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Sensex
 

Sensex

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    Sensex Sensex Document Transcript

    • What are the Sensex & the Nifty? The Sensex is an quot;indexquot;. What is an index? An index is basically an indicator. It gives you a general idea about whether most of the stocks have gone up or most of the stocks have gone down. The Sensex is an indicator of all the major companies of the BSE. The Nifty is an indicator of all the major companies of the NSE. If the Sensex goes up, it means that the prices of the stocks of most of the major companies on the BSE have gone up. If the Sensex goes down, this tells you that the stock price of most of the major stocks on the BSE have gone down. Just like the Sensex represents the top stocks of the BSE, the Nifty represents the top stocks of the NSE. Just in case you are confused, the BSE, is the Bombay Stock Exchange and the NSE is the National Stock Exchange. The BSE is situated at Bombay and the NSE is situated at Delhi. These are the major stock exchanges in the country. There are other stock exchanges like the Calcutta Stock Exchange etc. but they are not as popular as the BSE and the NSE.Most of the stock trading in the country is done though the BSE & the NSE.
    • Besides Sensex and the Nifty there are many other indexes. There is an index that gives you an idea about whether the mid-cap stocks go up and down. This is called the “BSE Mid-cap Index”. There are many other types of indexes. There is an index for the metal stocks. There is an index for the FMCG stocks. There is an index for the automobile stocks etc. If you are interested in knowing how the SENSEX is actually calculated...you must check-out our quot;How to calculate BSE SENSEX?quot; article! But, before we go ahead and try to understand quot;How to make money in the stock market?quot; you MUST read the next page.... How to calculate BSE SENSEX? This article explains how the value of the “BSE Sensex” or “sensitive index” is calculated. If you are not sure what we mean by the Sensex or what the Sensex is all about, you can find this out by reading our “How to make money in the stock market?” article. The Sensex has a very important function. The Sensex is supposed to be an indicator of the stocks in the BSE. It is supposed to show whether the stocks are generally going up, or generally going down.
    • To show this accurately, the Sensex is calculated taking into consideration stock prices of 30 different BSE listed companies. It is calculated using the “free- float market capitalization” method. This is a world wide accepted method as one of the best methods for calculating a stock market index. Please note: The method used for calculating the Sensex and the 30 companies that are taken into consideration are changed from time to time. This is done to make the Sensex an accurate index and so that it represents the BSE stocks properly. To really understand how the Sensex is calculated, you simply need to understand what the term “free-float market capitalization” means. (As we said earlier, the Sensex is calculated on basis of the “free-float market capitalization” method) But, before we understand what “free-float market capitalization” means, you first need to understand what “market capitalization” means. Next - What is quot;market capitalizationquot;? >> How to make money in the stock market? Inroduction This article is a COMPLETE guide to the basics of making money in the stock market! If you are considering investing in the stock market, you MUST read this article! We have explained all the concepts
    • and talked about all the quot;mythsquot; that people have about the stock market! What are stocks? Definition: Plain and simple, a “stock” is a share in the ownership of a company. A stock represents a claim on the company's assets and earnings. As you acquire more stocks, your ownership stake in the company becomes greater. Note: Some times different words like shares, equity, stocks etc. are used. All these words mean the same thing. So what does ownership of a company give you? Holding a company's stock means that you are one of the many owners (shareholders) of a company and, as such, you have a claim to everything the company owns. This means that technically you own a tiny little piece of all the furniture, every trademark, and every contract of the company. As an owner, you are entitled to your share of the company's earnings as well. These earnings will be given to you. These earnings
    • are called “dividends” and are given to the shareholders from time to time. A stock is represented by a quot;stock certificatequot;. This is a piece of paper that is proof of your ownership. However, now-a-days you could also have a “demat” account. This means that there will be no “stock certificates”. Everything will be done though the computer electronically. Selling and buying stocks can be done just by a few clicks. Being a shareholder of a public company does not mean you have a say in the day-to-day running of the business. Instead, “one vote per share” to elect the board of directors of the company at annual meetings is all you can do. For instance, being a Microsoft shareholder doesn't mean you can call up Bill Gates and tell him how you think the company should be run. The management of the company is supposed to increase the value of the firm for shareholders. If this doesn't happen, the shareholders can vote to have the management removed. In reality, individual investors like you and I don't own enough shares to have a material influence on the company. It's really the big boys like large institutional investors and billionaire entrepreneurs who make the decisions. For ordinary shareholders, not being able to manage
    • the company isn't such a big deal. After all, the idea is that you don't want to have to work to make money, right? The importance of being a shareholder is that you are entitled to a portion of the company’s profits and have a claim on assets. Profits are sometimes paid out in the form of dividends as mentioned earlier. The more shares you own, the larger the portion of the profits you get. Your claim on assets is only relevant if a company goes bankrupt. In case of liquidation, you'll receive what's left after all the creditors have been paid. Another extremely important feature of stock is quot;limited liabilityquot;, which means that, as an owner of a stock, you are quot;not personally liablequot; if the company is not able to pay its debts. In other legal structures such as partnerships, if the partnership firm goes bankrupt the creditors can come after the partners “personally” and sell off their house, car, furniture, etc. To understand all this in more detail you could read our “How to incorporate?” article. Owning stock means that, no matter what happens to the company, the maximum value you can lose is the value of your stocks. Even if a company of which you are a shareholder goes bankrupt, you can never lose your personal assets.
    • Why would the founders share the profits with thousands of people when they could keep profits to themselves? This is the obvious question that comes up next. This what the next section is all about! Next - Why do companies issue stocks? >> What is quot;market capitalizationquot;? You probably think that you have never heard of the term “market capitalization” before. You have! When you are talking about “mid-cap”, “small-cap” and “large-cap” stocks, you are talking about market capitalization! Market cap or market capitalization is simply the worth of a company in terms of it’s shares! To put it in a simple way, if you were to buy all the shares of a particular company, what is the amount you would have to pay? That amount is called the “market capitalization”! To calculate the market cap of a particular company, simply multiply the “current share price” by the “number of shares issued by the company”! Just to give you an idea, ONGC, has a market cap of “Rs.170,705.21 Cr” (when this article was written) Depending on the value of the market cap, the company will either be a “mid-cap” or “large-cap” or “small-cap” company! Now the question is, how do
    • YOU calculate the market cap of a particular company? You don’t! Just go to a website like MoneyControl.com and look up the company whose market cap you are interested in finding out! The figure in front of “Mkt. Cap” will be the market cap value. Having seen what market cap is and how to find out the market cap of a particular company, let us try to understand the concept of “free-float market cap”