Bladder Cancer

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This is a powerpoint on Bladder Cancer. Sources are on the last slide of the powepoint! No copy right intended! Enjoy! I hope you learn a lot and I hope you live your life Bladder Cancer free! Also the red words are what I would say during the presentation, basically extra details! So keep that in mind!
-Shelby

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  • BC more likely to spread to neighboring organs through lymph nodes than spreading through bloodstream
  • Papillary tumors- wart-like appearance and attached to a stalkNonpapillary (sessile) tumors:much less commonmore invasiveworse outcomeSuperficial bladder cancer:Cancer in the lining of the bladderInvasive bladder cancer: Cells that have penetrated the cells bladder’s muscle wall/ or to nearby organs and lymph nodes (originating in the transitional cells)
  • Transitional- most commonTransitional Cell: biggest cause: smoking
  • Squamous: prolonged irritation,inflamation, and infectionPredominant in Middle East and AfricaSchistosoma worm that causes Schistosomiasis,
  • Aden:inflammanation and irritation
  • Bladder biopsy- small part of tissue taken awayAbdominal CT scanBladder biopsy usually performed during CytoscopyCytoscopy examining the inside of bladder w/ cameraIntravenous pyelogram- IVP x-ray pictures of ureter & bladder to check for cancerUrinalysisPhysical color, microscopic, and chemical appearanceUrine cytologyExamination of cells in urine
  • Stage 0 -- Noninvasive tumors that are only in the bladder liningStage I -- Tumor goes through the bladder lining, but does not reach the muscle layer of the bladderStage II -- Tumor goes into the muscle layer of the bladderStage III -- Tumor goes past the muscle layer into tissue surrounding the bladderStage IV -- Tumor has spread to neighboring lymph nodes or to distant sites (metastatic disease)
  • Smoking50% of men with BC caused by smoke30% of women with BC caused by smokeChemical Exposure¼ cases due to exposure of carcinogensDye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, & pesticide workers are at highest riskRadiation and chemotherapyExposure to radiation/chemotherapy can increase risk of BCBladder InfectionBladder infection/irritation increase risk of Squamous cell BCHowever, don’t increase transitional cell cancerParasite infectionInfection from Schistosomiasis parasite
  • 67,000 people are diagnosed with BC in the United States every year45,o00 men & 17,000 women13,000 people die every year of BC in US every yearThree times more men get bladder cancer than womenWomen have more severe cases Bladder cancer in white people develop 2x as fast than other ethnic groups(African Americans & Hispanics statistics are similar)Asians have lowest rates of development of BCBC occurs in older ages, average age is 60
  • Layers of bladderpic: http://www.mountnittany.org/wellness-library/healthsheets/documents?ID=6786Shirt pic: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_7JvQaMocMd4/SJyADRukW-I/AAAAAAAAAZI/JhPFU3Ix5xI/s1600-h/drink+pee+repeat.jpgPee on BC: http://www.zazzle.com/pee_on_bladder_cancer_poster-228150471902362783Yellow ribbon: http://www.personalizedcause.com/shop/collections/knowmore/magnets/classic/detail/yellow.htmlAdenocarcinoma & SCC pics: http://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/urinary/uroth4.cfm
  • Bladder Cancer

    1. 1. By Shelby Marcus<br />Bladder Cancer<br />
    2. 2. Basics<br />Bladder Cancer is one of the most common cancers<br />A bladder tumor is created when normal cells mutate<br />They begin to rapidly grow and multiply <br />Tumors are created & grow by cells multiplying<br />Tumors either: <br />Become so big that they takes over other tissues & take their resources (oxygen & nutrients)<br />---OR---<br />Metastasize- travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system (invading & spreading)<br />BC is more likely to spread to neighboring organs thru lymph nodes than spread thru bloodstream<br />
    3. 3. The Bladder…<br />
    4. 4. Transitional Cell Carcinoma<br />In the US, 90% of BC<br />Superficial Bladder Cancer<br />Begins in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder<br />Shrink when empty, enlarge when full<br />Most common<br />Biggest cause: smoking<br />
    5. 5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma<br />In the US, 3-8% of BC<br />Invasive Bladder Cancer<br />Begins in Squamous cells<br />Flat cells that can form after long-term infection or irritation<br />Squamous: prolonged irritation, inflamation, and infection<br />Predominant in Middle East and Africa<br />Schistosoma worm that causes Schistosomiasis,<br />
    6. 6. Adenocarcinoma<br /> In the US, 1-2% of BC<br />Begins in glandular (secretary) cells that can form after long-term irritation and inflammation<br />Invasive Bladder Cancer<br />Biggest cause: inflamation & irritation<br />
    7. 7. Symptoms<br />Most common: Blood in urine <br />(slightly rusty to bright red in color)<br />Frequent urination<br /> (feeling to urinate when not needed)<br />Pain during urination<br />Lower pack pain<br />
    8. 8. Diagnostic Tests<br />Abdominal CT scan<br />Bladder biopsy<br />usually performed during Cytoscopy<br />Cytoscopy <br />examining the inside of bladder w/ camera<br />Intravenous pyelogram- IVP<br /> x-ray pictures of ureter & bladder to check for cancer<br />Urinalysis<br />Physical color, microscopic, and chemical appearance<br />Urine cytology<br />Examination of cells in urine<br />
    9. 9. TNM Staging System<br />Stage 0 – <br />bladder lining<br />Stage I – <br />BTW lining and muscle<br />Stage II – <br />muscle layer<br />Stage III –<br /> into tissue<br />Stage IV –<br />metastasis<br />
    10. 10. Treatments<br />Stage 0 and 1:<br />Transurethral Resection of the Bladder (TURB)- removal of tumor through surgery<br />Chemotherapy or immunotherapy<br />Stage 2 or 3:<br />Radical cystectomy- removal of bladder through surgery<br />Partial removal of bladder (followed by chemotherapy & radiation)<br />Chemotherapy to shrink tumor before surgery<br />Chemotherapy and radiation (patients who don’t do surgery) <br />Stage 4: <br />Incurable, no surgery, (chemotherapy is possibility)<br />
    11. 11. Risk Factors<br />The causes of cancer aren’t usually hereditary… they are….<br />Smoking<br />50% of men with BC caused by smoke<br />30% of women with BC caused by smoke<br />Chemical Exposure<br />¼ cases due to exposure of carcinogens<br />Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, & pesticide workers are at highest risk<br />Radiation and chemotherapy<br />Exposure to radiation/chemotherapy can increase risk of BC<br />Bladder Infection<br />Bladder infection/irritation increase risk of Squamous cell BC<br />However, don’t increase transitional cell cancer<br />Parasite infection<br />Infection from Schistosomiasis parasite<br />
    12. 12. Biology of Cancer<br />No known genetic mutations that cause BC<br />The DNA proteins become mutated so they grow quickly and begin to form tumor<br />Mutation: <br />Prot0-oncogenes become oncogenes<br />As result can’t stop cell cycle<br />Tumor suppressor doesn’t check for mutations <br />Mutation of proto-oncogenes & tumor suppresors because of environmental issues & other risk factors<br />
    13. 13. Statistics<br />67,000 people are diagnosed with BC in the United States every year<br />45,o00 men & 17,000 women<br />13,000 people die every year of BC in US every year<br />Three times more men get bladder cancer than women<br />Women have more severe cases <br />Bladder cancer in white people develop 2x as fast than other ethnic groups<br />(African Americans & Hispanics statistics are similar)<br />Asians have lowest rates of development of BC<br />BC occurs in older ages, average age is 60<br />
    14. 14. Sources<br />Web Sources (information):<br />http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001517<br />http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/bladder/Patient<br />http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bladder-cancer/DS00177<br />http://www.emedicinehealth.com/bladder_cancer/article_em.htm<br />http://www.medicinenet.com/bladder_cancer/article.htm<br />http://www.urologychannel.com/bladdercancer/overview-of-bladder-cancer.shtml<br />http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bladdercancer.html<br />http://blcwebcafe.org/<br />http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/bladder-cancer<br />http://www.acancer.net/bladder_cancer/stage1.php<br />http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Orphan_designation/2009/10/WC500006117.pdf<br />http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/type/bladder-cancer/about/types-of-bladder-cancer<br />http://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/path/urinary/uroth4.cfm<br />Picture sources:<br />http://www.mountnittany.org/wellness-library/healthsheets/documents?ID=6786<br />http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_7JvQaMocMd4/SJyADRukW-I/AAAAAAAAAZI/JhPFU3Ix5xI/s1600-h/drink+pee+repeat.jpg<br />http://www.zazzle.com/pee_on_bladder_cancer_poster-228150471902362783<br />http://www.personalizedcause.com/shop/collections/knowmore/magnets/classic/detail/yellow.html<br />

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