The First People
•“Squally-absch”, or “People of the
river, People of the grass country”.
•Traditionally lived off the land and
rivers, sustaining their people
through respect and protection of
•Salmon are important to their diet
European Settlers came….
• Built dikes
• Cleared local vegetation
• Farmed crops and animals
• Ditched creeks
The Ohop Valley Story
The Nisqually Land Trust owns over 200 acres in Ohop Valley.
Ohop Creek runs is 2nd most important salmon-producing
tributary of the Nisqually River.
More than a century ago immigrant Swedish farmers turned
the creek into a straight-flowing ditch in an attempt to dry out
the valley and create better pasture for their dairy cattle.
Why Re-meander a stream?
Meander= to follow a winding, bending course.
Provides temperature control
Creates different speeds of water, giving fish rest areas
instead of one fast stream
Stabilizes river banks
Helps protect flooding of man-built parts of the Nisqually
watershed including: Highway 7, Peterson Road, bridges,
and adjacent neighborhoods.
•The red alder is a deciduous tree that can grow taller
than 120 feet.
•The bark is thin, grey, and smooth. They are usually
covered with patches lichens making the bark appear
•The leaves are sharply pointed, dull green and smooth above and
rust-colored and hairy below. Edges are slightly rolled under with
coarse, blunt teeth.
•Brownish cones remain on the tree
throughout the winter months.
•This tree has the ability fix nitrogen,
contributing to the abundance of this limited
Oregon Ash Fraxinuslatifolia
•The Oregon ash is a deciduous tree that can grow over
80 feet tall and live up to 250 years.
•Leaves are arranged in 5-7 leaflets, bright green, and
oval shaped. Leaves are yellow in the fall.
•The bark is thin and green when young and is
grey-brown when mature.
•Flowers in the spring are pale greenish and yellow and
produce wing shaped fruit
•Balsam poplar is a fast growing deciduous tree
that can grow up to 98 feet tall
•Green and red cylinder shaped flowers (or
catkins) bear green fruit which turn dull greenyellow before dispersal.
•Buds are brown-red
and excrete an aromatic
•Leaves are oval, finely
toothed, with a pointed tip.
Sitka Spruce Piceasitchensis
•The Sitka Spruce is an evergreen tree that can grow
over 340 and is the largest species of spruce.
•Needles are light green to bluish-green, stiff, and
sharp. Cones are reddish to yellowish brown and their
seed scales are thin, wavy, and irregularly toothed.
•The bark is very thin, brown or purplish grey,
and breaks up into small scales.
•Natives used softened pitch to caulk and waterproof
boats, harpoons and fishing gear.
Pacific Crab Apple Malusfusca
•The Pacific crab apple can grow up to 30 feet tall and has
can look like a multi-stemmed shrub.
•The yellow to purplish-red apples look more like berries
(about 1inch in diameter) . After a frost, they turn brown
•Natives would cook and mash the apples. The wood is
hard and somewhat flexible and was used to make tool
handles, bows, wedges, and digging sticks
•The flowers are small, white or pink and grow in
Red Osier Dogwood Cornussericea
•Red osier dogwood is a woody, deciduous shrub
with a rounded form and can grow in thickets of up
to 3-10 feet.
•Young bark is bright red in fall and winter and turns
more green in spring and summer. Mature bark
begins to crack and turn more brown.
•Flowers are in white clusters with a hint of
blue and bear clustered, white berries that
ripen in the late summer.
•Leaves are bright green in spring and
summer and turn bright red-orange in the
•Twinberry is a deciduous shrub that grows between 610 feet with a 6-10 feet spread
•Flowers grow in tubular shapes in June and July and
bear two, dark purple-black berries.
•Leaves are bright green and can grow up to 5 inches
and have a hairy underside
•The berries are incredibly bitter and attract
birds, bears, and small mammals.
•Pacific Ninebark is a deciduous shrub that can grow 10-15 feet.
•Flowers in white domed clusters in spring. These clusters bear
papery, red-brown fruits that attract bids and small mammals.
•The bark is copper colored
and sheds in strips.
•Natives would use parts of
this plant for medicinal
•Cascara is deciduous and can
grow as a shrub up to 15 feet or
a small tree 50 feet.
•The bark is thin, brown, and
•Flowers are white-yellow, small, crown shaped and bear dark
purple-red berries between 1/4-1/2 inches in diameter.
•Natives would use the bark of this tree as a medicinal laxative
Swamp Rose Rosa pisocarpa
•Swamp or cluster rose is a
deciduous shrub that
grows in thickets up to 3-6
•Bright, pink flowers grow in groups of 2-10 and bear fruit or
“rose hips.” These attract and provide food for birds and
•In addition to reproducing from seeds, swamp
rose can spread through its roots.
•Leaves are bright green, oval, toothed,
and grow in leaflets of 5-7.
•Rose spireaor hardhack is a deciduous shrub that grows in
thickets of 3-12 feet.
•Pink, pyramid shaped flower clusters form in June and July
•Reproduce from rhizomes (an underground stem) that allows
it to grow in thickets
•A large, deciduous shrub that can reach heights of 25 feet.
•Young leaves are velvety, while older leaves are dark green
above, hairy with rust-colored hairs or hairless below with
•Catkins appear well before leaves.
•Natives pounded the bark and applied it topically wounds as a
healing agent, ground it to a powder and mixed with cereal to
make bread, and for making rope.
Walk, don’t run.
Stay in sight of the group at all times.
Sharpened regularly, which makes them dangerous.
Never carry shovels over your shoulder.
Tip should always be pointed towards the ground, like