What lies beneath? Diving into the pre-history of OER

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Presentation by David Kernohan and Sheila MacNeill at OpenEd 2012 (http://openedconference.org/2012/program/archive-of-sessions/day-2/day2-1120-c400/)

Presentation by David Kernohan and Sheila MacNeill at OpenEd 2012 (http://openedconference.org/2012/program/archive-of-sessions/day-2/day2-1120-c400/)

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  • 1. What  lies  beneath?  Diving  in  to  the  pre-­‐history  of  OER   Sheila  MacNeill  –  CETIS   s.macneill@strath.ac.uk   @sheilmcn   David  Kernohan  –  JISC   d.kernohan@jisc.ac.uk   @dkernohan   Wyland,  USFWS/CC  BY  2.0  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 2. ...because  it  is  a  story  that  needs  to  be  told  and  because  a  greater  understanding  of  the  past  can  inform  our  visions  of  the  future.  ...  because  where  we  come  from  and  who  we  are  maXer.  
  • 3. “diyU”   “RLO”   “commons”   open  web   freedom   licences,  sharing.   using  exisng  tools.   techno-­‐determinisc   automaon   standardisaon   new  tools,  pla]orms   “educaon  is  broken”  large  scale  replacement   of  current  structures.   start-­‐ups   disrupve  
  • 4. rlo  diyu   commons   The  “open  educaon”  movement   open   markeng   pracce   iTunesU   xMOOCs   social   cMOOCs   sharing   PLE   learning   rethinking   repositories   analycs   HE  
  • 5. University Grants Commission Computer Board Wells  Report  1973   Nelson Review 1982 TLTS NCETLs
  • 6. Computers  in  Teaching  Iniave  (CTI)   “[To]  evaluate  the  educa0onal  poten0al  of  IT  in   university  teaching;  raise  the  level  of  awareness   of  IT  among  academics  and  students;  promote   the  development  of  computer-­‐mediated  training   and  learning”   As  cited  in  Hicks  et  Al,  “A  Computer-­‐Based  System  For  Electronic  Design  Educaon”,  Internaonal  Journal  of  Engineering   Educaon,  (Volume  13,  Number  1  -­‐  1997)  hXp://www.ijee.ie/arcles/999979/arcle.htm    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 7. TLTP  and  content   “Transportability  of  courseware  was  enhanced  when   the  use  of  technology  was  rela0vely  unsophis0cated,   intended  to  support  and  complement  teachers  and   tutors  rather  than  to  offer  a  subs0tute.  [...]  The   tendency  for  TLTP  projects  to  concentrate  on  first  year   courses,  where  introductory  material  is  more  likely  to   be  common,  supports  this  judgement.”   TLTP  interim  evaluaon   hXp://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/1996/m21_96.htm    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 8. TLTP  and  content   “Whilst  accep0ng  the  principle  that  the  courseware   produced  through  TLTP  should  be  free  to  all  HEIs  within   the  UK,  we  believe  that  this  approach  has  not  proved   conducive  to  effec0ve  dissemina0on.  This  approach   appears  to  have  dampened  the  desire  of  a  number  of   projects  to  put  much  effort  into  dissemina0on  in  the  UK   because  there  would  be  few  returns  to  the  investment.   Many  of  our  interviewees  have  ques0oned  how  the   product  can  be  maintained  in  the  long  term  without   being  able  to  charge  for  it.”   TLTP  interim  evaluaon   hXp://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/1996/m21_96.htm    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 9. The  Dearing  Report  1997   “We  are  also  aware  that  students  will  need   access  to  high  quality  networked  desktop   computers  that  permit  the  use  of  the  latest   mul0-­‐media  teaching  materials  and  other   applica0ons.”   Report  of  the  Naonal  CommiXee  of  Inquiry  into  Higher  Educaon,  hXp://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 10. Learning  and  Teaching  Support  Network  (LTSN)   “The  "not  invented  here"  syndrome  has   prevailed  for  too  long,  and  we  can  no  longer   afford  to  con0nue  to  spurn  prac0ces  and   developments  conceived  in  other  ins0tu0ons  or   subjects  that  are  clearly  transferable.”   Cliff  Allen  in  the  Times  Higher  Educaon  Supplement,  13  October  2000  ( hXp://www.meshighereducaon.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=153788&seconcode=26  )  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 11. Late  ‘90s  –  FDTL  and  5/99   “[JISC’s  5/99  programme]  arose  from  a  need  to   integrate  learning  environments  with  the  wider   informa0on  landscape  aimed  at  increasing  the  use  of   online  electronic  resources”   hXp://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/learningteaching.aspx     “[FDTL  was  designed  to]  encourage  the  dissemina0on   of  good  teaching  and  learning  prac0ce  across  the   higher  educa0on  sector.”   hXp://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/1997/r1_97.htm    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 12. Meanwhile,  in  the  rest  of  the  world...   but,  also:   [Reusable]  Learning  Objects  (Hodgins,  1994)  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 13. The  RLO  dream  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 14. X4L   •  “use  and  develop  the  best  available  tools  to   explore  whether  repurposing  content  can  become   a  popular,  sustainable  way  of  producing  e-­‐ learning  materials  for  the  future;  ‘   •  increase  the  numbers  of  people  in  ins0tu0ons   with  the  necessary  skills  to  repurpose  learning   objects;     •  expose  and  begin  to  tackle  the  challenges   associated  with  repurposing  learning  objects;  and     •  begin  to  populate  a  na0onal  repository  with   learning  materials  as  well  as  case  studies  and   exemplars  showing  how  these  have  been   achieved.”   hXp://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/x4l.aspx  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 15. X4L  and  beyond   “X4L  has  demonstrated  that  the  principal   benefits  of  reuse  and  repurposing  are  generally   understood  and  accepted  in  the  communi0es   involved  in  the  programme.  However,  the   concept  of  reusable  learning  objects  is  s0ll  not   proven  or  generally  accepted  in  mainstream   prac0ce  across  the  FE  and  HE  sectors.  That   said,  X4L  has  iden0fied  and  explored  many  of   the  key  barriers  to  reuse  and  repurposing,   including  the  pressures  of  0me  and  resource   constraints  on  staff,  concerns  about   professional  integrity  and  academic   independence,  cultural  resistance  to  sharing,   Focus  on  Access  to  Instuonal   and  tensions  between  community  collabora0on   and  ins0tu0onal  compe00on.”   Resources  (FAIR)  programme   X4L  Impact  Report   hXp://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/x4l/ x4limpactreport_final.pdf    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 16. This  would  be  a  good  place  to  put  a  slide  tle...  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 17. Also  in  2002...   “Selling  content  for  profit,  or  trying  in  some   ways  to  commercialize  one  of  the  core   intellectual  ac0vi0es  of  the  university  [...]   seemed  less  a^rac0ve  to  people  at  a  deep  level   than  finding  ways  to  disseminate  it  as  broadly   as  possible.”   Steve  Lerman,  2002   “This  is  a  natural  fit  to  what  the  Web  is  really   all  about,  [...]  Weve  learned  this  lesson  over   and  over  again.  You  cant  have  0ght,  closed-­‐up   systems.  Weve  tried  to  open  up  soaware   infrastructure  in  a  variety  of  ways  and  thats   what  unleashed  the  crea0vity  of  soaware   developers;  I  think  the  same  thing  can  happen   in  educa0on.”   Professor  Charles  Vest,  2002  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 18. OCW  –  responses  from  the  RLO  community   “The  OCW  repositories  contain  courses  with   “We  hope  that  by  enabling  self-­‐ more  or  less  the  same  structure:  a  syllabus,   organiza0on  among  large   that  describes  the  course,  its  aims  and   groups  and  organically  growing   expected  outcomes,  a  calendar  and  lecture   site  features  as  needed  by  the   notes.  Few  courses  include  mul0media   community  we  are  able  to   resources  such  as  audio  files  and  PowerPoint   demonstrate  successful  teaching   presenta0ons.  These  repositories  are  in  many   and  learning  interac0ons  within   ways  sta0c,  and  since  they  cannot  be  easily   a  very  large,  academically   integrated  into  systems  where  students  can   focused,  self-­‐organized  group.”   engage  in  discussions,  or  par0cipate  in   Open  Learning  Support  (Wiley   ac0vi0es,  their  learning  poten0al  is  limited.   2004)   [...]The  learning  content  needs  to  be   hXp://www.opencontent.org/docs/soc-­‐n-­‐ converted  to  new  standards-­‐compliant   scale.html     formats” hXp://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney06/proceeding/ pdf_papers/p128.pdf    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 19. OCW  –  the  UK  response   Open  University   Nosngham  University   JISC  RePRODUCE  Programme   &  early  discussions  between  JISC,  CETIS,  HEFCE   and  the  Higher  Educaon  Academy  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 20. This  would  be  a  good  place  to  put  a  slide  tle...  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 21. UKOER  -­‐  The  first  three  years   UKOER  phase  1   E&S  report   OER  infokit   UKOER  phase  2   E&S  report   OER  infokit   OER  use  case  studies   OER  use  report   Student  use  of  OER  lit.  review   UKOER  phase  3,  JISC  Digitisation  &  Content…   E&S  report   OER  infokit   Open  Practice  briefing   OER  and  Online  Learning   Technical  studies   Case  studies  of  activity   Support:  CETIS  technical  support,  OER  IPR  support,  E&S  wiki   Social  Media:  #ukoer  ,  @ukoer  ,  blogging.    1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 22. This  would  be  a  good  place  to  put  a  slide  tle...  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 23. This  would  be  a  good  place  to  put  a  slide  tle...  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 24. The  Higher  Educaon  Bubble?   “Change  rumbles  like  a  seismic  wave  from  the   basements  of  the  ivory  tower,  and  the   schoolhouse  down  your  block.  The  demand  for   access  to  both  exis0ng  and  new  models  of   learning  is  rising  as  uncontrollably  as  the   average  temperature  throughout  the  globe.   The  tradi0onal  educa0onal  ecosystem  is  edging   toward  collapse.  Fiay  million  university   students  in  2000  will  grow  to  250  million  by   2025.  The  graph  of  educa0onal  costs  is  a   hockey  s0ck–headed  straight  up”   Anya  Kamenetz   hXp://diyubook.com/2010/12/revised-­‐intro-­‐to-­‐drumbeat-­‐book/     ““A  true  bubble  is  when  something  is  overvalued   and  intensely  believed,”  he  says.  “Educa0on  may   be  the  only  thing  people  s0ll  believe  in  the  United   States.  To  ques0on  educa0on  is  really  dangerous.   It  is  the  absolute  taboo.  It’s  like  telling  the  world   there’s  no  Santa  Claus.”“ http://techcrunch.com/2011/04/10/peter-thiel-were-in-a-bubble-and- its-not-the-internet-its-higher-education/1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 25. The  Higher  Educaon  Bubble  –  OER  reflects   Learner  Analycs   Use/Discoverability   Quality  Assurance   Interacvity   Peer  Support   MITOCW  -­‐>  MITx   WikiEducator  -­‐>  OERu   ...  The  “m”  word  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 26. rlo  diyu   commons   The  “open  educaon”  movement   open   markeng   pracce   iTunesU   xMOOCs   social   cMOOCs   sharing   PLE   learning   rethinking   repositories   analycs   HE  
  • 27. markeng   ?   open   pracce  iTunesU   xMOOCs   cMOOCs   rethinking   PLE   HE   social   sharing   learning   repositories   analycs  
  • 28. “And  then  one  day  you  find    Ten  years  have  got  behind  you    No  one  told  you  when  to  run    You  missed  the  star0ng  gun...”  
  • 29. Further  reading  –  technology  in  UKOER   Technology  for  Open  Educaonal  Resources:  Into  the  Wild.     Reflecons  on  three  years  of  the  UK  OER  Programmes:   hXp://www.booki.cc/oer-­‐tech/   hXp://blogs.ces.ac.uk/othervoices/2012/02/13/open-­‐ educaonal-­‐resources-­‐meline/   hXp://blogs.ces.ac.uk/lmc/2010/04/16/then-­‐and-­‐now   hXp://wiki.ces.ac.uk/Open_Educaonal_Resources   hXp://jisc.ces.ac.uk/topic/oer  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012  
  • 30. Further  reading  :  UKOER   OER  Impact  Study(Masterman  &  Wild,  2011)   Evaluaon/Synthesis  Wiki  (Beetham,  McGill,  Falconer,  LiXlejohn  et  al,   2009-­‐2012)   OER  Infokit  (JISC  Infonet)   Open  Educaon  Resources  –  a  historical  perspecve   (Kernohan  and  Thomas  ,2012)  1980   1982   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010   2012