TEFL - The Oral Approach & Situational Language Teaching

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  • 1. The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching By: SHEILA WIJAYANTI @Sheila_Chei English Education Department Jember University
  • 2. Background Harold Palmer and A. S. Hornby attempted to develop a more scientific foundation for an oral approach to teaching English than was evidenced in the Direct Method. • Vocabulary control In the 1920s and 1930s, several large-scale investigations of foreign language vocabulary were undertaken. • Grammar control From 1922 until World War II, Palmer was directed toward developing classroom procedures suited to teaching basic grammatical patterns through an oral approach.
  • 3. The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching The main characteristics of the approach are: 1. Language teaching begins with spoken language. 2. The target language is the language of the classroom. 3. New language points are introduced and practiced situationally. 4. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered. 5. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones. 6. Reading and writing are introduced once sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is establish.
  • 4. Approach • Theory of Language The theory of language underlying Situational Language Teaching can be characterized as a type of British “structuralism”. • Theory of Learning The theory of learning underlying Situational Language Teaching is type of behaviorist habitlearning theory.
  • 5. Design • Objectives to teach a practical command of the four basic skill of language, goals it shares with most method of language teaching. • The syllabus • Types of learning and teaching activities • Learner roles • Teacher roles • The role of instructional materials
  • 6. Procedure Davies et al. likewise give detailed information about teaching procedures to be used with Situational Language Teaching. The sequence of activities they propose consists of the following: 1. Listening practice 2. Choral imitation 3. Individual imitation 4. Isolation 5. Building up to a new model 6. Elicitation 7. Subtitution drilling 8. Question-answer drilling 9. Corrrection
  • 7. Conclusion Procedures associated with Situational Language Teaching in the 1950s and 1960s were an extension and further development of well-established techniques advocated by proponents of the earlier Oral Approach in the British school of language teaching.
  • 8. • Parts of the lesson – Pronunciation – Revision – Presentation – Oral practice – Reading of material on the new structure, or written exercises » Pittman (1963: 173)
  • 9. Question 1. When is the revision needed? (aprilia) 2. Is there a relationship between Palmer, Hornby, and the other applied linguists about the systematic principles and the characteristics of the approach? (Iqbal) 3. Is it necessary for the students to understand grammatical structures in listening practices? (Rini) 4. What are the weaknesses of the procedures when teacher implements in the classroom? (Anies) 5. Which one of the procedures is the most useful? (Fina)