TEFL - Cooperative Language Learning


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TEFL - Cooperative Language Learning

  2. 2. Cooperative learning is group learning activity organized so that learning is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. (Olsen and Kagan 1992:8)
  3. 3.  Raise of achievements of all students  Positive relationships among students  Experience on healthy social, psychological, and      cognitive development Replace competition for cooperation Replace teacher-fronted lessons for student-centered Interactive pair and group activities Development of learning and communication strategies Reduce learner stress and create a positive affective classroom climate
  4. 4.  Interactive and cooperative nature of language  Communication as a primary purpose of language  Most speech is organized as conversation  Communication takes place upon certain agreed-upon set of cooperative rules  We learn these social rules in conversational interaction
  5. 5.  Role of social interaction in learning (Piaget and Vygotsky)  Development of critical thinking skills  Learning must emphasize on cooperation, not on       competition Increase and variety of second language practice Cognitive development and increased language skills Integration of language with content-based areas Greater variety of materials to stimulate language and concept learning Mastering of professional skills that emphasize on communication Students act as resources of each other – a more active role
  6. 6. Johnson Olsen & Kagan 1992 Coelho 1992 Cooperative Learning Groups Key Elements Cooperative Learning Tasks  Formal Informal Cooperative Base Groups  Positive  Team practice from common input Jig saw Cooperative projects Interdependence  Group Formation Individual Accountability Social Skills Structuring and structures  Olsen & Kagan: Threestep interview, Round table, Think-pairshare, Solvepair-share, Numbered heads.
  7. 7.  Work collaboratively on tasks with other group     members. Must learn teamwork skills. Be directors of their learning (plan, monitor, and evaluate their own learning) Learning requires student’s direct and active involvement and participation. Alternate roles involve partners in the role of tutors, checkers, recorders, and information sharers. “Pair tasks”
  8. 8.  Create a highly structured and well organized learning environment in the classroom: Setting goals, planning and structuring tasks, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning students to groups and roles, and selecting materials and time (Johnson et al. 1994)  Be a facilitator of learning.
  9. 9.  Move around the class and helping students and groups as needs arise: During this time the teacher interacts, teaches, refocuses, questions, clarifies, supports, expands, celebrates, and empathizes. And facilitators are giving feedback, redirecting the group with questions, encouraging the group to solve its own problems, extending activity, encouraging thinking, managing conflict, observing students, and supplying resources. (Harel 1992: 169)
  10. 10.  Teacher speaks less than in teacher fronted class.  Provide broad questions to challenge thinking.  Prepare students for the task they will carry out.  Assist students with the learning tasks.  Give few commands, imposing less disciplinary control (Harel 1992)
  11. 11.  Restructuring lessons so that students can work cooperatively. This involves the following steps (Johnson et al. 1994: 9):  Take your existing lessons, curriculum, and sources and structure them cooperatively.  Tailor cooperative learning lessons to your unique instructional needs, circumstances, curricula, subject areas, and students.  Diagnose the problems some students may have in working together and intervene to increase learning groups’ effectiveness.
  12. 12.  Create opportunities for students to work cooperatively. E.g. If students are working in groups.. 1. Each student might have a set of materials. 2. Groups might have different sets of materials. 3. Or, each member might need a copy of a text. • Materials can be specially designed for CLL learning, modified from existing materials, or borrowed from other disciplines.
  13. 13. 1. Teacher assigns work to Ss 2. Ss cooperative work 3. Looking for materials 4. Team work, get a starting point 5. Individual work 6. Looking for mistakes 7. Ss revise compositions 8. Re read. Error - free
  14. 14. • Use of group discussion. Motives participation • Maximize student’s interaction •Contribute to each other learning • obteining benefits