IDENTIFICATION (no retracing,no erasure) _________ 1. Surgery to correct an abnormal bulging of internal organs, often the intestines through a weakness in a muscular wall. _________ 2. Surgical removal of a limb or Body part. _________ 3. Is the resection of the prostate by means of a cystoscope passed through the urethra. _________ 4. surgical resection of all or more commonly part of the stomach. _________ 5. surgical opening into the Thoracic cavity.
_________ 6. Is the excision of the faucial tonsils. _________ 7. Endoscopic visualization of the anal canal, rectum, and sigmoidcolon. _________ 8. Formation of a permanent or temporary opening into the colon brought out onto the abdominal wall as a stoma. _________ 9. The removal of the entire uterus, fallopian tubes and the corresponding ovaries through an abdominal incision. _________ 10. Removal of the Lung.
Esophagoscopy Definition: Endoscopic Visualization of the esophagus. Indication: Esophagoscopyis performed to diagnose malignancies, esophagitis,(noting reflux), hiatal hernia, strictures, and varicies; to remove tissues or secretions for study; for direct therapeutic manipulations such as removal of a foreign body, injection or coagulation of varices.
PROCTOSIGMOIDOSCOPY Definition: Endoscopic visualization of the anal canal, rectum, and sigmoidcolon. Indication: This procedure is performed for diagnosis, excision of polyps, biopsy of lesions, and so on. Preparation of the patient: Position of sigmoidoscopy include jacknife, modified lateral/sims or lithotomy.
COLOSTOMY Definition: Formation of a permanent or temporary opening into the colon brought out onto the abdominal wall as a stoma. Indication: A colostomy is intended to be either permanent or temporary. A temporary colostomy is performed to divert the fecal stream from the distal colon which may be obstructed by tumor or inflammation or which may require being “put at rest” because of anastomosis or a pouch procedure.
A permanent colostomy is performed to treat malignancies of the colon; other indications include irrevocable rectal stricture, irrevocable anal incontinence, and inflammatory bowel disease.
HEMORRHOIDECTOMY Definition: Excision of the veins of the anus and associated overlying skin and anoderm (externally) and mucous membrane (internally). Indication: Hemorrhoidectomy refers to the removal of the hemorrhoidal tissues including the enlarged veins within. Anesthesia may be regional, local, or general ( or as combination). Following the induction of anesthesia, proctosigmoidoscopy is performed.
DILATATION OF THE CERVIX AND CURETTAGE OF THE UTERUS(D&C) Definition: The gradual enlargement of the cervical canal and removal (by scraping) of endocervical or endometrial tissue for histologic study. Indication: The procedure is usually performed to diagnose cervical or uterine malignancy, control dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and complete incomplete abortion.
HERNIORRHAPHY Definition Surgery to correct an abnormal bulging of internal organs, often the intestines through a weakness in a muscular wall. Indication: Hernias are either reducible or irreducible, that is incarcerated. The contents of an incarcerated hernia may become strangulated, compromising the viability of the trapped tissue. Types: Inguinal Hernia- multifascial defect is in the groin. Umbilical hernia- within the umbilicus Epigastric– defect in the abdominal wall between the xiphoid process and umbilicus through which fats protrudes.
AMPUTATION Definition and Preparation Surgical removal of a limb or Body part Pre-op assess medication history discuss possibility of phantom limbs sensation ensure adequate hydration Intra-op monitor blood pressure, temperature, heart rate maintain sterility anesthesia administered Post-op monitor vita signs move the stump often to encourage circulation when dressing the stump, wrap it loosely maintain joint movement observe dressings for excessive bleeding
TURP- TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE Definition Is the resection of the prostate by means of a cystoscope passed through the urethra. Indication: This procedure is particularly desirable when the patient is a poor surgical risk, thereby eliminating the need for prostatectomy.
GASTRECTOMY Definition surgical resection of all or more commonly part of the stomach. Indication: It is performed to remove a chronic peptic ulcer or to remove a malignancy and reestablishment of the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract.
THORACOSTOMY Definition surgical opening into the Thoracic cavity Indication: To remove air and fluid from the pleural cavity and re-expansion of the lung.
CRANIOTOMY Definition: Opening of the skull. Indication: The most basic form of craniotomy is the burr hole, a limited opening through which blood or fluid may be evacuated or instruments inserted, to divide neural tracts.
Numerous neurosurgical are treated with craniotomy:
Occluded and malformed Intracranial vessel
Subdural or epidural hematoma
TONSILLECTOMY Definition: Is the excision of the faucial tonsils. Indication: The faucial tonsils and nasopharyngeal tonsils are aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the posterior nasopharynx that hypertrophy secondary to infection.
CHOLECYSTECTOMY Definition and Preparation surgical removal of the gallbladder Indication: To treat chronic or acute cholecystitis, with or without cholelithiasis, to remove malignancy or to remove polyps.
MASTECTOMY Definition and Preparation
the surgical removal of one or both breasts. This is most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor
evaluate health and ensure that patient is fit for the surgery
patient must submit to laboratory tests; routine blood workshop, urinalysis, ECG
if patient is taking medication, the surgeon and anesthesiologist should be informed
patient should be NPO after midnight on the night prior to surgery
Showering with an anti-bacterial soap the night before surgery may be required of the patient
consent form should be signed by the patient
APPENDECTOMY Definition surgical removal of the venifom appendix. Indication: This is performed in acute appendicitis to remove an inflamed appendix before in ruptures.
THYROIDECTOMY Definition Removal of all or a portion of the thyroid gland. Indication Thyroid lobectomy is done to treat some thyroid nodules and carcinomas. Total thyroidectomy is indicated for certain carcinomas and to relieve tracheal or esophageal compression
TOTAL ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY AND BILATERAL SALPINGO OOPHERECTOMY (TAHBSO) Definition: The removal of the entire uterus, fallopian tubes and the corresponding ovaries through an abdominal incision. Indication: Some indications for TAHBSO are endometriosis, postmenopausal bleeding, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, cysts, hemorrhage ( tubal pregnancy) and benign and malignant tumors.
HYDROCELECTOMY Definition: Excision of portion of tunica vaginalis testis with evacuation of fluid contained therein. Indication: A hydrocele is an accumulation of serous fluid around the testis within the tunica vaginalis resulting from trauma or infection or occuring spontaneously.
CYSTOSCOPY Definition: Endoscopic examination of the interior of the urethra, the bladder, and urethral orifices. Indication: Cystoscopy is indicated for diagnosis of urinary tract symptoms (e.g. hematuria, pyuria), to catheterize the ureters, to obtain biopsy specimen, to treat lesions, and for follow up examination of an operative or endoscopic procedure.
NEPHRECTOMY Definition: Removal of a kidney Indication: This procedure is performed for numerous conditions including hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, renal atrophy, renal artery stenosis, trauma, and tumors of the kidney and ureter.
PULMONARY LOBECTOMY Definition: Excision of one or more lobe of the lung. Indication: The diseased lobe is identified. Usually performed when the lesion is limited to the lobe.
PNEUMONECTOMY Definition: Removal of the Lung. Indication: The chief indication for pneumonectomy is bronchogenic carcinoma; among other indications are extensive unilateral tuberculosis, some benign tumors, bronchiectasis, and multiple lung abscesses.
CARDIAC PROCEDURES Definition: Involves the correction of congenital anomalies, acquired diseases of the heart, pericardium, and great vessels ( including repair and replacement of diseased valves, resection of aneurysm, pericardiectomy, pulmonary embolectomy and replacement of the great vessels)
Aortic valve replacement: Involves the excision and replacement of the diseased aortic valve. Mitral valve replacement: Involves the excision and replacement of the diseased mitral valve. Coronary artery bypass: Refers to the grafting of the internal mammary artery or segments of autologoussaphenous vein to bypass coronary artery obstruction. Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Is a technique by which the patient’s blood is diverted, oxygenated, and reperfused. Intra-aortic balloon catheter: The purpose of this is to increase coronary artery blood flow and to assist peripheral perfusion.
INTRA AORTIC BALLON
TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT Definition: Substitution of the femoral head with prosthesis and the reconstruction of the acetabulum with the placement of an acetabular cup or metal. Indication: Disorders of the hip joint for which this procedure may be indicated are rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative disease and hip fracture.
HEMICOLECTOMY Definition: Resection of the colon( a portion of the transverse colon, ascending colon, and cecum) Indication: Tumors, bleeding, inflammation, or trauma and obstruction.
DERMABRASION Definition: Sanding of the skin to smooth scars and surface irregularities. Indication: This procedure removes or minimizes scars (e.g. from acne vulgaris and chicken pox). Dermabrasion may also employed to remove tatoos. Fine wrinkling around the mouth can be temporarily improved with dermabrasion.
AUGMENTATION MAMMOPLASTY Definition: Implantation of breast prostheses for the purpose of enlarging the breast. Indication: This procedure is performed for micromastia, postpartum involution of the breast, and post surgical deformity. The silicon rubber prostheses can be filled with gel, inflatable, or filled with gel or saline.
MYRINGOTOMY Definition: Incision of the tympanic membrane to remove fluid accumulation. Indication: Indicated in acute and chronic otitis media. Myringotomy tubes are often implanted to facilitate drainage of the middle ear.
CATARACT EXTRACTION WITH PCIOL Definition: Removal of opaque occular lens. Indication: The occular lens become opacified for a number of reasons including trauma and congenital, but it is primarily due to aging. PCIOL- Posterior Chamber IntraOccular Lens replacement of opaque occular lens.
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IDENTIFICATION: Root word and suffixes Pertains to a tumor. To force fluids. To puncture and remove fluids. Formation of a fistula or opening. Molding or plastic repair. To remove by excision. To repair. Pertains to a rectum. Related to vagina. It means to crushed into pieces.
11. Pertains to a joint. 12. A breast. 13. Pertains to a stone. 14. Pertains to a gallbladder. 15. A vein. 16. An Intestine. 17. It means an eye. 18. An ovary. 19. It means a stomach. 20. A gland.
NO CLASS THIS AFTERNOON YOU WILL HAVE MUCH TIME TO STUDY FOR YOUR EXAM GOOD LUCK ON YOUR PRELIMINARY EXAM SEE YOU ON THE DAY OF EXAM LECTURE NOTEBOOK MUST BE SUBMITTED AFTER YOUR EXAMINATION
Scope of examination
Concept of illness
Inflammation and responses
Concept of pain
Pathophysiology of pain
Types of pain
Assessment of pain
pain relief measures
Roles of the OR team members
Common surgical procedures
Hints in taking the exam Look for key words Rule out or eliminate similar choices Does the questions have a positive or negative focus? Determine priority nursing action, nursing implications and the nursing process/diagnosis