Project Proposal - Vertical Axis Centrifuge (Shehryar Niazi)

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The casting of parts by pouring molten metal into a mold has been a popular and efficient way to make parts for some time. However, despite the wide spread use of this technology, it can still be a time intensive and costly endeavor for one to undertake if the proper equipment and facilities are not present. In addition, even in the event that the resources are readily available, it is still remarkably likely that a casted part will be of substandard quality or will have a disqualifying defect. It is for this reason that our team was solicited by Dr. P.A. Simionescu to construct a device that will allow the user to use the centrifugal casting method to make castings.

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Project Proposal - Vertical Axis Centrifuge (Shehryar Niazi)

  1. 1. Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi School of Engineering and Computing Sciences Capstone Project Plan s TEAM: Derek Veuleman Samir Abusetta Michael Frazier Shumeng Wang Shehryar Niazi Advisor: Dr. P.A. Simionescu MEEN 4340.001 Project Management – Fall 2013 Professor: Dr. Ruby Mehrubeoglu Date: November 9th, 2013 Executive Summary: The casting of parts by pouring molten metal into a mold has been a popular and efficient way to make parts for some time. However, despite the wide spread use of this technology, it can still be a time intensive and costly endeavor for one to undertake if the proper equipment and facilities are not present. In addition, even in the event that the resources are readily available, it is still remarkably likely that a casted part will be of substandard quality or will have a disqualifying defect. It is for this reason that our team was solicited by Dr. P.A. Simionescu to construct a device that will allow the user to use the centrifugal casting method to make castings.
  2. 2. Table of Contents 3. LIST OF FIGURES…………………..………….…………………………………..….….4 4. LIST OF TABLES…………………...…...…………………………………….…………..5 5. INTRODUCTION………………………………...…………………………………………6 6. BACKGROUND………………………………..…………………………………..……....7 7. DESIGN......................................................................................................................8 7.1 Design Criteria………………………………...……………………….....…8 7.2: Design Alternatives…………..………………………………..…….……..9 7.3 Updated Design………...….………………………………………………..9 8: FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS AND PROJECT JUSTIFICATION…….….….………....13 8.1: Economic……………………………..……………………….………......13 8.2: Environmental…………….………………………………………….……13 8.3: Sustainability……………………………..…………………………….....14 8.4: Manufacturability…………………………..……………………………..14 8.5: Technical………………………………….……………………...........…14 8.6: Ethical………………………………….…...…………………..…………14 8.7: Social………………………………….…...…………………………..….14 8.8: Health and Safety…………………….…………………………….....…14 8.9: Political…………………………………..……………………………..…15 9: PROJECT PLAN……………………………………...……….……………………......15 9.1: Plan of Work, Action/Activity Plan..............................................…...15 9.2: WBS and Linear Responsibility Chart………………….…………..….17 9.3: Network Diagram……………………………………………………......19 9.4: Timeline………………………………….……………….……...........…20 9.5: Resource Allocation, Loading and Leveling…………….……...….…20 2
  3. 3. 9.6: Test and Evaluation Plan…………………………………….……..….21 9.7 Risk Management Plan………………………………………………....21 9.8: Business Plan……………………………..……………………….....…24 10: COST ANALYSIS AND JUSTIFICATION…………………………………..……..…25 11: IMPLEMENTATION……………………………………...…………………...……......26 12: EXPECTED RESULTS AND DELIVERABLES..............................................…...26 13: EVALUATION PLAN………………….……………………………………………......27 14: MONITORING AND CONTROL PLAN……………………………………….………27 15: AUDIT RESPONSE AND TERMINATION PLAN…………………………………...28 16. RELEVANT STANDARDS..............................................................................…...26 17. PROFESSIONAL GOALS AND NECESSARY SKILLS...……….….…………......29 18 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................…...29 REFERENCES………..………...……………………………………………………….28 3
  4. 4. List of Figures 6.1: Vertical Axis Centrifuge vs. Horizontal Axis Centrifuge…………….…….………......……7 7.1: A CAD sketch of the preliminary design…………………………………….……....……….8 7.2: A CAD sketch of the updated design with reference dimensions (inches)…...................9 7.3: A photo showing the bottom view of the final design………………………………....…..10 7.4: A photo showing the shape and size of the pump diffuser ring (inches)……………….10 7.5: A photo showing the profile of the pump diffuser ring…………………………………….11 7.6: A 3d model of the pump diffuser ring……………………………………………………….11 7.7: A draft angle analysis of the diffuser ring for mold making……………………………….12 7.8 A 3D Model of the mold cavity for the diffuser ring………………………………………...12 9.1: An AON diagram for summary tasks only……………….……………………...………….19 9.2: A Gantt chart diagram showing the current phase tasks and all summary tasks……...20 4
  5. 5. List of Tables 8.1: Parts list and budget…………………………………………………………………………13 9.1: A table showing the action plan for the project…………………………………………...16 9.2: A table showing the work breakdown structure for the project…………………….……17 9.3: A RACI matrix to complement the WBS table…………………………………………….18 9.4: A qualitative risk analysis table……………………………………………………………..22 9.5: A quantitative risk analysis table……………………………………………………………22 9.6: A risk response planning table……………………………………………………………...23 10.1: Bill of Materials…………………………………………………………………………...….25 14.1. Earned Value Analysis……………………………………………………………………...28 5
  6. 6. 5. Introduction Vertical Casting Centrifuge can be used to make parts that are hard to find with almost perfect geometry. If working with precious metals one can never afford to have any scrap; the casting centrifuge solves this problem. The report goes over the entire project proposal detail. Detailed information is included regardingbackground, design, feasibility analysis, cost analysis, project plan, implementation, expected results and deliverables, evaluation plan, monitoring and control plan, termination plan, the skills that were required and the conclusions. The casting device that our team plans to make rotates about the vertical axis hence the name Vertical Axis Centrifuge. The drum rotates and the molten metal moves towards the walls of the drums because of the centrifugal force. As the metal cools down it solidifies to the shape required by the mold. The device that we plan to make rotates at a high rpm, which will make the parts made have minimal defects. As the drum rotates faster, more centrifugal force will be present that makes the metal grains to be densely packed together. We preferred making vertical axis centrifuge to the horizontal axis centrifuge due to different reasons. In a horizontal axis centrifuge when the mold reaches the top of the orbit it has gravity pulling it down because of which we need a higher rpm to keep the centrifugal force higher at that point. The gravity directly opposes the centrifugal force. To generate a better part with minimal defects, higher centrifugal force is required. This way we can make parts that can meet industry standards. Since we also plan this casting machine to be capable of designing car spare parts, we want it to be really precise with accuracy. Vertical axis centrifuge has exactly the same gravitational force being acted on the entire mold. The properties and the finish stay consistent throughout the part. Vertical Axis Centrifuges are often used for making parts that have low length-to-diameter ratio such as rings, bearings, coil etc. Horizontal Axis Centrifuges on the other hand are used to make parts that have high length-to-diameter ratio such as pipes, tubes, bushings, cylindrical liners etc. We had several motivations that lead us to designing this casting machine. One of the group members has a 1987 Mercedes Benz 260E and he has an idea how expensive it can be to get spare parts for old cars and machines. We really want to make acquiring obsolete and expensive parts easier for the consumers. Imagine how amazing it would be if a Ferrari owner could cast his own exhaust sitting in a small machine shop which otherwise would cost thousands of dollars. A lot of exotic materials go to waste whenever they are cut into the desired shape. The casting machine we’re designing will have no wastage of metal at all. We’ll heat up the metal and pour it in the mold, which will then solidify as the drum rotates. This machine could also be very useful for small business like jewelry shops. Jewelry shops have to work with fabricating different shapes on everyday basis. The casting machine specially comes in handy when you want to create a same part over and over again. For instance if you the company is wanting to make a chain connection over and over again, they just have to design the mold once. The mold will have to be made for different shapes to be casted. Designing the casting machine is also going to help our universities’ engineering department’s lab a lot too. We don’t have a single casting machine. Whenever a student wants to get a desire part they have to either cut it or get it casted from the art department. This casting machine could help the future engineering students immensely. This report has more details on the design, economic analysis, accomplished work, and the entire project plan in general. We’ve done in-depth research and can really make this casting machine to work out well. 6
  7. 7. 6. Background Centrifugal casting is also known as rotocasting and Alfred Kupp invented it in 1852. He used it to cast steel tires for railway wheels. The casting technique is known for high quality mechanical finishes. The motor spins within a range of 300-3000rpm making the casted parts have almost perfect geometry. The force generated by the rotating of the motor is much more than that of the gravitational force that gives the parts dense molecular structure. Different casting techniques are suitable for different kinds of parts desired. Centrifugal casting is preferred for generating cylindrical objects. Parts like pipe, bushings, and gun barrel are all centrifugally casted. As mentioned in the introduction earlier, there are two kinds of centrifugal casting machines, the horizontal axis and the vertical axis. It’s not just the desired shape that leads us to pick between vertical or horizontal casting but it is also the metal that matters. Different molten metal behave differently while being rotated. The force throughout the molten metal is constant in vertical axis centrifuge unlike in a horizontal axis where the gravitation force plays a major role. Also another way the molten behaves differently is that the metal slips in a horizontal axis centrifuge. Naturally the gravity pulls it down and keeps it from being rotated along with the rotating drum. Hence in a horizontal axis centrifuge the molten has to be accelerated to the final speed increasing the inertia of the metal. Vertical Axis Centrifuge can also have a problem, as there is a tendency for the molten metal to form a parabolic shape due to the competing gravitational and centrifugal forces. Figure 6.1: Vertical Axis Centrifuge vs. Horizontal Axis Centrifuge (taken from www.thelibraryofmanufacturing.com). Figure 6.1 shows how the different axis techniques work. As you can see the vertical axis centrifuge is being used for a part with low length-to-diameter ratio compared to the horizontal 7
  8. 8. axis, which is casting a pipe with a higher length-to-diameter ratio. 7. Design 7.1 Design Criteria To begin with the design of the machine, we took the design criteria laid out by Dr. Simionescu and used them as a springboard to a preliminary design. From here, we came up with some essential elements that the machine will have to have in order to function. A list of these elements are as follows: Drum – this is essential to the casting capability of the machine. The drum couples the casting mold to the rotating reference frame of the drive shaft in order to apply centrifugal force to the molten metal. Rotating Element – this is comprised of the drive shaft, bearings, coupling, and drum. The rotating element (shaft and all rotating parts) must be capable of handling the torque load of the motor, dynamic load of inertial bodies (including imbalance caused by eccentricity of gravity centers and misalignment), and static load of components (drum, mold, molten metal, shaft, and couplings). Frame – in order to transfer torque, the motor body and drive shaft bearing outer races must be held in a stationary reference frame. To do this, we will employ a rigid structure that will support the static and dynamic load of the entire rotating element motor. The criteria originally proposed by Dr. Simionescu were stated thus: Vertical axis orientation Electric motor drive Capable of handling the maximum angular velocity of the motor (≈1800 rpm) From this starting point, the team proposed the design in Figure 7.1. Dr. Simionescu's main issue with this design was the height of the apparatus. While directly coupling the motor to the drive shaft is practical for most general cases, the safety risks incurred from having to pour molten metal at such a height eventually killed the idea. 8
  9. 9. Figure 7.1: A CAD sketch of the preliminary design. Yet another problem with this design was the inefficient use of materials. Constructing the device similarly to Figure 1 necessitates a longer shaft, a more robust and complex frame, and a certain degree of alignment between the motor shaft and drive shaft, which can be hard to accomplish. These problems indicate the volatile nature of design criteria in the fledgling stages of the project. Where the team tried to follow Dr. Simionescu's criteria precisely, the team failed in adhering to safety standards and general regard for design simplicity. 7.2 Design Alternatives In the search to find different ways of transferring torque to the drive shaft, the team entertained several different options. Some of these are: Gear Transmission – A gear transmission (or gear reducer) uses sets of dissimilarly sized gears to convert input torque/speed to a different torque/speed. The initial fear of coupling directly to the shaft was the torque required to start rotation. A gear transmission can aid in lowering the required startup torque. The tradeoff here is lower startup torque in exchange for lower top speed. However, a new unit is needed if a gear ratio other than the rated ratio is to be achieved. Also, gear transmissions are expensive and difficult to manufacture, assemble, and repair. Belt Transmission – A belt transmission allows relative motion between the belt and the sheave mounted on the shaft, which provides superior protection against shearing forces incurred during the stopping of the machine. Also, belt drives are particularly efficient, tolerant of misalignment, and cheap. However, the mechanism involved requires the use of (2) V-belt sheaves which are locked to the shaft by QD (Quick Detach) Bushings. In addition to the challenges presented in the transmission system, we found that a side-by-side motor-to-drive shaft assembly orientation was a very commonly used method in most centrifugal casting machines. This helps to greatly reduce the overall height of the machine, and it requires a significantly less sophisticated frame in order to function. The low profile of this orientation style is also more pleasing to the eye, and generally takes up less room. 7.3Final Design Through conversations with Dr, Simionescu and our own research, the team formulated the design shown in Figure 7.2. This design shows a side-by-side orientation of the motor and rotating element, with a V-belt transmission. 9
  10. 10. Figure 7.2: a CAD sketch of the updated design with reference dimensions (inches). Figure 7.3: A photo showing the bottom view of the final design. The final design also features a few more essential elements, such as safety features and an updated bearing arrangement. The bearing arrangement was difficult for several reasons: Using standard anti-friction bearings requires manufacture of shaft and housing tolerances of .0005". While this is easily attainable in a professional machine shop, the team does not have the time to both design bearing housings and have them made at a machine shop. To solve this problem, the team plans to use mounted bearings, which are bolt-on assemblies that are sold ready to install. Mounted bearings are expensive, and selection is slightly limited. Also, typical ball and tapered roller bearings require very good alignment to within thousandths of an inch to function optimally. Again, this is easily attainable in a professional machine shop, but realistically, the team needs bearings that can handle some misalignment. For the above reasons, the team decided to go with two spherical roller bearings. These are capable of both radial and axial load, and can withstand significant misalignment. For the part we wish to cast, we decided to use a pump diffuser ring out of a multistage barrel pump. Market value for parts such as this is high, and proving the ability to make them cheaply shows a major motivation for parts manufacturers to look more closely into this technology. In Figures7.3 and 7.4, we see the pump diffuser in question. 10
  11. 11. Figure 7.4: A photo showing the shape and size of the pump diffuser ring (inches). Figure 7.5: A photo showing the profile of the pump diffuser ring. To make the mold model, we first made 3D model of the part itself, which we will then use to make a plastic mold of the part. We will then use the plastic die to pour wax and make a wax positive of the part. The plastic mold will be made with a 3D printer, in four sections, then joined. In Figures 6, 7, and 8, we see 3D models of the positive and cavity mold, along with a draft angle analysis done in Solid Works. For the sprue and runners of the mold, we will use wax rods and other preformed shapes to attach to the positive using localized heating. Once the wax positive of the mold cavity is completely constructed, the entire wax structure will be coated in layers of liquid zirconia refractory coating and silica granules. This will then be baked, melting the wax and creating a rigid casting mold, ready for molten metal. The mold will then be placed in the casting mold chamber, held in place with loose sand, and rotated at 1200 rpm. While turning, the molten metal will be poured, creating the part. After the part has been created, the finished product will be checked for dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and casting quality. 11
  12. 12. Figure 7.6: A 3D model of the pump diffuser ring. Figure 7.7: A draft angle analysis of the diffuser ring for mold making. Figure 7.8: A 3D model of the mold cavity for the diffuser ring. 12
  13. 13. 8. Feasibility Analysis and Project Justification 8.1 Economic The effect on the economy in the past has been positive in advancing and improving different types of centrifugal casting machines being developed. Today there are many advanced centrifugal machines that have been designed to manufacture at a low cost while producing a high quality product. Casting processes have been developed over the years by application, material, and economics. These casting machines are in great demand in the market today. The overall effect on the economy will be large. Creating a product like the one described could potentially be an enormous factor for businesses that haven’t yet figured out how to procure higher profile work by industrial businesses, such as refineries, chemical plants, equipment repair shops, and other businesses. The cost of the project has been estimated at around 1000 – 1500 USD. In Figure 1 shown below, a basic parts list and budget can be found neglecting man hours to build the machine. Amounts are approximate, and better estimations of price will come as design elements are formally decided upon. Upon further inspection, it will become evident that the bearings are expected to be the most expensive element of the machine. The team has chosen to use flange-mount bearings, which come complete and are the easiest to used and design for. They are expensive because of their ruggedness and convenience. Conventional anti-friction bearings require special design allowances and provisions, which would likely end up being more costly due to increases in man hours needed. Table8.1: Parts list and budget 8.2 Environmental Environmental issues in the past have polluted the environment with emission of harmful and poisonous gases, dust, and particles. Also, in the past the use of sand in casting moulds is typically not recycled. Another environmental issue is the use of water as a coolant, which can become contaminated and run off into local waterways. Today, companies and entrepreneurs are designing and developing new systems capable of real energy saving. The vertical centrifugal casting is a machine that will run off of a 3 AC induction Motor that will be controlled by a control inverter which in turn controls the speed according to the actual requirements of the product cycle running at that certain time. Therefore, in this way, the machine will be used only when the required resources are available which will prevent energy from being wasted. To 13
  14. 14. prevent environmental issues, the team will fight pollution by controlling the emissions, proper recycling, and waste disposal of the additional material. 8.3 Sustainability The market is in high demand and casting machinery parts is steadily improving. Value for the customer is created by the special nature of what this device is able to achieve. Future markets are worried about producing a high value part at a cheap price. This product can meet those requirements in market demand. 8.4 Manufacturability Materials that can be used with this process are iron, steel, and alloys of copper and aluminum. Material availability should not be an issue. The client will now have the opportunity to purchase custom components whereas the OEM used to be the only place the client could find particular parts for the company’s machine. In centrifugal casting, complexity can be achieved, but with fewer defects, significantly better material properties, and near-net shape. The combination of better quality and less waste mean that the profit potential for such a device is high. Whereas a conventional casting operation must use a large portion of its capital on overhead costs due to scrapped parts and extra labor, compared to a small scale centrifugal casting outfit can produce small runs of complex, hard-to-make parts. By doing this, the business can afford to sell these parts at large margins while still undercutting the OEM’s prices. 8.5 Technical Risk factors are important when designing and building the vertical axis centrifuge. The drum design revisions are needed to eliminate any hot molten metal being disbursed during the process. Building a drum and testing it out apart from the rest of the machine can easily abate the risk. This is a simple process that can save a lot of time down the road. Pouring the mold is more difficult than expected. Pouring the mold can nearly be impossible to detect until it comes time to pour metal. Some risk will have to be accepted here. Overall there are some risk factors to take into account, but following technical guidelines and safety matters will eliminate risk 8.6 Ethical There should be no injury or harm to the society. The machine design is small and all casting processes will be conducted in a safe environment. Uses that could be an issue to the society could be a facility with an assembly of machines that produce a lot of heat and noise from casting. Whereas this is one machine that is small and there shouldn’t be much heat generated as well as noise. An ethical issue someone might encounter while working on this machine is seeing another team member or employee being dangerous with machine, or not properly disposing waste. 8.7 Social Society might misjudge the casting machine as a dirty, noisy, hot, and heavy industry. This may lead to complaints from the community. All employers and clients will be treated equally from discrimination based upon those employees, and client’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. 8.8 Health and Safety Safety and health, is very important in the casting industry due to the hot molten metal being poured, toxins off of the molten metal, and the drum being spun at such high revolutions per min. The injury rates for casting are higher than those of other private industries. Molten metal is handled around 1200- 1450 degrees Fahrenheit to avoid solidification. Handling the molten metal is extremely dangerous, if the molten metal comes in contact with the human body 14
  15. 15. it can cause serious burns, and damage to the human body. When dealing with molten metal the person working with it should always wear protective clothing such as safety glasses, hood if needed, face protection, ear plugs, thick welding gloves, and protective clothing. Handling of hot materials requires special training, and monitoring. 8.9 Political Political issues with vertical centrifugal casting machines are competition of other companies, cost of capital, and the taxes. Designing and developing the casting machine will result in competition with current and future developing companies. The competition can easily reduce the cost of the product, and the labor. The cost of the high quality product and the cost of distributing the product due to weight to different locations such as different states, and oversees can be costly resulting in political issues. 9. Project Plan The projectplan the team is proposing will be laid out completely in this section. The action plan, WBS, RACI matrix, AON diagram, Gantt chart, timeline, resource allocation/leveling, evaluation plan, risk analysis, and business plan will all be found in this section. 9.1 Action Plan The project is broken up into several phases, all which culminate in a defining milestone that marks the completion of each phase. The action plan phasing scheme works as follows: Planning Phase – the planning phase is comprised completely of tasks related to early planning of the project (research, funds procurement, etc.). We considered this process apart from the design phase because it only includes non-essential exploratory tasks that are incident to the actual design of the device. Design Phase – the design is comprised of tasks related to the design of the device, including calculations, drawings, targeted research, and parts lookup. Assembly/Manufacturing Phase – the assembly phase includes the purchasing and manufacture of parts and all tasks related to the building of the device and the manufacture of the casting mold. In this phase, design changes should be have very low impact and should also be extremely infrequent. Testing Phase – the testing phase only includes related to running the machine and making parts for evaluation. This phase contains the evaluation of final castings for quality and finish. The end of this phase will also be the end of the project. The action plan itself contains all of the tasks in the project, their duration, their predecessors, and who the task is assigned to. As far as the division of work, the team tried to allocate tasks according to each member's individual strength and interest. However, the changing nature of the project sometimes makes it necessary to switch the task assignment. When this happens, the Gantt chart is updated and the linear responsibility chart is changed in kind. A few changes have been made since the previous implementation of the Gantt chart. We have tried to reduce the number of tasks by integrating several similar or repetitive tasks into a single task. This has done a great deal to reduce the complexity of our project and make the critical path a bit clearer. Before, many low level tasks were called out that were difficult to track, as they were part of larger, more definable tasks. Since making the change, the project has new energy and a much more defined direction. As we are nearing the end of the first two phases, we find that scope creep has been a little bit of an issue, as our sponsor, Dr. Simionescu has found a few of our design elements to be questionable. We have been in a bit of a scramble to fix these issues before the conclusion of the semester, so that we can be ready to build by the time Spring 2014 semester begins. Please see Table 9.1 below for the vertical axis centrifuge action plan 15
  16. 16. Table 9.1: A table showing the action plan for the project. ACTION PLAN Task Number Task Name Duration 1 Planning Phase 15 days Predecessors Resource Names 15 days 2SS SUMMARY Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman 2 Literature Review 15 days 3 Procurement of Funds 4 5 6 Preliminary Calculations Planning Complete Design Phase 15 days 0 days 26 days 3SS 7 Finalize Concept 1 day 8 Design Rotating Element 2 days 7 9 Design Belt Transmission 2 days 8 1 Shehryar Niazi MILESTONE SUMMARY Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman,Samir Abusetta Derek Veuleman 10 Design Motor Fixture 2 days 11 Design Mold Fixture 2 days 8SS Michael Frazier,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman 12 Create Detail Drawings of Parts 5 days 8,11,10,9 Derek Veuleman 13 Final Performance Calculations 4 days 12 14 Build Bill of Materials 4 days 15 Design Complete 8SS 0 days 16 17 Manufacture & Assembly Phase Centrifuge 33 days 12 6 33 days Plasma Cut C.S. Plate Parts 5 days 19 Order Needed Parts and Material 10 days 18SS 20 Mfg. Shaft, and Bearing Mount 10 days 18SS 21 Weld Structural Parts 5 days 18 22 Assemble Centrifuge 10 days 18,19,20,21 23 24 25 Add Safety Features Mold Create 3D Die Model 5 days 33 days 5 days 22 26 Mfg. Die 15 days 25 27 Mfg. Wax Positive 5 days 26 28 Coat With Refractory Material 8 days 27 29 30 Assembly Complete Testing Phase 0 days 33 days 22,28 16 31 Dry Run 10 days 29 32 Cast First Part 5 days 31 33 Make Improvements 5 days 31 34 Cast Final Part 2 days 33 35 Evaluate Project Success/Prepare Report 12 days 34 0 days 35 Project Complete 16 SUMMARY SUMMARY Michael Frazier,Shumeng Wang 18 36 Shehryar Niazi Derek Veuleman,Samir Abusetta MILESTONE Shehryar Niazi,Derek Veuleman Derek Veuleman Samir Abusetta,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Samir Abusetta Derek Veuleman Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman Derek Veuleman,Samir Abusetta MILESTONE SUMMARY Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Michael Frazier,Derek Veuleman,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman,Michael Frazier,Samir Abusetta,Shehryar Niazi,Shumeng Wang MILESTONE
  17. 17. 9.2 Work Breakdown Structure and Linear Responsibility Chart The work breakdown structure is very similar to the action plan. The main difference is the fact that is shows who is responsible for the task, as well as the duration and precedence of each task. The WBS is difficult to formulate, as it takes on myriad forms depending on the project and group in which it is conceived. In our case, the WBS is just a simplified form of the project plan, showing basic predecessors and the party ultimately responsible for the step. The WBS can be seen below in Table 9.2: Table 9.2: A table showing the work breakdown structure for the project. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE Steps 1. Planning Phase a. Literature Review b. Procurement of Funds c. Preliminary Calculations 2. Design Phase a. Finalize Concept b. Design Rotating Element c. Design Belt Transmission d. Design Motor Fixture e. Design Mold Fixture f. Create Detail Drawings of Parts g. Final Performance Calculations h. Build Bill of Materials 3. Manufacture & Assembly Phase 3.1 Centrifuge a. Plasma Cut C.S. Plate Parts b. Order Needed Parts and Material c. Mfg. Shaft, and Bearing Mount d. Weld Structural Parts e. Assemble Centrifuge f. Add Safety Features 3.2 Mold a. Create 3D Die Model b. Mfg. Die c. Mfg. Wax Positive d. Coat With Refractory Material 4. Testing Phase a. Dry Run b. Cast First Part c. Make Improvements d. Cast Final Part e. Evaluate Project Success/Prepare Report Duration 15 days 15 days 15 days 15 days 26 days 1 day 2 days 2 days 2 days 2 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 33 days 33 days 5 days 10 days 10 days 5 days 10 days 5 days 33 days 5 days 15 days 5 days 8 days 33 days 10 days 5 days 5 days 2 days 12 days 17 Predecessors 1.a 1.b 1 2.a 2.b 2.b 2.b 2.b,2.c,2.d,2.e 2.f 2.f 2.f 2.h 2.h 3.a 3.1.a,3.1.b,3.1. c,3.1.d 3.1.e Responsibility SUMMARY Team Derek Veuleman Shehryar Niazi Team Derek Veuleman Derek Veuleman Samir Abusetta Michael Frazier Derek Veuleman Shehryar Niazi Team Derek Veuleman Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman Derek Veuleman Team Shumeng Wang 3.2.a 3.2.b 3.2.c Shumeng Wang Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman Team 3.1, 3.2 3.1,3.2 4.b 4.c Team Team Team Team 4.d Team
  18. 18. The linear responsibility chart, or in our case, RACI matrix, is an extremely useful tool for establishing a "pecking" order, so to speak, for the project tasks. Many times, in large projects, it becomes important to track accountability for particular tasks. Due to the fact that team members in any given project will not have the exact same skill set, experts must be held accountable for the success or failure for particular tasks which they are especially suited to handle. Many times, the accountability still lies with the project manager, but responsibility of the task sits with the person actually performing the task. These complexities associated with the organizational structure of the project team are more easily seen in a RACI matrix, which is why they are often used to direct the flow of communication through the project team. In the case of our team, Derek Veuleman and Samir Abusetta have skills particularly suited to rotating equipment, so they are ultimately responsible for the design. Also, when the project plan is split into work packages, it becomes very clear where accountability and responsibility lie, and who should be contacted in case of an issue. The RACI matrix for our project is shown below in Table 9.3. Be advised that the RACI matrix makes specific reference to the WBS (Table 9.2). Table 9.3: A RACI matrix to complement the WBS table. 1.a A R I C 1.b I C I R,A 1.c I I R,A C 2.a R I C A 2.b R C C R,A 2.c R C C R,A 2.d A I I R 2. Design Phase 2.e R C C A 2.f C C I R,A 2.g I I R A 2.h R C C A 3.1.a R C C A 3.1.b R C C A 3.1.c C C C R,A 3.1 Centrifuge 3.1.d C C C R,A 3.1.e R R R A 3. Manufacture & Assembly Phase 3.1.f R,A I I C 3.2.a I R I A 3.2.b C R I A 3.2 Mold 3.2.c C R C A 3.2.d C R C A 4.a R R R A 4.b R R R A 4. Testing Phase 4.c R R R A 4.d R R R A 4.e R R R A Legend:R = Responsible | A = Accountable | C = Consult | I = Inform 1. Planning Phase 18 Shumeng Wang Derek Veuleman Shehryar Niazi WBS Michael Frazier Samir Abusetta RACI Matrix I I I I C C I C I I C C C C C R I R R R R R R R R R
  19. 19. 9.3 Network Diagram The network diagram (in this case, an activity-on-node diagram) serves a particular purpose within the toolbox of the project manager. In the case of our project the network diagram was extremely useful in identifying our critical path. In Figure 9.1 below, an AON diagram of the summary tasks of our project is found (please reference Table 9.1 above for task ID numbers). The way that our project is currently set up, all summary tasks are currently on the critical path. This is mostly due to the fact that we have some hard deadlines set for completion of each phase. Several of these are externally set by our professor, Dr. Ruby, and some are artificially imposed by the team. However, many of the tasks within each phase are not critical. The slack time of individual tasks and the slack in summary tasks do not comport because of the links between tasks. Many of our tasks are start-to-start because their parallel operation makes for the most effective use of time. By taking the time to carefully link tasks in the beginning, we have avoided some of the pitfalls associated with resource allocation later on down the road. Allocation problems will be addressed in section 9.5. Figure 9.1: An AON diagram for summary tasks only (complete AON can be found in appendix). 19
  20. 20. 9.4 Timeline The project timeline is greatly influenced by the university semester schedule. As a result of the project being split into two large pieces, Fall 2013 and Spring 2014, it has become of paramount importance that the project has continuity between the two semesters. Information that is incomplete or tasks that are unfinished become very difficult to manage after a long expanse of time has elapsed. We have decided as a team to finish the design and get a head start on construction before the end of the semester. This is difficult when done on limited time, but it will help us greatly in the future to avoid some slippage in the last round of tasks. Figure 9.2: A Gantt chart diagram showing the current phase tasks and all summary tasks (full Gantt chart can be found in the appendix). Upon inspection, it becomes evident that each task is given ample "play" for the purposes of contingency allowance. This is more evident on the AON diagram in the appendix. Rather than specifically plan for contingency, the team decided to add a margin of contingency to each individual task that adds up to a large allowance. This way, the project schedule always appears to be on time in the case of moderate slippage. Also, this contingency time can be used conveniently to crash the project. This project is unique in that we have an unavoidable deadline at the end of the project: April 30, 2014. As the team will be graduating soon after, this deadline simply cannot be pushed out. This results in more tasks being critical, and means that slack must be made up for by the end of the project. This presents an interesting challenge which I present our solution for earlier. 9.5 Resource Allocation Resource allocation in this project has proved to be an exceptionally daunting task. We learned early on that attempting to accurately track man hours without a formal system was a fool's errand. For this reason, we decided to assign tasks as if everyone were working full time. The only real control we have here is that tasks are assigned to specific team members. The actual amount of time spend per task becomes irrelevant to our project, as we do not receive a wage for our labors. However, the project schedule is still followed, as each finish date serves as a deadline. Resource loading in our case is fairly straightforward. All design oriented tasks are back loaded, as these are the hardest to get rolling. Many times, the bulk of the work is sent simply understanding problem before getting involved in the theory. Currently, construction task are loaded toward the middle of the duration, as the beginning of these tasks are mostly spent in 20
  21. 21. preparation (getting tools ready, preparing parts, preparing the work area). This may change as we progress, but we believe this to be a fairly true-to-life assessment. Resource leveling in our project was difficult to perform. Attempting to automate the process in Microsoft Project was disastrous, as nearly attempt at auto-leveling seemed to drastically change the project plan. For this reason, most of the leveling was done manually, in specific spots that were having allocation problems. For tasks that required the entire team, such as construction and testing, the work unit for each resource were changed to accommodate the overload of hours. 9.6 Testing and Evaluation Plan We are very fortunate in that our project's deliverables are exceptionally easy to test and validate. In the case of the centrifuge itself, its operation can be easily tested to validate that it is up-to-spec and functioning properly. The plan for this is as follows: Positive Material Identification – an XRF (X-ray fluorescence) analyzer to get the exact chemical makeup of the final cast material. Surface Finish Comparator Test – the surface finish of the casted part will be tested to find the precise finish characterization. RPM verification – the rotational speed of the device will be confirmed by the use of a handheld tachometer. Vibration Analysis – the vibration characteristics of the device will be tested by a handheld device specifically designed to test for the vibration characteristics of rotating equipment bearings. After obtaining this data, it will be compared against known standards (see section 13) and checked for deviation. The project plan itself will be evaluated by deviation from budget, schedule slippage, and the amount of corrections that must be made in the final phase of the project. If the project is finished within budget, within scope, and on time, we will not hesitate to call the project a success. However particular attention will be paid to slippages, as these have to be made up later in the project in the form of taking slack away from other tasks further along in the project. This can force previously non-critical tasks into the critical path if their slack time is used for slippage correction. 9.7 Risk Management Plan In the team's risk management plan, all but one step of the risk management process have been implemented. In Tables 9.4, 9.5, and 9.6, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and risk response planning tables can be found. These all imply that risks have been identified. As we move forward with the project plan, potential pitfalls are monitored, and an eye to the future is always cast with the intention of catching potential problems in their infancy, rather than wait for them to fully materialize into big issues. Tools such as those presented in the follow tables help the project manager to assess the current risk profile and apply remedies based on a predetermined set of criteria, in this case, the risk response planning table. This table states all of the known risks and offers a response plan for each. This is an invaluable tool for teams to invest in, and with complete input from team members, it can insure that all members know what is expected when problems arise. For the monitoring and control parts of the process, we are currently working on a scheme under which we can all operate that will take risks into account. We are currently in the design phase, which has the fewest risks attached to it. Since we know that the manufacturing phase will be the riskiest part of the project, we are trying to get a good risk management and control system going to prepare. A large part of this will be implementing step number 7 of the process, which calls for the use of a permanent register to keep all of the risk identification and planning response information in a central location. 21
  22. 22. Table 9.4: A qualitative risk analysis table. Risk Matrix - Vertical Axis Centrifuge 1. Casting mold difficult to manufacture/procure. 2. Pouring the mold is more difficult than expected. 1. Drum design revisions needed. High 1. Tight scheduling pushes deadlines out. Medium 1. Budget overruns by <20% 1. Imbalance cannot be mitigated using conventional methods. Low 1. Bill of Materials is incomplete; expedited order of minor consumables needed. 1. Budget overruns by >20% 1. Safety concerns prohibit testing. Low Probability 1. Needed parts have long lead times. 2. Manufactured parts are out of spec/unusable due to dimensional defects. Medium High Impact Table 9.5: A quantitative risk analysis table. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) THREAT SEVERITY, S LIKELIHOOD, L ABILITY TO DETECT, D RPN 9 7.5 6.5 3 8 7 5 8.5 8.5 5.5 8 8 4 7.5 6 3 8 6 4 8 5 3 5 4 612 247.5 208 192 160 157.5 150 102 8 4.5 2 72 7 2 4.5 2 2 4 63 16 Tight scheduling pushes deadlines out Needed parts have long lead times Casting mold difficult to manufacture/procure Drum design revisions needed Budget overruns by >20% Pouring the mold is more difficult than expected Budget overruns by <20% Safety concerns prohibit testing Manufactured parts are out of spec/unusable due to dimensional defects. Imbalance cannot be mitigated using conventional methods Expedited order of minor consumables needed 22
  23. 23. Table 9.6: A risk response planning table Risk Response Planning THREAT RISK RESPONSE PLANNING APPROACH Tight scheduling pushes deadlines out Mitigate Needed parts have long lead times Casting mold difficult to manufacture/procure Avoid Mitigate/Accept Drum design revisions needed Mitigate Budget overruns by >20% Mitigate Pouring the mold is more difficult than expected Mitigate/Accept Budget overruns by <20% Mitigate Safety concerns prohibit testing Mitigate Manufactured parts are out of spec/unusable due to dimensional defects. Accept Imbalance cannot be mitigated using conventional methods Expedited order of minor consumables needed Mitigate Mitigate/Accept 23 REMEDY This risk can be mitigated by careful planning and high productivity. If the project begins to slip on deadlines early on, the problem is likely to get worse. The idea here is to avoid this risk by finalizing the design on time and ordering parts early, so that plenty of time is allowed for shipping. This is a high priority risk that will be difficult to mitigate. We will try early on to procure a mold to avoid manufacturing our own, but on some level, we must accept that this will likely be a major challenge. This risk can be easily abated by building the drum and testing it out apart from the rest of the machine. This will be a simple process that can save a lot of time down the road. For this risk, a detailed and accurate estimate of price will be essential. To maximize mitigation, it is imperative that the estimate is done at the end of the design phase. This risk will be nearly impossible to detect until it comes time to pour metal. A dry run will help a little with this risk, but even this will require the assembled machine. Some risk will have to be accepted here. For this risk, a detailed and accurate estimate of price will be essential. To maximize mitigation, it is imperative that the estimate is done at the end of the design phase. This risk can easily be mitigated by the addition of safety features and procedures that are aligned with OSHA standards. Unfortunately, it is nearly impossible to detect a manufacturing defect until it is too late. This risk will have to be accepted or worked around. If, during initial tests, we detect excessive vibration levels, there are a number of unconventional methods that can be applied on the fly (field balancing) in order to balance the machine and have it function safely. Research on the application of these methods will be necessary. We will try very hard to anticipate all needs ahead of time, but there is always a chance we might miss something. We will mitigate risk by making the Bill of Materials as complete as possible, but we will have to accept, to some degree, that we may miss something minor.
  24. 24. 9.8 Business Plan 9.8.1 The Market Idea In the time since North and Hall succeeded in producing interchangeable parts in the early 18th century, much has been done in industry to make sure that the equipment that keeps businesses working is productive and reliable. However, as the industrial revolution burgeoned a new level of reliability, machinery began to last ever longer. The result is a large number of industrial machines that have long outlived their own obsolescence, product line, and in some cases, even the manufacturer itself. This leaves end-users in the precarious position of facing either astronomical redesign and replacement costs, or the logistical nightmare of reverse engineering an obsolete machine. Unfortunately, many who lack the knowledge or gumption to face the challenge of reverse engineering end up simply paying a company to handle the problem. In the process, a great deal of time and money are squandered on what is, ostensibly, an easy way out. 9.8.2The Product Idea The problem described above is a common side effect of the ever-aging infrastructure of our refineries, power plants, chemical manufacturing facilities, and city utilities. The proposed solution is a device which is capable of using a centrifugal casting process to make parts. Whereas many of the parts inside of any given machine are made by conventional machining methods, a few of the more complex parts require a process that is capable of more intricate details. With conventional casting, complex shapes can be achieved by using a shaped mold. In centrifugal casting, the same level of complexity can be achieved, but with fewer defects, significantly better material properties, and near-net shape. The combination of better quality and less waste mean that the profit potential for such a device is high. Whereas a conventional casting operation must use a large portion of its capital on overhead costs due to scrapped parts and extra labor, a small scale centrifugal casting outfit can produce small runs of complex, hard-to-make parts. By doing this, the business can afford to sell these parts at large margins while still undercutting the OEM's prices. The device in question will be capable of this level of quality, as well as being reliable and easy to use. 9.8.3The Market Served The idea here is to use the device to complement the services that industrial equipment manufacturers and equipment repair centers already provide to their customer base. These businesses will already have a great deal of the infrastructure in place needed to sustain a casting operation, such as machining and drafting capabilities, as well as safety procedures and zoned industrial facilities. Companies looking to expand the scope of what they're able to offer their customers will take great interest in the capabilities of this product. 9.8.4The Customer Value Value for the customer is created by the special nature of what this device is able to achieve. Purchasing spare parts from an OEM often results in inflated prices and long lead times. The reason for this is that many times, end-users have no one else to turn to. When a critical piece of equipment breaks down, sometimes the only party capable of producing a fix is the OEM. With the proposed product, the hope is that third party shops become empowered to contest the OEM's market share and ultimately provide the customer with higher quality products and faster turnarounds. 9.8.5Revenue Generation Revenue will initially be generated by limited retail sales to area businesses in order to study the market impact and gauge customer interest. Once these variables have been 24
  25. 25. set, attempts will be made to license the idea to an existing manufacturer. Since an established manufacturer will already have many important relationships with clients, it would be wise to assimilate this product into their already existing market share, rather than try to carve out a niche independently. After these deals are set, revenue will be generated in the form of licensing fees collected from a participating corporation. 9.8.6Economic Impact for the Coastal Bend Impact for the Coastal Bend will be large. As a result of the fact that the Coastal Bend is beset on all sides by industrial businesses, such as refineries, chemical plants, equipment repair shops, etc., a product like the one described could potentially be a gamechanger for businesses that haven't yet figured out how to procure higher profile work. Also, this product encourages competition between OEMs and aftermarket parts manufacturers. Whereas the OEM used to be the only place you could find particular parts for your machine, now, many facilities will be capable of this type of manufacturing. The resulting competition results in a buyer's market, which creates added value for the customer. Hopefully, this competition will raise local standards regarding manufacturing ability and quality, as well as create jobs for residents by giving locals businesses a new venture to look into. 10. Cost Analysis and Justification 10.1 Cost of Building In depth cost analysis is shown in Table 9.7: Bill of Materials. The prices varied at different online stores. The table includes the highest possible prices and the lowest possible prices that give us a good idea of what our expense range is going to be. The highest possible total turned out to be $1545 and the lowest possible total is $860. Till next semester we’ll still try to find cheaper materials if possible that could sustain the same workload. Table 10.1: Bill of materials BILL OF MATERIALS VERTICAL AXIS CENTRIFUGE MATERIAL QTY. Baseplate Angle Plate Drum Turntable Coupling Sleeve Drive Shaft Thrust Bearing Radial Bearing V-Belt Sheaves QD Bushings V-Belt Keys Consumables 1/8" C.S. Plate 3/8" C.S. Plate 1/8" C.S. Tubing 1/4" C.S. Plate 1/8" C.S. Tubing 1018 Cold Rolled Steel Various Various Cast Iron Cast Iron Rubber Carbon Steel Various 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 N/A TOTALS 25 HIGH Price 50 75 100 50 20 100 400 400 60 60 50 20 50 LOW Price 35 50 75 35 10 75 200 200 30 30 30 10 20 1545 DESCRIPTION 860
  26. 26. 10.2 Justification The casting machine that we’re making will prove to be great value. Individuals and businesses pay a huge amount to get a custom part casted. Using this machine we’ll be able to earn our investment back by making just two to three parts. Even if we have to use to for a small business we could make parts with it that would otherwise cost thousands of dollars. 11. Implementation Plan We plan on starting to build the prototype as soon as the Spring 2014 semester starts. The parts that we have to order are: Pipe for mold chamber Shafting material (1018 Cold Rolled Steel) ¼" Carbon Steel Plate (for the majority of the structure of the machine) Structural C Channel for the siderails of the skid 1½" Angle Iron for supports Mounted Bearings Hardware (nuts, bolts etc.) Consumables (lubricant, solvent, paint etc.) After all detail drawings have been made, and the plate has been received, all structural components will be cut out with a CNC plasma cutter. After they are cut, they will be de-burred and readied for welding. The skid, mold chamber, and motor stand will then be welded and hand dressed to be ready for final assembly. Also, the drive shaft and accompanying sleeve will be made in a lathe. After all structural components have been constructed, the machine will be assembled, checked for function and painted. We know exactly where to order the parts from and also know the materials that they are going to be. The AC Motor is available in our school’s machine shop already and we will be using that for our machine. As soon as the parts arrive, which will not take more than 2 weeks; we will start assembling them together. We’ve planned to completely assemble the prototype within a month and have it ready for testing. The team will get busy with the other classes during the end of the semester, which is why we plan on getting this done as soon as possible.We’ll keep testing the prototype until we achieve the desired results. 12. Expected Results and Deliverables The expected results and deliverables associated for this project will be as follows: One (1) vertical axis centrifuge capable of accelerating a mass to 1200 rpm for the purposes of centrifugal casting. Centrifuge will be capable of safely rotating up to 200lbs. in weight. One (1) casted part of either aluminum or bronze, with appropriate dimensional and geometric accuracy. One (1) set of mold dies for future production of parts, along with a detailed procedure for the construction and preparation of the casting mold. A set of instructions for use of the device, as well as safety documentation and warnings. A complete parts breakdown of the device, populated with part numbers and manufactures for future replacement and maintenance. Surface finish of casted part will fall within machined surface criteria. Casting will have very few inclusions and high alloy purity. 26
  27. 27. The above specifications were obtained using preliminary calculations and empirical data received from various sources and first-hand accounts. Once the design is completed, this data will be inspected for accuracy and cross-checked against manufacturing drawings and hard calculations. The checks and calculations will become part of the documentation that is provided to the customer upon the conclusion of the project. Details such as this are considered essential communication to the client, and must be well developed and researched. In the beginning, we will likely have some vibration and balance issues as a result of the challenging nature of the problem. Once the issues have been worked out, we hope to provide a product that operates within the customer's parameters and that continues to be reliable for a long period of time. Deliverables will be ready no later than April 30, 2014, and all pertinent documentation will be handed over, along with the product itself at that time. 13. Evaluation Plan Once we’ve assembled all the parts we’ll try different tests in order to check if everything is working fine. First the motor will be switched on and we’ll let the drum spin without any metal poured in. If the first test is passed we’ll try pouring in water at room temperature to check if there is any leakage or splashing of the liquid. We’ll try this numerous times because if this test fails it will mean that the super-heated molten metal will probably splash too which could be fatal. Once both the tests are passed we’ll wear safety suits and will try doing the same process but with molten metal this time. Once the metal has solidified we’ll check for any impurities and will fix any issues that arise until the geometric flaws are almost negligible. We aim to make high quality finished parts that are built to last for a long time and can be used as spare parts in very reliable machinery. Since we’re done with all the design and have picked the materials already, we’re ready to order and assemble the parts and test the machine out. 14. Monitoring and Control Plan The centrifugal castingmonitoring and control plan progress are to review content and the quality of project deliverables, to ensure that project objectives are being met, performance, and project cost, schedule, quality, risk, and scope are be controlled. While the project continues to progress and to be terminated some changes had been required from time to time, the changes kept tracking in timeline and budgetary considerations, the most tasks that were monitored are design phase, the project deadline and the budget. Also keeping an eye on team performance and reacting quickly and appropriately to any emergent issues to make positive changes. As the project progresses through each phase the scope of the project maintained well and documentation related to completed portions of the project are stored and organized for future reference. The centrifugal casting project has a schedule baseline that Monitor the project properly to decrease the chances of schedule issues that eventual becomes major setback. The cost of the project maintained to be a key factor for success without affecting the cost of any task phase. Keeping track of any changes in budget will not affect directly because our team has fixable resources that can be added to overall affected budget. Reporting quality control issues were applied to support the accuracy and some adjustments made to insure the quality of the outcome of our project. To monitor performance of the project and its data is important to complete proper calculation to timeline and phasing plans. Tracking risks might accrue in any phase plan of the project but our team insures that the project will be completed in time with complete project specifications. 27
  28. 28. The budget and cost associated with centrifugal casting project is under control, our team has flexible budget that can be added to the cost of terminating our project, the total coasts of our project is $1450. The expect retail sale of this product and the licenses fee are $3500 also the total items to be sold in the first yearly quarter are 6 item with total sales $21,000. Earned Value Analysis can be seen in table 14.1. Table 14.1: Earned Value Analysis 15. Audit Response and Termination Plan The vertical axis centrifuge project needs to be closely monitored to prevent missing deadlines, and to ensure the project is progressing. Sometimes problems occur during the building of the project and become necessary to terminate the project before completion. Audit response is a good way to identify problems earlier, clarify performance, reduce cost, speed of achievement of results, provide information to the client, and many more to reduce the risk of termination of the project. The team will review all elements of the project to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the project. The team's project auditor will be our faculty sponsor Dr. Simonescu who has experience and expertise in vertical centrifugal casting. The project audit will examine methodologies and procedures, properties, budgets and expenditures, degree of completion, project management, and records. The results of the audit will be the progress of the ongoing project and how to improve these recommendations. There will be ongoing audits throughout the project (once every two weeks) to keep the project on track and to avoid termination. The audit response will identify problems before they get out of hand, improve project performance, 28
  29. 29. reduce cost, identify mistakes, remedy them, and avoid them in the future, and many more results the auditor will suggest to the team. The main purpose of the audit will be to improve the project and achieve the goals of the project. 16. Relevant Standards Standards that need to be met by our Vertical Axis Centrifuge are listed below: • ISO(International Standards Organization) • 6178:1983 – Construction and Safety Standards for Centrifuges. • OSHA(Occupational Safety and Health Administration) • 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart O – Machinery and Machine Guarding Safety Standards. • ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) • B271 / B271M – 11e1 – Centrifugal Casting Standards for Copper-Based Alloys. • B955 / B955M – 11 – Centrifugal Casting Standards for Aluminum-Based Alloys. The above standards outline several functional and safety standards that need to be met by the machine. These standards, particularly the ones that pertain to safety, will be incredibly important to follow. The molten metal will be extremely hot, and the machine will be turning very fast. Failure to meet basic safety codes could result in injuries and legal liability issues. Machinery standards are slightly more lax, as our machine does not meet the size threshold for ISO construction standards, we will still attempt to hold our machine to ISO standards, but it is not as important as safety codes. ASTM codes give very detailed specifications on how material should be treated, but unfortunately, the alloys we use will not be completely under our control. We will try to follow them closely, but we acknowledge the reality of the situation. 17. Professional Goals and Necessary Skills All the team members being mechanical engineering majors have similar professional goals and skills. The team really wants to make this project a success. Adding this project to our resume would make a really positive impact. The skills needed to generate a prototype design required experience with AutoCAD. Despite all the team members knowing how to use AutoCAD, Derek was the one who did the modeling as he was in charge of the design portion of the project because he knew exactly how the casting machine should be. As mechanical engineers, AutoCAD is the most commonly used software and gaining more experience with it potentially makes our future career stronger. We also had to apply knowledge from strengths of materials, dynamics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical system design classes in order to pick the materials that we did. 18. Conclusions The entire week-by-week schedule for next semester has been planned out and we’re really looking forward to ordering the parts as soon as the classes start. Shehryar Niazi has really good graphic designing skills and he’s planning to make flyers and an animated promo video for the casting machine too. Derek and Samir still discuss about the design very often, as they believe that a design can never be perfect and there is always room for improvement. Shumeng and Michael discuss about the budget often always making sure that we don’t exceed it. This semester has proved to be really productive for our team. We never thought we would be able to come up with such promising design that would please our faculty mentor, Dr. Simionescu, this much. The key was that the team mates had really good chemistry and did take each other’s opinion seriously which eventually helped in making a solid design. 29
  30. 30. References: Wallace Henry W: Casting apparatus and method. / Moule et methode de coulee.American Optical Corporation: US Patent1079021 Mirizzi, Michael S: Stent Made by Rotational Molding or Centrifugal Casting and Method for Making the Same, United States Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. (Santa Clara, CA): US Patent 6574851 Khandros, Igor Y: Centrifugal Casting, United States Abex Corporation (New York, NY) US Patent 4357394 Spiewok, Leonhard (Wallisellen, CH), Bucher, Albert (Kriens, CH): Vertical centrifuge United StatesEscher Wyss Limited (Zurich, CH) US Patent 4014497 Zhi Sun, et al: "Research of Mechanical Property Gradient Distribution of Al Cu Alloy in Centrifugal Casting." Surface Review and Letters, Vol. 18, No. 6 (2011) 297 301. World Scientific Publishing Company Tsunashima, Kenji, Aoki, Seizo, Suzuki, Masaru: Casting Toray IND INC JP01241413 Manda, Jan Marius (Toronto, CA): Metal molding United States Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. US Patent 20070181281 True Centrifugal Casting, www.thelibraryofmanufacturing.com Material Properties, www.theengineeringtoolbox.com Metal Prices, www.metalsdepot.com 30

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