CataractsClouding of the lens of the eyeCaused by buildup of protein in the lensTypes of cataracts include:Age-related - develop with ageCongenital - found in babies born with aninfection, injury or poor development beforebirth, or develop during childhoodSecondary - develop as a result of othermedical conditions such as diabetes or exposureto toxic substances, drugs, ultraviolet lights orradiationTraumatic - develop after injury to the eye
Cataracts (con’t)Symptoms:-vision that is cloudy, blurry, foggy, or ﬁlmy-progressive nearsightedness in older people-changes in view of color-glare problems when driving at night-glare problems during the day-double vision-sudden changes in glasses prescriptionCataracts are diagnosed through an eye examTreatment for cataracts-eyeglasses to correct vision-surgery if glasses correction is not enough
Retinal DetachmentVery serious eye condition that occurs when theretina separates from the tissue around itMust be repaired immediately or can causepermanent vision lossSymptoms:-ﬂashes of light-seeing “ﬂoaters” (small ﬂecks or threads)-darkening of your peripheral visionDiagnosed through an eye exam
Retinal Detachment (con’t)Treatments:-Laser or freezing - both will repair the tear if caughtearly enough-Pneumatic retinopexy - (used if tear is small and easy toclose) a small gas bubble is injected into the eye and willrise pressing against retina closing the tear. Laser orfreezing is then done to seal the tear.-Scleral buckle - involves surgically sewing a silicone band(buckle) around the sclera (white of the eye) to push thesclera toward the tear until the tear heals. This bandcan not be seen and is permanently attached. Laser orfreezing might be done to seal the tear.-Vitrectomy - used for large tears and is requiressurgery. The doctor removes the vitreous and replaces itwith a saline solution.
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) group of genetic eye conditions leading to incurable blindness starts with night blindness and moves into tunnel vision (progression is different for everyone) can run in families and can be caused by a number of genetic defects
RP (con’t)Symptoms:-decreased vision at night or in low light-loss of peripheral vision-loss of central visionTests for diagnosis:-color vision-dilation of the pupils to look at the retina-ﬂuorescein angiography (ﬂuorescent dye injected intobloodstream which allows blood vessels in the back ofthe eye to be photographed)-pupil reﬂex response-visual ﬁeld test-visual acuity
RP (con’t)Treatment:-no effective treatment for this conditionalthough wearing sunglasses to protect retinafrom ultraviolet light may help preserve vision-high doses of vitamin A may slow the diseasebut could cause damage to the liver-clinical trials are in place to test newtreatments such as DHA (omega-3 fatty acid)
Usher Syndrome• An inherited disease causing a hearing loss and degeneration of the retina• Earliest symptom is a loss of hearing usually at birth• Later a reduction of side vision leaving only center vision• Later developing into “tunnel vision”• Many people with Usher Syndrome also have severe balance problems.
Glaucomadisease in which the optic nerveis damagedassociated with the increasedpressure of ﬂuid in the eye2nd most common cause ofblindness in the United States
Glaucoma (con’t)Types of Glaucoma:Open-angle (chronic) - most common type with anincrease of eye pressure that occurs over time pushing onthe optic nerveAngle-closure (acute) - when the exit of the aqueoushumor ﬂuid is suddenly blocked causing quick, severe, andpainful rise in the pressure of the eye (this is an eyeemergency)Congenital - present in babies at birth and is caused byabnormal eye developmentSecondary - caused by drugs such as corticosteroids, eyediseases such as uveitis, systemic diseases or trauma
Glaucoma (con’t)Symptoms:Open-angle - most people have no symptoms, once visionloss occurs the damage is already severe, there is a slowloss of peripheral vision, advanced glaucoma can lead toblindnessAngle-closure - may come and go at ﬁrst, quick andsevere pain in one eye, decreased or cloudy vision, nauseaand vomiting, halos around lights, red eye, eye feelsswollenCongenital - noticed in babies a few months old,cloudiness of the front of the eye, eyes look enlarged,red eye, sensitivity to light, tearing
Glaucoma (con’t)Tests for diagnosis:-complete eye exam including dilation-tonometry (pressure test of the eye)-gonioscopy (special lens to look at eye)-optic nerve imaging-examination of the retina in the back of theeye-slit lamp examination-visual acuity-visual ﬁeld measurement
Glaucoma (con’t)Treatment:-goal of treatment is to lower eye pressure somight be given eye drops or pills to lowerpressure-iridotomy (laser therapy)-eye surgery
Macular Degenerationloss of vision in the center of the visual ﬁeld (the macula) due todamage to the retinadifﬁcult to read or recognize faces due to the loss of central visionperipheral vision remains allowing for other daily activities tocontinueleading cause of legal blindness in people over 55 in the UnitedStatesTwo forms: Dry (atrophic) which is a result of the gradualbreakdown of cells in the macula. Wet (exudative or neovascular)which is a result of newly created abnormal blood vessels growingunder the center of the retina.
Macular Degeneration (con’t)Symptoms:-blurred or decreased central vision-blind spots-straight lines look irregular or bent-objects appear different colors and shapes in each eyeTests for diagnosis:-Amsler grid - test to determine defects in center vision(if have macular degeneration lines on test might appearfaded, broken, or distorted)-exam of the back of the eye-angiogram - dye injected into blood stream so thatimages of blood vessels can be taken-tomography - imaging test to see areas of the retina
Macular Degeneration (con’t) Treatments: -no cure found for the dry form although studies have shown antioxidants may protect the retina from damage -laser treatment may help with the wet form of macular degeneration possibly stopping or lessening the vision loss in the early stages of the disease
Methods ofCommunicating & Interpreting • At close range • At far range • Tactile – one or both hands • Tracking • Tadoma • Braille • Print on palm or back
The Interpreting Assignment• Mobility – What are the requirements of the Deaf-Blind person and how will it affect the interpreter?• Length of the assignment – Will you need a partner interpreter?• Familiarizing the Deaf-Blind person with the room and surroundings• Special needs – food, medication, restrooms, seating, etc.
The Interpreting Assignment• Codes – restroom, coffee breaks, exercise breaks, meal breaks• Seating arrangements – Who faces the speaker?• Clothing – dark clothing with high necks may be most appropriate• Lighting – How much residual vision does the Deaf-Blind person have?
The Interpreting Assignment• Participation – How should comments or questions be added to presentation?• Social Situations – Are you “off duty” at lunch time?• Personal Hygiene – body odors or bad breathe, perfume, etc