Pregnancy to parenthood

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Pregnancy to parenthood

  1. 1. PREGNANCY TO PARENTHOOD………… A CELEBRATION THE DIETARY ASPECTS By Mrs. Anuradha Shekar Head-Food Science & Nutrition, Food Science and Quality Control Dr. B.M.N College of Home Science Matunga.
  2. 2. Relation between Maternal and Foetal Nutrition <ul><li>Inadequate food intake and poor nutrient Utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced blood Volume Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Increase in Cardiac Ouput </li></ul><ul><li>Decraesed blood and nutrient supply to the foetus </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Plaenta size </li></ul><ul><li>reduced Nutrient Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Foetal growth Retardation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recommended Dietary Allowances for Pregnant Mothers 1 1 Vitamin B12 mcg 400 100 Folic Acid mcg 40 40 Ascorbic Acid mg 2.5 2.0 Pyridoxine mg +2 12 Niacin mg Sedentary +0.2 1.1 Riboflavin mg Sedentary +0.2 0.9 Thiamine mg Sedentary 2400 2400 Beta Carotene Mcg 600 600 Retinol mcg 38 30 Iron mg 1000 400 Calcium mg 30 20 Fat g +15 50 Protein +300 1875 Energy Kcals Sedentary Pregnant Women Normal Adult Woman Nutrient
  4. 4. IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL DEFIECIENCY ON PREGNANCY <ul><li>Prematurity and low birth weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of eclampsia </li></ul>Sodium <ul><li>Born with less stores of iron and susceptible to anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers from hypochromic microcytic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Complications during delivery. </li></ul>Iron <ul><li>Calcification of bones and teeth is decreased </li></ul><ul><li>Underweight due to the decreased foetal bone growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Cramps </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated Pregnancy with poor diet can result in osteomalacia </li></ul><ul><li>During lactation breast milk may be deficient in calcium </li></ul>Calcium <ul><li>Foetal growth is affected </li></ul>- Linoelic acid <ul><li>Premature Infant </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight Infant </li></ul><ul><li>Less Brain cells </li></ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul><ul><li>Complications During Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Ketosis </li></ul><ul><li>May not gain enough weight to have normal lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Oedema </li></ul>Energy and Protein Infant Mother Impact of Deficiency on Nutrients
  5. 5. <ul><li>Increased nonnatal death rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Premature rupture of foetal membranes </li></ul>Vitamin C <ul><li>Premature baby </li></ul><ul><li>Perminious anemia </li></ul>Vitamin B12 <ul><li>Foetal malformation </li></ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight congenital abnormalities like hare lip, cleft palate, hydrosephalus. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy deficiency symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Megabolistic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupto placenta </li></ul>Thiamine Riboflavin and Niacin <ul><li>Increased risk of non-natal haemorrage </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased prothrombin synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased loss of blood during delivery </li></ul>Vitamin K <ul><li>Calcium metabolism of foetus affected </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased Calcium Absorption </li></ul>Vitamin D <ul><li>Decreased levels in foetus so more susceptible for Vitamin A deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul>Vitamin A <ul><li>Reduced intra uterine growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Preterm baby </li></ul><ul><li>Foetal mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Foetal malformations including central nervous system and terato-geneacity </li></ul>Zinc <ul><li>Chance of setting goiter </li></ul><ul><li>Cretinism </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of miscarriage and still birth </li></ul>Iodine
  6. 6. Recommended Allowances for Lactating Women 1.5 1.5 1 Vitamin B12 mcg 150 150 100 Folic Acid mg 80 80 40 Acorbic Acid 2.5 2.5 2.0 Pyridoxine mg +3 +4 12 Niacin mg Sedentary +0.2 +0.3 1.1 Riboflavin mg Sedentary +0.2 +0.3 0.9 Thiamine mg Sedentary 3800 3800 2400 Beta Cerotene mcg 950 950 600 Retinol mcg 30 30 30 Iron mg 1000 1000 400 Calcium mg 45 45 20 Fat g +18 +25 50 Protien g +400 +550 1875 Energy Kcal Sedentary 6-12 0-6 Lactating Mother Normal Adult woman Nutrients
  7. 7. FOOD PYRAMID Cereal exchange -10 Fruit and Vegetable exchange-5 Pulse exchange-3 Milk and Meat exchange -4 Sugar & Oil exchange -2
  8. 8. 8 6 4 3 300 200 100 100 100 20 21/4 kat 2 nos 11/2 kat 11/2 kat 1 cup 5 gms Rice Chapati Sambar Potato fry Milk Milk 3 2 1 1 1 ¼ Dinner Cereal exchange Cereal Excahnge Pulse Exchange Roots+ tubers exchange Milk Exchange Sugar exchange 8 3 200 100 40 11/2 kat 1 cup 2 tsp Sundhal Tea Tea Orange 2 1 ½ 1 Eevening Tea Pulse Exchange Milk Exchange Sugar Exchange Fruit 8 6 3 300 200 100 100 2 1/4 kat 2 nos 1 kat I cup Vegetable Pulav Chapatti Palak gravy Curd raita 3 2 1 1 Lunch Cereal Exchange Cereal exchange Vegetable Exchange Milk Exchange 100 1 no Banana 1 Mid Morning Fruit 10 3 400 100 20 2 kat 1kat 5 gms Rava, Upma Tea 4 1 ¼ Breakfast Cereal Exchange Milk Exchange Sugar Exchange Prot g Energy Kcal Amount gm/dl/nos Name of recipe No.of exchange Name of exchange
  9. 9. Remember to have a healthy child, EAT RIGHT, EXERCISE, BE CHEERFUL, BE POSITIVE, BE SOCIAL. It is entirely in your hands to pave a healthy future for your child. Nobody can help untill you help yourself. We can only guide you so it is up to you to take it or leave it. So if I have made a difference please pass on the message. THANK YOU

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