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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION: The educational structure in India is generally referred to as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern. The first ten years provide undifferentiated general education for all students. The +2 stage, also known as the higher secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation into academic and vocational streams and marks the end of school education. In +3 stage, which involves college education, the student goes for higher studies in his chosen field of subject. (
  2. 2. MAULANA AZAD, India's first education minister recommended strong central government control over education throughout the country, with a uniform educational system.
  3. 3. National Policy on Education: The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education amongst India's people. The first NEP was promulgated in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986.
  4. 4. The NPE called for a "child-centred approach" in primary education, and launched "Operation Blackboard" to improve primary schools nationwide The NPE emphasizes three aspects in relation to elementary education: •universal access and enrolment, •universal retention of children up to 14 years of age, and •a substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve •Revival of Sanskrit and other classical languages for contemporary use
  5. 5. Gurukul was a type of school in India, residential in nature, with pupils living in proximity to the guru. In a gurukul, students resided together as equals, irrespective of their social standing, learnt from the guru and helped the guru in his day-to-day life. At the end of his studies, the pupil offered dakshina (fees) to the guru. The gurudakshina is a traditional gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks.
  6. 6. Gurukul system of education
  7. 7. There were universities like Taxila, Ujjain, Kanchi etc. for medicine and learning including mathematics and astronomy.
  8. 8. Nālandā is the name of an ancient university in Bihar, India and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history.
  9. 9. OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: 10+2+3 PATTERN:    10th i.e. Primary + Secondary Education; 12th i.e. Higher Secondary; & 3 Years for bachelor’s degree(Graduation)  This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.
  10. 10. I) PRIMARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA:  The primary or the elementary education is highly emphasised by the Indian Government upto 14 years of the age.  The Child labour is also banned by the Indian Govt. in order to ensure that the children do not enter into the unsafe working condition.  Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India. As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers in India.  Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.
  11. 11. PRIMARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA:  Private education  80% of all schools are government schools making the government the major provider of education.  27% of Indian children are privately educated because of poor quality of public education.  private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extracurricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama etc.  Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. A study found that 65% of schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools
  12. 12. II) SECONDARY EDUCATION:  Secondary education covers children 14–18 which covers 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001.  India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.  Kendriya Vidyalaya project 1965.  A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education but was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage.
  13. 13. III) HIGHER EDUCATION:  After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general degree programmes such as bachelor's degree in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programmes such as engineering, law or medicine.  3rd largest in the world.  Main governing body is UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION (INDIA).
  14. 14. HIGHER EDUCATION: India has:  20 central universities  215 state universities,  100 deemed universities,  5 institutions established and functioning under the State Act, and  33 institutes which are of national importance.  Other institutions include 16,000 colleges, including 1,800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions
  15. 15. Women's Education:  “If you educate a man you educate an individual, however, if you educate a woman you educate a whole family. Women empowered means mother India empowered”. PT. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU  Women in India constitute 50 per cent of the country’s human resources and their contributions are vital for the nation’s progress.  A woman has to play three roles in the course of her life. Each of these roles expects some duties from her.  1) good daughter  2) good wife  3).Good mother.
  16. 16. Census Report: Year Person Males’ literacy Females’ literacy 1901 5.3 9.8 0.7 1911 5.9 10.6 1.1 1921 7.2 12.2 1.8 1931 9.5 15.6 2.9 1941 16.1 24.9 7.3 1951 16.7 24.9 7.3 1961 24.0 34.4 13.0 1971 29.5 39.5 18.7 1981 36.2 46.9 24.8 1991 52.1 63.9 39.2 2001 65.38 76.0 54.0 2011 74.04 82.14 65.46 Source : Census of India (2011)
  17. 17. Rural Education:  Following independence, India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing social change through community development.  The administrative control was effectively initiated in the 1950s, when, in 1952, the government grouped villages under a Community Development Block—an authority under national programme which could control education in up to 100 villages
  18. 18. Rural education cont...  Education in rural India is valued differently than in an urban setting, with lower rates of completion. A gender gap exists within the schools; 18% of males earn a high school diploma compared with only 10% of females.  Vocational education The government of India is taking many positive steps to turn the education vocational and job oriented.
  19. 19. Central Government Involvement  During the Financial Year 2011-12 the Central Government of India has allocated Rs 38,957 crores for the Department of School Education and Literacy which is the main department dealing with primary education in India.  Within this allocation, major share of Rs21,000 crores, is for the flagship programme “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan”.  In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government.
  20. 20. Central govt. Involvement Cont...  The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6% of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.
  21. 21. INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: WHAT NEEDS TO CHANGE? Focus on skill based education. Reward creativity, original thinking, research and innovation  Get smarter people to teach Implement massive technology infrastructure for education
  22. 22. . .  Re-define the purpose of the education system  Take mediocrity out of the system CONCLUSION:  Technology should be changed.  Focus should be on practical knowledge.  Innovations should be encouraged.  Smart classes should be opted by the institutions.