. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 16
    17. 17. What is a game prototype? There are many types of prototypes, including physical prototypes, visual prototypes, video prototypes, software prototypes. The important thing to remember when prototyping is that you are not creating the final design, you are simply trying to formalize your ideas or isolate issues. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 17
    18. 18. Prototyping tips • Answer a question, i.e. is our core gameplay fun? How do we judge this? • Forget quality. • Don’t get attached. • It doesn’t have to be digital • Pick a rapid development environment. • Build the toy first. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 18
    19. 19. Turning ideas into games Key questions to ask yourself are: • What is the conflict in my game? • What are the rules and procedures? • What actions to the players take and when? • Are there turns? How do they work? • How many players can play? • How long does a game take to resolve? • What is the working title? • Who is the target audience? • What platform will the game run on? • What restrictions or opportunities does that environment have? Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 19
    20. 20. Fleshing out game structure Key questions to ask yourself are: • Define each player’s goal? • What does a player need to do to win? • Write down the single most important type of player action in the game? • Describe how this functions. • Write down the procedures and rules in outline format. • Only focus on the most critical rules. • Leave all other rules until later. • Map out how a typical turn works. Using a flowchart is the most effective way to visualize this. • Define how many players can play. • How do these players interact with each other? Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 20
    21. 21. GAME DESIGN PROJECT: Converting digital to physical Overview: This oft-used game design exercise enables the student to understand the nuances of the pure design underneath the art and realized through the programming. There are multiple places to start a non-digital version of a digital game:Adapted from Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 21
    22. 22. GAME DESIGN PROJECT: Converting digital to physical Assignment Overview: 1.Literal conversions attempt to re-create the gameplay experience as closely as possible in a non-digital medium for which it is ideally suited. Super Mario Kart is an excellent example of a game that could be converted to a race to the end board game with little modification to the game structure. 2.Thematic conversions take the basic theme of the digital game and apply that to a traditional style of non-digital game. For instance, one could make the original Super Mario Bros. into something similar to a Dungeon & Dragons traditional RPG. One would borrow the storyline from Super Mario Bros., but not the mechanics. Instead, players might roll characters (or get preselected ones) and search for a princess hidden in a castle.Adapted from Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 22
    23. 23. GAME DESIGN PROJECT: Converting digital to physical Assignment Overview: 3. Mechanic conversions take a particular, common mechanic in the digital game and use it as the basis for a non-digital game. When doing a conversion, don’t force it. Think of a game, and consider how it might work in a non-digital format. A good match doesn’t feel forced.Adapted from Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 23
    24. 24. GAME DESIGN PROJECT: Converting digital to physical PICK A GAME, ANY GAME You have been contacted by Indiecade and asked to look at indie releases in the last year and create a board-game or physical prototype for one of the games.Adapted from Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 24
    25. 25. GAME DESIGN PROJECT: Converting digital to physical Method: 1.Choose your game. 2.Choose a method. 3.Determine player expectation. 4.Scavenge what you can (list all the elements you can lift immediately from the videogame). 5.Fill in the blanks (list everything you’re missing before you have a complete game). 6.Create deliverables (create a prototype and a tentative set of written rules). 7.Play the game with the group in class.Adapted from Fullerton, T. et al. (2008) Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. 2nd ed. Burlington: Elsevier Inc. ISBN: 978-0-240-80974-8. Tuesday, July 03, 2012 Emma Westecott 25
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