ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Cooperative learning is group learning
activity organized so that learning is
dependent on the socially structured
exchange of information between
learners in groups and in which each
learner is held accountable for his or her
own learning and is motivated to
increase the learning of others. (Olsen
and Kagan 1992:8)
Raise of achievements of all students
Positive relationships among students
Experience on healthy social, psychological, and
Replace competition for cooperation
Replace teacher-fronted lessons for student-centered
Interactive pair and group activities
Development of learning and communication
Reduce learner stress and create a positive affective
Interactive and cooperative nature of language
Communication as a primary purpose of
Most speech is organized as conversation
Communication takes place upon certain
agreed-upon set of cooperative rules
We learn these social rules in conversational
Role of social interaction in learning (Piaget and Vygotsky)
Development of critical thinking skills
Learning must emphasize on cooperation, not on
Increase and variety of second language practice
Cognitive development and increased language skills
Integration of language with content-based areas
Greater variety of materials to stimulate language and
Mastering of professional skills that emphasize on
Students act as resources of each other – a more active role
Olsen & Kagan
Kagan: Threestep interview,
Work collaboratively on tasks with other group
Must learn teamwork skills.
Be directors of their learning (plan, monitor, and
evaluate their own learning)
Learning requires student’s direct and active
involvement and participation.
Alternate roles involve partners in the role of
tutors, checkers, recorders, and information
sharers. “Pair tasks”
Create a highly structured and well organized learning
environment in the classroom:
Setting goals, planning and structuring tasks,
establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom,
assigning students to groups and roles, and selecting
materials and time (Johnson et al. 1994)
Be a facilitator of learning.
Move around the class and helping
students and groups as needs arise:
During this time the teacher interacts, teaches,
refocuses, questions, clarifies, supports,
expands, celebrates, and empathizes.
And facilitators are giving feedback,
redirecting the group with questions,
encouraging the group to solve its own
problems, extending activity, encouraging
thinking, managing conflict, observing
students, and supplying resources. (Harel
Teacher speaks less than in teacher
Provide broad questions to challenge
Prepare students for the task they will
Assist students with the learning tasks.
Give few commands, imposing less
disciplinary control (Harel 1992)
Restructuring lessons so that students
can work cooperatively. This involves
the following steps (Johnson et al. 1994:
Take your existing lessons, curriculum, and
sources and structure them cooperatively.
Tailor cooperative learning lessons to your
unique instructional needs, circumstances,
curricula, subject areas, and students.
Diagnose the problems some students may
have in working together and intervene to
increase learning groups’ effectiveness.
Create opportunities for students to work
E.g. If students are working in groups..
1. Each student might have a set of materials.
2. Groups might have different sets of materials.
3. Or, each member might need a copy of a text.
• Materials can be specially designed for CLL
learning, modified from existing materials,
or borrowed from other disciplines.
1. Teacher assigns work to Ss
2. Ss cooperative work
3. Looking for materials
4. Team work, get a starting point
5. Individual work
6. Looking for mistakes
7. Ss revise compositions
8. Re read. Error - free
• Use of group discussion. Motives participation
• Maximize student’s interaction
•Contribute to each other learning
• obteining benefits