it is the tightness of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis that prevents the retraction of the foreskin over the glans. What is PHIMOSIS ?
CAUSES Congenital phimosis Acquired phimosis RISK FACTORS Sex-Male only Age-occur at any age; a higher incidence is seen in infancy and adolescence Repeated catheterization CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Pain Penile swelling Penile inflammation Penile discharge/ Purulent discharge Urination difficulties Pain on urination Erythema Tenderness
What is HYPOSPADIA ? is a congenital malformation of the male sex organs: The urethra does not open through the glans of the penis, but somewhere through the underside of the penis shaft or even at the base of the penis.
TYPES ANTERIOR HYPOSPADIA (70% of the cases) MEDIUM HYPOSPADIA (10% of the cases) POSTERIOR HYPOSPADIA (20% of the cases) CAUSES CONGENITAL >Hormonal imbalance >Deficiency during a certain critical period before the baby is born >Genetic factors >Environmental factors CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Urethral opening in the shaft of the penis Urinary obstruction Absence of prepuce DIAGNOSIS Physical examination X-rays to provide pictures of the urinary tract
Surgical repair of epispadias is recommended in patients with more than a mild case. Leakage of urine (incontinence) is not uncommon and may require a second operation.
Urethroplasty and restoring the normal appearance of the genitalia are contraindicated in infancy because of the small size of the structures.
Distal epispadias. Outlining of local flaps from the glans to reconstruct the distal urethra. Reconstruction of distal penile urethra using local flaps (arrows). Vertical island flap drawn on the ventral aspect of the penis. Island flap transferred dorsally and anastomosed to the urethra. Island flap sutured into a tube to reconstruct the missing portion of the urethra. Urethral reconstruction is completed.
If hormone therapy is not successful, the doctor may perform a surgery called orchiopexy through a small cut in the groin.
An orchiopexy is used to repair an undescended testicle in childhood. An incision is made into the abdomen, the site of the undescended testicle, and another is made in the scrotum (A). The testis is detached from surrounding tissues (B) and pulled out of the abdominal incision attached to the spermatic cord (C). The testis is then pulled down into the scrotum (D) and stitched into place (E).
Hydrocelectomy may require you to have a drainage tube and wear a bulky dressing over the site of the incision for a few days after surgery. Also, you may be advised to wear a scrotal support for a time after surgery. Ice packs applied to the scrotal area during the first 24 hours after surgery may help reduce swelling. Surgical risks include blood clots, infection or injury to the scrotum.
Varicocele is an enlarged mass of veins in the spermatic
cord in the scrotum
Varicoceles reduce blood flow in the testicles (testes)
Impaired blood flow in the testicles can affect sperm
Varicocele is a common cause for male infertility
A varicocele develops when the valve that regulates blood flow from the vein into the main circulatory system becomes damaged or defective. Reduced blood flow in the spermatic cord can cause enlarged veins. Enlarged veins in the testicles can lead to infertility. Causes
Predisposing Factor Precipitating Factor Age ( 30 y. o. and above) Genetics Race (black American) Sex (female) Anatomy hormonal therapy stress in uterine (multiple contraction) nullipara Transformation or abnormal growth of myocytes Growth of Formation of fibroids (asymptomatic) Enlarged fibroids/myomas in the uterus Acute pain pelvic pressure constipation urinary retention infertility/abortion abnormal bleeding fibroid presses other organs erosion of weak fibroids obstruction hysterectomy Fibroids shrink during Menopausal stage myomectomy Able to conceive Unable to conceive Twisting of fibroid stalk
Avoid jogging, aerobic exercise, participating in sports, or any strenuous activity for 6 weeks
Explain changes in the body after surgery
Take showers rather than tub baths
Avoid the sitting position for any extend period.
Eat a well – balanced diet with extra protein and vitamin c to help heal your tissue
do not engage sex at least 4 to 6 weeks , as prescribed by your surgeon
REFERENCE: INTERNET http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/360/main.html http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/777539-overview http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ECE3/html http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com http://www.steadyhealth.com/ http://www.medindia.net/ http://www.urethralsurgery.com http://www.medcyclopaedia.com/ http://www.healthline.com BOOK Medical-Surgical Nursing by Black et.al. 6th edition.