Approaching learning and teaching in Second Life Sheila Webber/ Sheila Yoshikawa Department of Information Studies University of Sheffield, January 2009 Sheila Webber, 2008
“ Sheila will discuss approaches to teaching that seem best suited to the affordances of this rich and complex learning space”
Affordances of SL <ul><li>Communication/community </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied social presence </li></ul><ul><li>Building/engineering/design/sculpting </li></ul><ul><li>Animation and scripting </li></ul><ul><li>Data visualizations & simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Sound & spatial relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Language immersion </li></ul>Sheila Webber, 2009 <ul><li>Learning communities created by & for users </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>Low capital expense operations costs </li></ul><ul><li>Fundraising </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment/administration/ management </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing distance & online learning together in the 3-D virtual world </li></ul>Taken from: (Jarmon, 2009)
Teaching approaches that are: <ul><li>Well designed </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for the learners </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for the learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding learning as appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning learning, teaching & assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Using various learning environments, tools and methods as appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating understanding and/or conceptual change in the learner </li></ul><ul><li>(and so forth and so on ... ) </li></ul>Sheila Webber, 2009 i.e. good teaching practice
Sheila Webber, May 2007 Approaches to teaching <ul><li>Revealed through "conceptions of pedagogy" research, for example as reviewed by Samuelowitz and Bain (2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge conveying categories (e.g. transferring knowledge, explaining curriculum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate categories (e.g. focus on student-teacher interaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitation of learning categories (e.g. facilitating conceptual change & understanding) </li></ul></ul>People will go into SL with their approaches....
“ ... She will identify how this demands active approaches to learning from students …” Liverpool University Possible to use for all 3 approaches
Sheila Webber, 2009 University of Texas at Austin – self selected group projects – including fundraising Educators’ coop member Chris2 Gallagher – exploring identity with her students
Sheila Webber, 2008 http://www.sconul.ac.uk One of my builds
“ ... She will identify how this demands active approaches to learning from students …”
Learners’ stages in meaning making <ul><li>Absolute knowing (knowledge is certain) </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional knowing (doubts about the certainty of knowledge, learning enables understanding of these) </li></ul><ul><li>Independent knowing (developing your perspective, everyone has their own views) </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual knowing (understanding nature of context and evidence) </li></ul>Sheila Webber, 2009 Based on study of US undergraduates (King and Baxter-Magolda, 2004)
Inquiry Based Learning “ IBL is a term used to describe approaches to learning that are based on a process of self-directed inquiry or research . Students conduct small or large-scale inquiries that enable them to engage actively and creatively with the questions and problems of their discipline, often in collaboration with others. IBL approaches include case-study and problem-based learning (PBL) methods as well as research projects of different kinds. It is a key characteristic of IBL that inquiry tasks facilitate exploration and investigation of issues or scenarios that are open-ended enough for different responses and solutions to be possible (Khan and O´Rourke, 2005)” source: CILASS website (Centre for Inquiry Based Learning in the Arts and Social Sciences) http://www.shef.ac.uk/cilass/ibl.html
“… and how it opens up opportunities for collaboration with other educators.” “ She will draw on examples from experience, and use models of Real Life (face to face) teaching ”
“ Sheila will also identify some of the practical problems (e.g. access to technology, cultural and time differences) of working in a virtual world.” Sheila Webber, 2009 “ Me: yes, it's been really frustrating how it's been bogged down with technical issues Student 1: yeah thats been the main problem” (inworld chat transcript, 10 April 08)
Sheila Webber, 2009 “ SL has been having a lot of issues over the last 2 days - they had to replace one of the inventory servers and I (like others) had to try getting in several times before succeeding. Also crashed out 5 times running just now” (my e-portfolio, Nov 2007) [2008/10/14 14:36] CC: what time is it where everyone is? [2008/10/14 14:36] ML: 5:36 [2008/10/14 14:36] GW: In the USA it is 230 PM now. [2008/10/14 14:36] CC: it's 4:30 in the afternoon here [2008/10/14 14:36] FF: 5:36 pm [2008/10/14 14:36] ZW: @CC 736 am [2008/10/14 14:36] GW: Sorry, west coast USA 230 [2008/10/14 14:36] You: 22.35 [2008/10/14 14:36] CF: 10:36 pm [2008/10/14 14:36] PP: mine, 4.30 am [2008/10/14 14:37] EB: here it's 11:36 pm (Part of discussion at SL Researchers’ Group, trying to agree a time for the next meeting)
References <ul><li>Centre for Inquiry Based Learning in the Arts and Social Sciences. (2008) Inquiry-based Learning: a conceptual framework . Sheffield: CILASS. http://www.shef.ac.uk/cilass/resources </li></ul><ul><li>Jarmon, L. (2009) “Pedagogy and Learning in the Virtual World of Second Life®” In Rogers, P et al (Eds) Encyclopedia of distance and online learning. 2 nd ed. (vol 3) IGI. (in press) </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, P. and O´Rourke, K. (2005). “Understanding Enquiry-based Learning”, In: Barrett, T., Mac Labhrainn, I., Fallon, H. (eds), Handbook of Enquiry and Problem Based Learning . Galway: CELT. </li></ul><ul><li>King, P. and Baxter-Magolda, M. (2004) Learning partnerships: theory and models of practice to educate for self-authorship . Stylus. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuelowicz, K. and Bain, J.D. (2001) Revisiting academics’ beliefs about teaching and learning. Higher education , 41 , 299-325. </li></ul>
Other material <ul><li>Flickr set on Infolit iSchool: http://www.flickr.com/photos/23396182@N00/collections/72157604063164433/ </li></ul><ul><li>Infolit iSchool (our SL island) wiki: http://infolitischool.pbwiki.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Video of presentation on: Inquiry and Information Behaviour in Second Life (my activity with 1 st year UGs) http://stadium.open.ac.uk/stadia/preview.php?whichevent=1248 </li></ul>
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