REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM DISORDER WELCOME
 
 
 
it is the tightness of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis that prevents the retraction of the foreskin over the glans. Wh...
CAUSES Congenital phimosis  Acquired phimosis  RISK FACTORS Sex-Male only Age-occur at any age; a higher incidence is seen...
<ul><li>COMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Balanitis </li></ul><ul><li>Painful erections </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphimosis  </li...
<ul><li>CONGENITAL ACQUIRED </li></ul><ul><li>Infection of the Foreskin </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Damage </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
<ul><li>TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Watchful waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics-may control the infection  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>DORSAL SLIT </li></ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Intraoperative Complications   </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Tissue   </li></ul><ul><li>...
What is HYPOSPADIA ? is a congenital malformation of the male sex organs: The urethra does not open through the glans of t...
TYPES ANTERIOR  HYPOSPADIA  (70% of the cases)  MEDIUM HYPOSPADIA  (10% of the cases)  POSTERIOR HYPOSPADIA  (20% of the c...
<ul><li>TREATMENT:  SURGERY </li></ul><ul><li>REASONS  to have surgery: </li></ul><ul><li>Functional reason </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Mathieu's technique: A strip of skin on the ventral side of the penis is cut an overturned forward in order to cov...
<ul><li>COMPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>infection </li></ul><ul><li>narrowing of the urethra (...
What is EPISPADIA ? It is a congenital anomaly characterized by a variable defect in the dorsal urethra. *  It is often pa...
<ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital </li></ul><ul><li>Generics/Hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>RISK FACTORS </li></ul...
<ul><li>CLINICAL MANIFESTATION </li></ul><ul><li>In males: </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal opening from the joint between the p...
<ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>No medical treatment corrects epispadias. </li></ul>...
Distal epispadias. Outlining of local flaps from the glans to reconstruct the distal urethra.   Reconstruction of distal p...
<ul><li>Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding  </li></ul><ul><li>Infection  </li></ul><ul><li>Wound separation  </li></...
<ul><li>DIAGNOSIS; </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia related to inflammatory process </li></ul><ul><li>Pain related to diseas...
  Cryptorchidism  <ul><li>Cryptorchidism, is a congenital condition of infant  </li></ul><ul><li>males. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>The testes start to develop 40 days after conception. </li></ul><ul><li>Male external genitalia during the 3rd and...
<ul><li>Support the scrotum in the palm of your hand and become familiar with the size and weight of each testicle. </li><...
Diagnostics <ul><li>Early diagnosis and management of cryptorchism is needed to preserve fertility and improve early detec...
 
 
<ul><li>The true  undescended testicle  may be intra-abdominal, inguinal or suprascrotal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ectopic testic...
Interventions <ul><li>hormonal injections  </li></ul><ul><li>If hormone therapy is not successful, the doctor may perform ...
 
<ul><li>Collection of amber fluid within the testes, tunica vaginalis, and spermatic cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles ma...
Causes <ul><li>Unknown in newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles that appear later in life may be caused by  </li></ul><ul>...
  Diagnosis <ul><li>Diagnosis will begin with taking a careful  </li></ul><ul><li>history, including sexual history, recen...
  Complications <ul><li>Infection or tumor. Either may impair sperm </li></ul><ul><li>production or function. </li></ul><u...
Nursing Care <ul><li>Post operative care </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct the client that if an incision drain may present,  </l...
Here is a large hydrocele of the testis
Enlarged left hemiscrotum  Puncture: serohemorrhagic liquid  exposure of the vaginal cavity.  Skin suture and declivis dra...
Varicocele <ul><li>Varicocele is an enlarged mass of veins in the spermatic  </li></ul><ul><li>cord in the scrotum  </li><...
  Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Most men who have a varicocele have no symptoms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic (i.e., sympt...
 
Varicocele Ligation   Varicocele   Embolization
<ul><li>  </li></ul>Diagnosis <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large varicoceles may be seen with  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Treatment   <ul><li>Surgical ligation  </li></ul>varicocelectomy  (i.e., surgically &quot;tying off&quot; the affected spe...
<ul><li>What is the prostate gland?  </li></ul><ul><li>The prostate gland is an organ that is located at the base or outle...
<ul><li>What causes prostate cancer?  </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of prostate cancer is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>The ris...
 
<ul><li>What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?   In the early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer often causes no ...
<ul><li>What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?  </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation therapy...
<ul><li>NURSING CARE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early diagnoses can be made by scree...
<ul><li>The ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries are part of a woman's reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries ...
<ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Family history of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Personal history of cancer </li></ul><ul...
 
<ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exam </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic exam </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Local therapy </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
Predisposing Factor  Precipitating   Factor Age ( 30  y. o. and above) Genetics Race (black American) Sex (female) Anatomy...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Observation and examination in 4 to 6 months.(for few symptoms or desires child bearing) </li></ul><ul><li>If meno...
 
 
 
<ul><li>Avoid jogging, aerobic exercise, participating in sports, or any strenuous activity for 6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>...
REFERENCE: INTERNET http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/360/main.html  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/777539-overvie...
<ul><li>PREPARED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Group 5 – BSN III- FISHER </li></ul><ul><li>Avelino, Henry Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Bl...
...THE END...
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Transcript of "Group 5 Reproductive Disorder2"

  1. 1. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM DISORDER WELCOME
  2. 5. it is the tightness of the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis that prevents the retraction of the foreskin over the glans. What is PHIMOSIS ?
  3. 6. CAUSES Congenital phimosis Acquired phimosis RISK FACTORS Sex-Male only Age-occur at any age; a higher incidence is seen in infancy and adolescence Repeated catheterization CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Pain Penile swelling Penile inflammation Penile discharge/ Purulent discharge Urination difficulties Pain on urination Erythema Tenderness
  4. 7. <ul><li>COMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Balanitis </li></ul><ul><li>Painful erections </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphimosis </li></ul><ul><li>Gangrene of the glans </li></ul><ul><li>Posthitis (inflammation of the prepuce) </li></ul><ul><li>Back pressure due to obstruction of flow of urine </li></ul><ul><li>Meatal Stenosis - narrowing of penile opening </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes a cancerous ulcer on glans can cause the adhesion to take place. </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Examination </li></ul><ul><li>CBC </li></ul><ul><li>Urinalysis </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>CONGENITAL ACQUIRED </li></ul><ul><li>Infection of the Foreskin </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrosis/ Scar Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Meatal Stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary Difficulties </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Watchful waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics-may control the infection </li></ul><ul><li>Application of topical steroid cream for 4-6 weeks to the narrow part of the foreskin </li></ul><ul><li>Hot soaks-may help separate the foreskin from the glans </li></ul><ul><li>Bracka's two- </li></ul><ul><li>stage technique </li></ul><ul><li>Preputioplasty </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>DORSAL SLIT </li></ul><ul><li>Circumcision </li></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Intraoperative Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Postoperative Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary retention </li></ul><ul><li>Meatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Chordee </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTION </li></ul><ul><li>Patient and Parental Education </li></ul><ul><li>Adult care </li></ul>
  9. 14. What is HYPOSPADIA ? is a congenital malformation of the male sex organs: The urethra does not open through the glans of the penis, but somewhere through the underside of the penis shaft or even at the base of the penis.
  10. 15. TYPES ANTERIOR HYPOSPADIA (70% of the cases) MEDIUM HYPOSPADIA (10% of the cases) POSTERIOR HYPOSPADIA (20% of the cases) CAUSES CONGENITAL >Hormonal imbalance >Deficiency during a certain critical period before the baby is born >Genetic factors >Environmental factors CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Urethral opening in the shaft of the penis Urinary obstruction Absence of prepuce DIAGNOSIS Physical examination X-rays to provide pictures of the urinary tract
  11. 16. <ul><li>TREATMENT: SURGERY </li></ul><ul><li>REASONS to have surgery: </li></ul><ul><li>Functional reason </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reason </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetical reason </li></ul><ul><li>AGE </li></ul><ul><li>first 18 months of life </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 years old,before he starts attending school </li></ul><ul><li>Types of SURGERY: </li></ul><ul><li>Meatotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Duckett'stechnique: A rectangle of skin is cut from the dorsal prepuce. This rectangle is then transferred to the ventral side of the penis and is involved in the reconstruction of the new urethra. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Mathieu's technique: A strip of skin on the ventral side of the penis is cut an overturned forward in order to cover the meatus until the apex of the glans </li></ul><ul><li>Snodgrass's technique: The new urethra is created after the tissue of the ventral surface of the penis has been incised and tubularized </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>COMPLICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>infection </li></ul><ul><li>narrowing of the urethra (stricture) </li></ul><ul><li>curvature of the penis </li></ul><ul><li>fistula </li></ul><ul><li>Most-operative assistance for hypospadia </li></ul><ul><li>The child is discharged on the day following the operation, so as to limit the stay in hospital and the psychological trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to help the parents with the post-operative assistance information on the following matters is very useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Catheter </li></ul><ul><li>Penis medication </li></ul><ul><li>Antispasmodic medication </li></ul><ul><li>Pain medication </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-infective drugs </li></ul>
  14. 19. What is EPISPADIA ? It is a congenital anomaly characterized by a variable defect in the dorsal urethra. * It is often part of the condition termed epispadias-exstrophy of the bladder.
  15. 20. <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital </li></ul><ul><li>Generics/Hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>RISK FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>more common in whites than in other races. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>For classic bladder exstrophy, common in male than in female </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>As this is a congenital abnormality, newborns are affected. </li></ul><ul><li>MALE </li></ul><ul><li>>penopubic </li></ul><ul><li>>penile </li></ul><ul><li>>glandular </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALE </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>CLINICAL MANIFESTATION </li></ul><ul><li>In males: </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal opening from the joint between the pubic bones to the area above the tip of the penis </li></ul><ul><li>Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Short, widened penis with an abnormal curvature </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infection </li></ul><ul><li>Widened pubic bone </li></ul><ul><li>In females: </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal clitoris and labia </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal opening where the from the bladder neck to the area above the normal urethral opening </li></ul><ul><li>Backward flow of urine into the kidney (reflux nephropathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Widened pubic bone </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary incontinence </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary tract infections </li></ul><ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a CBC </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Plain radiography </li></ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Radiologic </li></ul><ul><li>~intravenous pyelogram (IVP) </li></ul><ul><li>~ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic x-ray </li></ul><ul><li>Voiding cystourethrography </li></ul><ul><li>Other Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain an ECG for operating room guidelines. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>No medical treatment corrects epispadias. </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical repair of epispadias is recommended in patients with more than a mild case. Leakage of urine (incontinence) is not uncommon and may require a second operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethroplasty </li></ul><ul><li>Glanuloplasty </li></ul><ul><li>Cantwell-Ransley repair </li></ul><ul><li>Contraindications </li></ul><ul><li>Urethroplasty and restoring the normal appearance of the genitalia are contraindicated in infancy because of the small size of the structures. </li></ul>
  18. 23. Distal epispadias. Outlining of local flaps from the glans to reconstruct the distal urethra. Reconstruction of distal penile urethra using local flaps (arrows). Vertical island flap drawn on the ventral aspect of the penis. Island flap transferred dorsally and anastomosed to the urethra. Island flap sutured into a tube to reconstruct the missing portion of the urethra. Urethral reconstruction is completed.
  19. 24. <ul><li>Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Wound separation </li></ul><ul><li>Flap necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Meatal stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Urethrocutaneous fistula with urinary leakage from the new urethra and urethral stricture occur in approximately 10-19% of all epispadias repairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing of the final appearance at the end of the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Postoperative Details </li></ul><ul><li>Arm and leg restraints may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor patients with a flow rate study at 3 weeks and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS; </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia related to inflammatory process </li></ul><ul><li>Pain related to disease process </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary incontinence related to disease process </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Body image disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Deficit </li></ul>
  21. 26.   Cryptorchidism <ul><li>Cryptorchidism, is a congenital condition of infant </li></ul><ul><li>males. </li></ul><ul><li>Literally means hidden or obscure testis and </li></ul><ul><li>generally refers to an undescended or maldescended </li></ul><ul><li>testis, is the most common genital problem </li></ul><ul><li>encountered in pediatrics. </li></ul>Causes: <ul><li>Birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-abdominal pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymal abnormalities </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>The testes start to develop 40 days after conception. </li></ul><ul><li>Male external genitalia during the 3rd and 4th months </li></ul><ul><li>of gestation and the fetus continues to grow, </li></ul><ul><li>develop, and differentiate. </li></ul><ul><li>The testes remain high in the abdomen until the 7th </li></ul><ul><li>month of gestation, when they move from the </li></ul><ul><li>abdomen through the inguinal canals into the two </li></ul><ul><li>sides of the scrotum. </li></ul><ul><li>They grow inside the fetal abdomen. Near the end of </li></ul><ul><li>the eighth month, they travel down the inguinal canal </li></ul><ul><li>and through the abdomen wall. </li></ul><ul><li>They reach their low-hanging position in the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>a few days before birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, one or both testes do not descend into </li></ul><ul><li>the scrotum by birth but may come down later. </li></ul>Pathophysiology
  23. 28. <ul><li>Support the scrotum in the palm of your hand and become familiar with the size and weight of each testicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine each testicle by rolling it between your fingers and thumb. Gently feel for lumps, swellings, or changes in firmness. </li></ul>Each testicle has an epididymis at the top which carries sperm to the penis. Don’t panic if you feel this - it’s normal. <ul><li>Regular self examination will help you become more aware of the normal feel and size of your testicles so that any abnormalities can be spotted early on. </li></ul><ul><li>If you notice anything unusual, go and see your physician as soon as you can. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Diagnostics <ul><li>Early diagnosis and management of cryptorchism is needed to preserve fertility and improve early detection of testicular cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Urologist, may palpate the scrotum and abdomen to locate the testicles while the patient is in the squatting position or in a warm bath. </li></ul><ul><li>plasma testosterone concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>m easuring the amount of gonadotropin hormone in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging can often, but not invariably, locate the testes while confirming absence of a uterus. </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>The true undescended testicle may be intra-abdominal, inguinal or suprascrotal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ectopic testicles migrate outside the external inguinal ring to an abnormal position, such as the superficial ring pouch (most commonly), perineum, prepenile region, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>An absent testicle occurs only in 20 to 40% and can be present as a unilateral or bilateral anomaly. </li></ul>Complications <ul><li>Testicular Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Seminoma </li></ul><ul><li>Infertility </li></ul>
  26. 33. Interventions <ul><li>hormonal injections </li></ul><ul><li>If hormone therapy is not successful, the doctor may perform a surgery called orchiopexy through a small cut in the groin. </li></ul><ul><li>An orchiopexy is used to repair an undescended testicle in childhood. An incision is made into the abdomen, the site of the undescended testicle, and another is made in the scrotum (A). The testis is detached from surrounding tissues (B) and pulled out of the abdominal incision attached to the spermatic cord (C). The testis is then pulled down into the scrotum (D) and stitched into place (E). </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>Collection of amber fluid within the testes, tunica vaginalis, and spermatic cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles may be a sign of a more serious condition </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocele can be present at birth (congenital) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles occur in males only. The testes, or testicles, are the two male reproductive glands that produce sperm and the male hormone testosterone. </li></ul><ul><li>Men who have a hydrocele experience swelling of the testicles </li></ul>HYDROCELE
  28. 36. Causes <ul><li>Unknown in newborns </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles that appear later in life may be caused by </li></ul><ul><li>an injury or surgery to the scrotum or groin area, by </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation or infection of the epididymis or </li></ul><ul><li>testicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles may occur with cancer of the testicle or </li></ul><ul><li>the left kidney. </li></ul>Symptoms <ul><li>Often a hydrocele does not cause symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>enlargement of your scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul><ul><li>swelling </li></ul><ul><li>redness of the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>a feeling of pressure at the base of the penis. </li></ul><ul><li>Discomfort in sitting and walking </li></ul>
  29. 37.   Diagnosis <ul><li>Diagnosis will begin with taking a careful </li></ul><ul><li>history, including sexual history, recent </li></ul><ul><li>injury, or illnesses, and observing signs </li></ul><ul><li>and symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles can sometimes be diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>in the doctor's office by visual examination </li></ul><ul><li>and palpation (touch). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroceles are distinguished from other </li></ul><ul><li>testicular problems by transillumination </li></ul><ul><li>(shining a light source through the </li></ul><ul><li>hydrocele so that the tissue lights up) and </li></ul><ul><li>ultrasound examinations of the area </li></ul><ul><li>around the groin and scrotum. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal X-ray. A basic X-ray uses </li></ul><ul><li>electromagnetic radiation to make images </li></ul><ul><li>of your bones, teeth and internal organs. </li></ul>
  30. 38.   Complications <ul><li>Infection or tumor. Either may impair sperm </li></ul><ul><li>production or function. </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal hernia. A loop of intestine could become </li></ul><ul><li>trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall </li></ul><ul><li>(strangulated), a life-threatening condition. </li></ul>Treatments <ul><li>Surgical excision (Hydrocelectomy). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocelectomy may require you to have a drainage tube and wear a bulky dressing over the site of the incision for a few days after surgery. Also, you may be advised to wear a scrotal support for a time after surgery. Ice packs applied to the scrotal area during the first 24 hours after surgery may help reduce swelling. Surgical risks include blood clots, infection or injury to the scrotum. </li></ul><ul><li>Needle aspiration </li></ul>
  31. 39. Nursing Care <ul><li>Post operative care </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct the client that if an incision drain may present, </li></ul><ul><li>some serous-sanguineous may be present in the first </li></ul><ul><li>2 – 48 hours after surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of wearing scrotal support. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and observe the client for pain every 2-3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>immediately after surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>If the client pain does not resolve this time, be alert to </li></ul><ul><li>the possible development of wound complication </li></ul><ul><li>such as infection or bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct the client to schedule a follow-up visit with the </li></ul><ul><li>surgeon to have the wound evaluated for healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress the importance of continuing to wear a scrotal </li></ul><ul><li>support to promote drainage and comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct the client to stay off his feet for 3-5 days and </li></ul><ul><li>to limit physical activity for a week. </li></ul>
  32. 40. Here is a large hydrocele of the testis
  33. 41. Enlarged left hemiscrotum Puncture: serohemorrhagic liquid exposure of the vaginal cavity. Skin suture and declivis drainage of hemiscrotum.
  34. 42. Varicocele <ul><li>Varicocele is an enlarged mass of veins in the spermatic </li></ul><ul><li>cord in the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Varicoceles reduce blood flow in the testicles (testes) </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired blood flow in the testicles can affect sperm </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul><li>Varicocele is a common cause for male infertility </li></ul> A varicocele develops when the valve that regulates blood flow from the vein into the main circulatory system becomes damaged or defective. Reduced blood flow in the spermatic cord can cause enlarged veins. Enlarged veins in the testicles can lead to infertility. Causes
  35. 43.   Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Most men who have a varicocele have no symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic (i.e., symptom-free) cases are often </li></ul><ul><li>diagnosed during a routine physical examination. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ache in the testicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of heaviness in the testicle(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinkage (atrophy) of the testicle(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible or palpable (able to be felt) enlarged vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrent or constant discomfort or pain in the genital region should be reported to a urologist or primary care physician to determine the cause. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 45. Varicocele Ligation Varicocele Embolization
  37. 46. <ul><li>  </li></ul>Diagnosis <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large varicoceles may be seen with </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the naked eye. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium-sized varicoceles may be detected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during physical examination by feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(palpating) the area. A patient suspected of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>having a varicocele should be examined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>while standing up, as a varicocele is more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prominent in this position than while lying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>down, face up (supine). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small varicoceles may be discovered by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physician using one of the following </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>Doppler ultrasonography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>>Thermography </li></ul><ul><li>>Venogram </li></ul>
  38. 47. Treatment <ul><li>Surgical ligation </li></ul>varicocelectomy (i.e., surgically &quot;tying off&quot; the affected spermatic veins). The following methods are used. <ul><li>Embolization </li></ul><ul><li>Laparoscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Naturopathic Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Diet Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental Nutrition </li></ul>Complications <ul><li>Shrinkage of the affected testicle (atrophy). </li></ul><ul><li>Infertility. </li></ul>
  39. 48. <ul><li>What is the prostate gland? </li></ul><ul><li>The prostate gland is an organ that is located at the base or outlet (neck) of the urinary bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>One function of the prostate gland is to help control urination by pressing directly against the part of the urethra that it surrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Another function of the prostate gland is to produce some of the substances that are found in normal semen, such as minerals and sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>What is prostate cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor (growth) that consists of cells from the prostate gland. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Most experts in this field, therefore, recommend that beginning at age 40, all men should undergo yearly screening for prostate cancer. </li></ul>
  40. 49. <ul><li>What causes prostate cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of prostate cancer is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk (predisposing) factors for prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Age, genetics (heredity), hormonal influences, and such environmental factors as toxins, chemicals, and industrial products. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors, such as cigarette smoking and diets. </li></ul>
  41. 51. <ul><li>What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? In the early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer often causes no symptoms for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience burning with urination or blood in the urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Painfully obstructed and enlarged urinary bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>Needing to urinate often, especially at night </li></ul><ul><li>Weak flow of urine </li></ul><ul><li>In the later stages </li></ul><ul><li>Pain in the abdomen and jaundice (yellow color of the skin) </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain and coughing. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the screening tests for prostate cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>Digital rectal examination </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate specific antigen (PSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy of the prostate </li></ul>
  42. 52. <ul><li>What are the treatment options for prostate cancer? </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Cryotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>SURGERY </li></ul><ul><li>Open surgery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the scrotum and anus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laparoscopic prostatectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Cryosurgery </li></ul><ul><li>TURP ( transurethral resection of the prostate ) </li></ul><ul><li>Orchiectomy </li></ul>
  43. 53. <ul><li>NURSING CARE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early diagnoses can be made by screening men for prostate cancer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early treatment of these malignancies (cancers) can stop the growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid having multiple partner </li></ul></ul>
  44. 54. <ul><li>The ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries are part of a woman's reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries make the female hormones -- estrogen and progesterone. </li></ul><ul><li>They also release eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian cancer can: </li></ul><ul><li>Invade </li></ul><ul><li>Shed </li></ul><ul><li>Spread </li></ul>
  45. 55. <ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Family history of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Personal history of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Age over 55 </li></ul><ul><li>Never pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Menopausal </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure or pain in the abdomen, pelvis, back, or legs </li></ul><ul><li>A swollen or bloated abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, indigestion, gas, constipation, or diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling very tired all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Less common symptoms include: </li></ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling the need to urinate often </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual vaginal bleeding (heavy periods, or bleeding after menopause) </li></ul>
  46. 57. <ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exam </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic exam </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of the cancer to other organs </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive function loss of various organs </li></ul><ul><li>Ascites (fluid in the abdomen) </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal obstructions </li></ul>
  47. 58. <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Local therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intraperitoneal chemotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic chemotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rarely, radiation therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Salpingo-oophorectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Hysterectomy </li></ul><ul><li>Omentum </li></ul><ul><li>NURSING CARE </li></ul><ul><li>Same as with the prostate cancer </li></ul>
  48. 61. Predisposing Factor Precipitating Factor Age ( 30 y. o. and above) Genetics Race (black American) Sex (female) Anatomy hormonal therapy stress in uterine (multiple contraction) nullipara Transformation or abnormal growth of myocytes Growth of Formation of fibroids (asymptomatic) Enlarged fibroids/myomas in the uterus Acute pain pelvic pressure constipation urinary retention infertility/abortion abnormal bleeding fibroid presses other organs erosion of weak fibroids obstruction hysterectomy Fibroids shrink during Menopausal stage myomectomy Able to conceive Unable to conceive Twisting of fibroid stalk
  49. 66. <ul><li>Observation and examination in 4 to 6 months.(for few symptoms or desires child bearing) </li></ul><ul><li>If menopausal, fibroids will shrinks and surgery is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine artery embolism </li></ul>
  50. 70. <ul><li>Avoid jogging, aerobic exercise, participating in sports, or any strenuous activity for 6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Explain changes in the body after surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Take showers rather than tub baths </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the sitting position for any extend period. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a well – balanced diet with extra protein and vitamin c to help heal your tissue </li></ul><ul><li>do not engage sex at least 4 to 6 weeks , as prescribed by your surgeon </li></ul>
  51. 71. REFERENCE: INTERNET http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/360/main.html http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/777539-overview http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ECE3/html http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com http://www.steadyhealth.com/ http://www.medindia.net/ http://www.urethralsurgery.com http://www.medcyclopaedia.com/ http://www.healthline.com BOOK Medical-Surgical Nursing by Black et.al. 6th edition.
  52. 72. <ul><li>PREPARED BY: </li></ul><ul><li>Group 5 – BSN III- FISHER </li></ul><ul><li>Avelino, Henry Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Blanco, Mark Anthony </li></ul><ul><li>Estrella, Jade </li></ul><ul><li>Fabillon, Catherine </li></ul><ul><li>Ignacio, Salvador III </li></ul><ul><li>Luna, Dee </li></ul>
  53. 73. ...THE END...

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