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Chapter 11 presention

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  • 1. Chapter 11 Endocrine System Sheila Reyes BIO 120
  • 2. Endocrine System
    • -Involved with the maintenance of homeostasis.
    • - Consists of several glands:
    • a) Hypothalamus
    • b) Pituitary
    • c) Thyroid
    • d) Parathyroid
    • e) Adrenals
    • f) Pineal
    • g) Pancreas
    • These glands secrete powerful chemicals called hormones, which are essential for the proper functioning of bodily processes.
  • 3. Suffix –crine:
    • Meaning: Secreting or to secrete.
    • Examples:
    • a) Apocrine - gland that secretes hormones.
    • - relating to a type of glandular secretion in which the apical portion of the secreting cell is released along with the secretory products.
    • * Apocrine gland - are located in the skin, breasts, eyelids, and ears. They are a type of exocrine gland, which are glands that secrete hormones into a duct.
    • -In response to sex and stress stimuli, they secrete a liquid which is readily decomposed by bacteria giving rise to odor.
    • -become very active with the onset of puberty.
    • - The highest concentrations of apocrine sweat glands are located in the armpits and groin, and in the areola of both human males and females.
    Fig 1a. Apocrine Gland
  • 4.
    • b) Eccrine glands - One of two types of sweat-producing gland that occur in mammalian skin, the other being apocrine gland.
    • -In humans and some apes, eccrine glands are the more numerous and are distributed generally over the body, not associated only with hair, as are apocrine glands.
    Fig 1B. Eccrine gland
  • 5. Suffix - emia
    • Meaning - blood condition
    • Examples :
    • Anemia
    • a(n) – inadequate; no; not; lack of
    • - a condition in which you don't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues.
  • 6. Types of Anemia
    • Iron Deficiency Anemia- is a common type of anemia.
    • - a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.
    • Sickle Cell Anemia - is an inherited form of anemia.
    • - a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body.
    • - the red blood cells become rigid, sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body.
    Fig 2a. Iron deficiency anemia Fig 2b. Sickle cell anemia
  • 7.
    • Thalassemia - Thalassemia is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen).
    • - The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia.
    • Aplastic Anemia - a condition that occurs when your body stops producing enough new blood cells.
    • - aplastic anemia can develop at any age, though it's most common in younger people.
    • -Treatment includes medications, blood transfusions or a bone marrow transplant.
    Fig 2c. Thalassemia major Fig 2d. Thalassemia minor Fig 2e. Normal and Aplastic blood cells
  • 8.
    • b) Hypokalemia
    • hypo- low
    • kal/o- potassium
    • - abnormal low potassium in the blood.
    • -is most commonly caused by the use of diuretics.
    • - can cause the heart to stop beating.
    • - Alcoholism occasionally results in hypokalemia.
    Fig 2f. Banana is a good source of potassium
  • 9. References:
    • www.Mayoclinic.com
    • www.Emedicine.medscape.com
    • www.Healthline.com