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International Conference on Population and Development

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Transcript:
1. Goals of the conference
2. Political Atmosphere
3. Key players
4. Old thoery
5. Enviromental Efforts
6. NGO's
7. The Program of Action
8. United States
9. Abortion Debate
10. Outcome
11 Achievements
12. Critics

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International Conference on Population and Development International Conference on Population and Development Presentation Transcript

  • United Nation’s International Conference onPopulation and Development(Cairo, 1994)
    By Kristina Sheldrake
  • What did the Conference Set out to Accomplish?
    The conference’s aim was to set up a consensus position on population and development for the next 20 years at the international level.
    Issues Brought to the Meeting:
    Environmental and population concerns were discussed as one topic at the Conference for the first time.
    99% of global population growth between now and 2050 will be in developing countries. 90% of this will be in the least developed.
    Population issues addressed at conference included: infant morality, spread of HIV/AIDS, educating women, family planning, the use of artificial contraceptives, and unsafe abortions.
  • Political Atmosphere Going into the Conference
    For once, there was no fear that there would be a East-West divide that would impede progress at the conference since the fall of the Soviets.
    However,
    This occurrence changes the balance of power on the international level.
    Unsurprisingly, the United States still retains the majority of the power they wield in the international sphere, but they were not at their highest potential.
    There still is the ever present tension between the Developed and the Developing countries.
  • Key Players at the Conference:
    Women’s Organizations:
    United States:
    The Holy See:
  • Old View: Theory on Population Growth and Socioeconomic Status
    Before this conference, many nations believed that the only way to control population growth was for the nation to gain economic development because this was how developed countries reined in their fertility rates. .
    Many poor countries came to accept this theory.
    However, in the 1960’s many developing countries experienced and economic boom, yet their fertility rate still remained the same.
    Theorist began rethinking this, and concluded that rapid population growth was only a minor economic problem.
  • The Programme of Action
    The Programme of Action was the new theory concluded at the conference as the solution to the population dilemma developing countries were facing.
    It was believed that through empowering women by educating them and raising awareness of family planning methods to young couple that could be used, women would voluntarily opt for fewer children.
    Principle 4
    Advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women, and eliminating all forms of violence against women, are the cornerstones of population and development-related programmes.
    Principle 8
    Everyone has the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. All couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so.
  • Relationship Between Population and Environmental Efforts
    Now however, with the Programme of Action, environmental efforts and population control went hand in hand. Countries needed to reduce their use on renewable resources to make sure they could sustain their future populations.
    No longer was it just the short term benefits that were being looked at, the conference was looking to sustaining the globe for future generations.
    The environmental NGO’s soon realized they had an ally with the women’s movement organization.
  • NGO’s Role in the Conference
    For the first time ever, NGO’s had unprecedented power on the international scale at the Cairo conference than they had ever had before.
    NGO’s were given a forum where they could discuss issues that they thought were crucial and could press for them to be incorporated into the proceedings of the conference that the delegates of states would discuss.
    Women’s Movement Activists
  • United States at Cairo
    Global leader in the field since the beginning of official international population assistance.
    Was the largest donor.
    Provided much of the intellectual leadership to help create efforts to limit fertility
    Encouraged the World Bank to take interest in population growth.
    Pushed the World Health Organization to view rapid population growth as a legitimate health problem.
    President Bill Clinton’s role:
  • The Elephant in the Room- The Abortion Battle
    • This was the most heated aspect of the conference.
    • The Secretary General NafisSadik was at a crossroads.
    • She compromised: issue should be treated as a major public health dilemma that governments were urged to address.
    • Outcry from Women’s Organization
    • Sadikdeclared that abortion should be available in cases of rape and incest.
    • Holy See becomes outraged. Against the Programme of Action document.
    • Treat fear that the Holy See and the United States would not be able to come to a compromise over the abortion topic.
  • Outcome of The Abortion Conflict:
    In the end, the Holy See joined consensus on most of the document.
    Why after such strong opposition?
    Many scholars believe that the Vatican wanted to repair their bridges to the global community.
    John Paul II wished to avoid further decline of the catholic influence around the world.
    The Clinton Administration also toned down the abortion talk because they worried how it would effect his political power and influence in the domestic arena. Did not want to offend the catholic community with the states.
    Questions were raised out of this topic about the role of the Vatican in the United Nation’s system.
  • What Achievements Has ICPD Made?
    One of the most successful development programs mounted by the international community.
    1st United Nations Documents that abortion could be legal and safe.
    Very successful moment in women’s history.
    NGO’s were given unprecedented participation at the conference.
    Focused on individuals rights, rather than focusing on demographics.
  • Critics of the Document
    “The international community did not rise to the challenge and precious time has been lost. The evidence that a rapid and forceful response is needed is even more compelling today then it was in 1994” (Potts, 1999).
    “As Dreadful as is the current inequality in the distribution of resources between the north and south, rich and poor, it pales in comparison with the impending inequality between us, living today, and those who will be born tomorrow, and who under current trends, are destined to inherit a rapidly deteriorating plantetary life support system” (Harte, 1996).
  • Websites Used for Images
    Image 1- http://redstateeclectic.typepad.com/redstate_commentary/2009/11/an-overpopulation-of-mathusians.html
    Image 2- http://survey.cvent.com/blog/product-development-survey
    Image 3- http://irregulartimes.com/epsexualliberty.html
    Image 4- http://ffog.net/cardinals-gather-in-the-vatican-to-discuss-response-on-pedophilia-20106862.html
    Image 5- http://blog.heritage.org/2010/03/03/obama%E2%80%99s-mercantilist-approach-to-trade/
    Image 6- http://www.jbgroup.org.in/jmnrwec/it.php
    Image 7- http://sustainability.ucr.edu/resources/index.html
    Image 8- http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.vanguardwomen.org/graphics/Sacagaweacoin.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.vanguardwomen.org/&usg=__sart0DqnL4oaeWT_4siXZPTHtDw=&h=235&w=235&sz=54&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=kalC2Yb0FflBfM:&tbnh=153&tbnw=152&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwomen%2Bactivist%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26biw%3D1440%26bih%3D785%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:10,270&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=988&vpy=329&dur=599&hovh=163&hovw=163&tx=78&ty=86&ei=38DyTPHxHI32tgPcl43FCw&oei=esDyTOqlOoLUtQPZjui1CQ&esq=5&page=1&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:24,s:0&biw=1440&bih=785
    Image 9- http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/260301
    Image 10- http://www.lifenews.com/2010/05/31/state-5141/
    Image 11-http://www.life.com/image/50435287
    - http://branthansen.typepad.com/letters_from_kamp_krusty/2007/06/todays-my-day-i.html