Salmon Carcass Tossing 2014
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Salmon Carcass Tossing 2014

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This slideshow will prepare your students for some slimy, stinky FUN with Nisqually River Education Project on your upcoming field trip! Learn why and how this event will work for you and your......

This slideshow will prepare your students for some slimy, stinky FUN with Nisqually River Education Project on your upcoming field trip! Learn why and how this event will work for you and your students!

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  • Eggs – up to 3,000 per redd….less than 5% will survive to adulthood <br />
  • Alevins remain in the gravel for protection, feeding off of the yolk sac attached to their belly <br />
  • Salmon need clean, clear, cold abundant fresh water and gravel of a specific size <br />
  • Provide shade, produce oxygen, food web input, prevent erosion and input LWD <br />
  • LWD <br />
  • Estuary – where fresh and saltwater mix <br /> Gives a saline gradient for adjusting to saltwater, many niches and lots of food <br /> How big are these “smolts”? <br />
  • 3-5+ years in the open ocean <br />
  • Mostly eating krill and other small crustaceans (which gives them the pink color in their flesh) AND where they grow most of their biomass <br />
  • Silver coloration in ocean for camouflage <br /> Dark on dorsal side, so looking down blend with depth <br /> Bright on ventral (belly) side, so looking up, blend with light <br />
  • Coloration changes to re-camouflage with river/stream ecosystem <br /> Return to same stream where they were born <br />
  • Carcass = important source of MARINE DERIVED NUTRIENTS <br />
  • Redd – these eggs, after hatching, will need nutrients! <br />
  • Macros are are also highly effected.. <br /> They provide the insects with valuable marine derived nutrients. <br /> These insects are an important part of the food web and can also indicate the health and efficiency of rivers and streams. <br />
  • A few of the species effected by the presence of salmon and marine derived nutrients! <br />
  • 137 vertebrate species depend on salmon, a keystone species for our region <br />
  • Extra nitrogen promotes tree growth, assisting in the reversal of the effects of global climate change. <br /> A study in AK showed up to 17% of nitrogen in streamside plants was marine derived <br />
  • :// <br />


  • 1. Nisqually River Salmon Nutrient Enhancement Program The stinky and slimy salmon carcass tossing thing
  • 2. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 3. eggs redd Salmon Life Cycle Salmon Life Cycle silt
  • 4. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 5. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 6. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 7. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 8. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 9. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 10. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 11. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 12. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 13. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 14. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 15. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 16. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 17. Salmon Life Cycle
  • 18. carcass eggs redd alevin River migration Salmon Silver coloration silt Life Cycle gravel Clear, clean water predators Riparian area crustaceans estuary Large, woody debris ocean Oil pollution
  • 19. Historical salmon runs Pre 1800’s • • • • • 5000 Chinook 23,000 Coho 60,000-100,000 Chum 115,000 Pink (odd years only) 6000 Steelhead 720,000 to 1,425,000 lbs/yr!!!!! marine derived nutrients; depending on chum run and pink(odd year)
  • 20. Present Day • • • • • 1500 Chinook 5000 Coho 30,000 Chum 10,000 Pink 500 Steelhead 343,000 lbs/yr • Less than 1/3 of historical run size • Much more chum than any other fish = less diversity
  • 21. Our goals… • Upstream nutrients • Winter months • Increase nutrients in low nutrient upper watershed
  • 22. Where do the carcasses come from?
  • 23. Nisqually Salmon Runs
  • 24. Where do the carcasses come from? Clear Creek Hatchery
  • 25. Salmon Carcass Tossing
  • 26. Why toss salmon carcasses? It helps salmon.
  • 27. Why toss salmon carcasses? It helps other wildlife, too!
  • 28. Why toss salmon carcasses? It helps trees and plants.
  • 29. Why toss salmon carcasses? Salmon connect people with our natural resources. Wa He Lut Indian School
  • 30. 10 years of Carcass Tossing (1999-2013---no fish tossed in 2008/09) 106 tons of rotten salmon tossed 293,200 lbs! About 21,200 lbs this year!
  • 31. 30 Orca Whales (9,600lbs each)
  • 32. 300,000 lb jet
  • 33. Timing *above Centralia Dam
  • 34. What To Wear: Rain gear and rubber boots are recommended! Dress in layers to keep warm. Bring a plastic bag to store smelly, outer layers
  • 35. On your field experience…. …let’s look for early signs of SPRING!
  • 36. Western Beaked Hazelnut
  • 37. Indian Plum
  • 38. Thank you!! ……..Questions? James Morrill, Nathan Meade, and Sheila Wilson Nisqually River Education Project (360)438-8715