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Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication
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Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication



Week 2 slides from the class "Social Web 2.0" I taught at the University of Washington's Masters in Communication program in 2007. Most of the content is still very relevant today. Topics: ...

Week 2 slides from the class "Social Web 2.0" I taught at the University of Washington's Masters in Communication program in 2007. Most of the content is still very relevant today. Topics: Computer Mediated Communication.



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    Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication Social Web 2.0 Class Week 2: Computer Mediated Communication Presentation Transcript

    • Social Web 2.0 Implications of Social Technologies for Digital Media Shelly Farnham, Ph.D. Com 597 Winter 2007
    • Week 2
      • Agenda
        • Introduction continued
          • Exploring social uses of technology
        • Overview of Communication Technologies
    • On the Social Uses of Technology
      • What are people’s social goals in using social software?
        • Used to compensate for lack of face to face contact?
          • email friends from long distance; get a date; forge weak social ties with people with specialized knowledge;
        • Or, communication integrated with face to face contact?
      • Is social software good for you?
        • For geeky losers who can’t get a date , addictive, like video games
        • prevents people from developing real social connections
          • Kraut et al. (1998); Nie and Irbring (2000)
        • Or, helps people keep in touch with family and friends, meet new people?
      • How does what we know about the use of social software impact design?
    • Overview Communication Technologies
    • Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
      • User Goals:
        • Communicate, collaborate, socialize
        • At a distance
        • Over time
      • Communication is mediated through technology
        • Vary in degree of
          • Medial richness
          • Interactivity
      low high Media Richness Interactivity low high Phone VideoPhone FacetoFace Text to Speech Chat IM Email VoiceMail Fax Usenet WhiteBoard (Whittaker)
    • Social Presence Theory
      • How successfully media convey sense of others being physically present (also, Media Richness Theory)
      • Face-to-face as benchmark
      • Increase social presence with
        • Verbal
        • Non-verbal, body language
        • Context
      • Impacts sense of emotion, intimacy, immediacy
    • Importance of Social Presence
      • Common ground
        • Achieving shared understanding
      • Turn-taking
      • Infer meaning from context
      • Activating pro-social norms
        • Lack of social presence, increased aggression, decreased trust
    • Common Ground Theory
      • Coordinating both content and process
      • Achieving shared understanding
        • Mutual knowledge, beliefs, assumptions
      • Grounding behaviors
        • Help to achieve common ground
        • Impacted by communication medium and task
        • Examples:
          • Gazes, nodding, pointing, facial expression
          • Checking, repeating, rephrasing
    • Media opportunities
      • Co-presence, same place, same time
      • Visibility
      • Audibility
      • Cotemporality (as sending, other is also receiving)
      • Simultaneity (can send and receive at same time)
      • Sequentiality (messages in sequence)
      • Reviewability
      • Revisability
    • Media opportunities by Media Type
    • Social Information Processing Theory
      • People seek to develop relationships
      • Need to acquire information, and test theories, to develop impression about another person
      • Impression formation through CMC slower, but possible if given enough time
      • Expectation of future interaction activates impression seeking behavors:
        • makes people more friendly, seeking info from others, etc.
    • IN CSCW (also GDSS) (computer supported cooperative work and group decision support systems)
      • CMC can be good, or bad, depending on your goals
      • Reduced Interpersonal affect
      • Increased task focus
      • emphasizing content, minimizing social influences
      • Reduced group solidarity
      • More equal participation
        • Can have multiple synchronous participation
        • Shy people less inhibited
      • More criticism from lower-status individuals
      • Less likely to have leader emerge
      • Takes more time to make a decision (need 4 or 5 times more time to have same # of exchanges), but
      • Less influence in group decision-making by leaders
    • Hyperpersonal CMC
      • Online interactions become hyperpersonal
      • Idealized perception
        • In absence of prior information, over generalize from what information the do have
        • Tendency towards overly positive impressions
          • In-group identity (same group, must be good)
          • Wishful thinking
        • Disinhibition from low social presence, more self-disclosure
        • Behavioral confirmation
      • Optimized self-presentation
    • Communication Technologies in a social context
      • Real time face to face not always preferred
      • Why select a medium?
        • Over time, over location, over many people
        • Attention demands
          • Central, no multitasking
          • Vs. peripheral, enabling multitasking
        • Interruptivity
        • Social context
          • Main channel
          • vs. backchannel
        • Persistent
          • E.g. save phone # on cell phone
        • Always available (cell phone)
        • Conflict harder face to face
    • Email
      • Still the Killer App
      • Time based notification with read/unread flag
      • Sometimes threaded (GMail)
      • Most sharing (URLs, files, pictures) in context of email
    • Email as Habitat
      • People use throughout day
      • Major means of non face to face
      • Main means of document exchange
      • Co opted to do lists, contact management
      • Meeting event coordination
      • RSS sometimes integrated
      • Common to have email “personas”: work email, home email, junk email
      • Any communication application *not* intregrated with e-mail missing important opportunity for user attention
    • Zimbra
      • Very web 2.0, web based email
      • Because web-based, can integrate open API’s, widgets
      • See demo: http://www.zimbra.com/demos/zimbra_overview.html (click on topic index, then View a map demo)
    • Instant Messaging MSN Messenger Standard IM client Adium Integrates multiple IM accounts
    • Other IM services
      • Skype – IM that enable Voice over IP
      • Trillian – Mac based, integrates multiple IM accounts into one
      • Campfire – group IM
    • Meebo
      • Very web 2.0 IM service
      • Integrates different accounts
    • Meebo
      • Rich client look and feel
      • Can use widget to plug into web pages, blogs
    • Discussion Groups
      • Yahoo
      • Standard
      • Integrates w/email
    • Discussion Groups
      • WholeNote
      • Threaded conversations
    • Yahoo
      • Message threading
    • Same conversation in Gmail
    • 2001 MSN Communities Analysis Analysis of 20K communities Now called MSN Groups
    • 2001 MSN Communities Analysis
      • What are people using discussion groups for?
    • 2001 MSN Communities Analysis
      • How does type of group impact measures of health?
    • Conversation through photo sharing
      • Check out:
      • http://projects.ischool.washington.edu/mcdonald/papers/McDonald.HICSS-40.preprint.pdf
      • Positional Play
        • Looking, pointing at other pictures
      • Image quote
        • Take image, modify, repost
      • Text in picture
      • Animation
      • Theme
      • Collaborative Story
    • Contextualized Conversation
      • Messages and threaded messaging on primary content, content provides context
      • Largely blogs, but can appear anywhere
    • Newsvine messages
      • Embedded reply
    • Large scale conversation
    • Netscan – analysis of Usenet discussion lists
    • Netscan -- Conversation Analytics
    • Netscan -- Treemap
    • Conversation Map
      • Warran Sack
      • Berkeley
    • Sociable Media Group
      • http://smg.media.mit.edu/index.html
      • Many interesting visualizations, e.g.:
        • Mountain
        • Visualizing people emailing