English education department
APPROACH THEORY OF LANGUAGE
APPROACH THEORY OF LEARNING
TYPES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Cooperative learning is group learning activity
organized so that learning is dependent on
the socially structured exchange of
information between learners in groups and
in which each learner is held accountable for
his or her own learning and is motivated to
increase the learning of others. (Olsen and
• Raise of achievements of all students
• Positive relationships among students
• Experience on healthy social, psychological, and
• Replace competition for cooperation
• Replace teacher-fronted lessons for student-centered
• Interactive pair and group activities
• Development of learning and communication
• Reduce learner stress and create a positive affective
THEORY OF LANGUAGE
Interactive and cooperative nature of language
Communication as a primary purpose of language
Most speech is organized as conversation
Communication takes place upon certain agreedupon set of cooperative rules
We learn these social rules in conversational
THEORY OF LEARNING
• Role of social interaction in learning (Piaget and Vygotsky)
• Development of critical thinking skills
• Learning must emphasize on cooperation, not on
• Increase and variety of second language practice
• Cognitive development and increased language skills
• Integration of language with content-based areas
• Greater variety of materials to stimulate language and
• Mastering of professional skills that emphasize on
• Students act as resources of each other – a more active role
The objectives of CLL are to develop critical thinking
skills, and to develop communicative competence
through socially structured interaction activities.
o THE SYLLABUS
CLL does not assume any particular from language
syllabus, since activities from a wide variety of
curriculum orientation can be taught via cooperative
learning. CLL is the systematic and carefully planned
use of group-based procedures in teaching as an
alternative to teacher-fronted teaching.
TYPES OF LEARNING AND
Olsen & Kagan
Kagan: Threestep interview,
• Work collaboratively on tasks with other group
• Must learn teamwork skills.
• Be directors of their learning (plan, monitor, and
evaluate their own learning)
• Learning requires student’s direct and active
involvement and participation.
• Alternate roles involve partners in the role of
tutors, checkers, recorders, and information
sharers. “Pair tasks”
• Create a highly structured and well organized
learning environment in the classroom:
* Be a facilitator of learning.
* Move around the class and helping students
and groups as needs arise.
* Teacher speaks less.
* Provide broad questions to challenge
* Prepare students for the task they will
* Assist students with the learning tasks.
* Give few commands, imposing less
disciplinary control (Harel 1992).
* Restructuring lessons so that students
can work cooperatively.
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
• Create opportunities for students to work
• Materials can be specially designed for CLL
learning, modified from existing materials, or
borrowed from other disciplines.
1. Teacher assigns work to Ss
2. Ss cooperative work
3. Looking for materials
4. Team work, get a starting point
5. Individual work
6. Looking for mistakes
7. Ss revise compositions
8. Re read. Error - free
• Use of group discussion. Motives participation
• Maximize student’s interaction
•Contribute to each other learning
• obtaining benefits