The educational structure in India is generally referred to
as the Ten + Two + Three (10+2+3) pattern. The first
ten years provide undifferentiated general education for
all students. The +2 stage, also known as the higher
secondary or senior secondary, provides for differentiation
into academic and vocational streams and marks the end
of school education. In +3 stage, which involves college
education, the student goes for higher studies in his
chosen field of subject.
MAULANA AZAD, India's first education minister
recommended strong central government control over
education throughout the country, with a uniform
National Policy on Education:
The National Policy on Education (NPE) is
a policy formulated by the Government of India to
promote education amongst India's people.
The first NEP was promulgated in 1968 by
the government of Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi, and the second by Prime
Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986.
The NPE called for a "child-centred approach" in
primary education, and launched "Operation
Blackboard" to improve primary schools nationwide
The NPE emphasizes three aspects in relation to
•universal access and enrolment,
•universal retention of children up to 14 years of age, and
•a substantial improvement in the quality of education to
enable all children to achieve
•Revival of Sanskrit and other classical languages for
Gurukul was a type of school in India, residential in
nature, with pupils living in proximity to the guru.
In a gurukul, students resided together as equals,
irrespective of their social standing, learnt from the
guru and helped the guru in his day-to-day life.
At the end of his studies, the pupil offered dakshina
(fees) to the guru. The gurudakshina is a traditional
gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks.
There were universities like Taxila, Ujjain, Kanchi
etc. for medicine and learning including
mathematics and astronomy.
Nālandā is the name of an ancient university in
and was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 CE to
1197 CE. It has been called "one of the first great
universities in recorded history.
OVERVIEW OF THE INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM:
10th i.e. Primary + Secondary Education;
12th i.e. Higher Secondary; &
3 Years for bachelor’s degree(Graduation)
This pattern originated from the recommendation of the
Education Commission of 1964–66.
I) PRIMARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA:
The primary or the elementary education is highly
emphasised by the Indian Government upto 14 years of the
The Child labour is also banned by the Indian Govt. in order
to ensure that the children do not enter into the unsafe
Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that
there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India. As
of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school
teachers in India.
Education has also been made free for children for 6 to 14
years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to
Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.
PRIMARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA:
80% of all schools are government schools making the government
the major provider of education.
27% of Indian children are privately educated because of poor
quality of public education.
private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extracurricular activities such as science fairs, general
knowledge, sports, music and drama etc.
Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that
government schools are free. A study found that 65% of
schoolchildren in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools
II) SECONDARY EDUCATION:
Secondary education covers children 14–18 which covers 88.5
million children according to the Census, 2001.
India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession
based vocational training to help students attain skills for
finding a vocation of his/her choosing.
Kendriya Vidyalaya project 1965.
A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC)
programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary
education but was converted into Inclusive Education at
III) HIGHER EDUCATION:
After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade
12 examination), students may enroll in general degree
programmes such as bachelor's degree in arts, commerce or
science, or professional degree programmes such as
engineering, law or medicine.
3rd largest in the world.
Main governing body is UNIVERSITY GRANTS
20 central universities
215 state universities,
100 deemed universities,
5 institutions established and functioning under the State
33 institutes which are of national importance.
Other institutions include 16,000 colleges, including 1,800
exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these
universities and institutions
“If you educate a man you educate an individual,
however, if you educate a woman you educate a whole
family. Women empowered means mother India
Women in India constitute 50 per cent of the country’s
human resources and their contributions are vital for the
A woman has to play three roles in the course of her life.
Each of these roles expects some duties from her.
1) good daughter
2) good wife
Following independence, India viewed
education as an effective tool for bringing
social change through community
The administrative control was effectively
initiated in the 1950s, when, in 1952, the
government grouped villages under a
Community Development Block—an
authority under national programme which
could control education in up to 100 villages
Rural education cont...
Education in rural India is valued differently than
in an urban setting, with lower rates of
completion. A gender gap exists within the
schools; 18% of males earn a high school
diploma compared with only 10% of females.
The government of India is taking many positive
steps to turn the education vocational and job
Central Government Involvement
During the Financial Year 2011-12 the Central
Government of India has allocated Rs 38,957 crores
for the Department of School Education and
Literacy which is the main department dealing with
primary education in India.
Within this allocation, major share of Rs21,000
crores, is for the flagship programme “Sarva Siksha
In recent times, several major announcements were
made for developing the poor state of affairs in
education sector in India, the most notable ones
being the National Common Minimum Programme
(NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
Central govt. Involvement
The announcements are;
(a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around
6% of GDP.
(b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to
increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition
of an education cess over all central government taxes.
(c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic
backwardness and poverty.
(d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children
in the age group 6–14 years.
(e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes
such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.
INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: WHAT
NEEDS TO CHANGE?
Focus on skill based education.
Reward creativity, original thinking, research and
Get smarter people to teach
Implement massive technology infrastructure for
Re-define the purpose of the education system
Take mediocrity out of the system
Technology should be changed.
Focus should be on practical knowledge.
Innovations should be encouraged.
Smart classes should be opted by the institutions.