Presented By: Shehrevar Davierwala
Visit: http://sites.google.com/site/techwizardin
http://www.authorstream.com/shehrevard...
Overview
 Textbook:
J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of
Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Ha...
What are microprocessor-based systems?
 Microprocessor-based systems are electrical systems consisting
of microprocessors...
What are microprocessors?
 A microprocessor is a processor (or Central Processing Unit, CPU)
fabricated on a single integ...
Evolution of Computers
 First generation (1939-1954) - vacuum tube
 Second generation (1954-1959) - transistor
 Third g...
Evolution of Computers
Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html
http://www.cs.virginia.edu/brochure/museum.ht...
Evolution of Computers
 Second generation (1954-1959) - transistor
Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html
...
Evolution of Computers
 Third generation (1959-1971) - IC
Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html
http://ww...
Evolution of Computers
 Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor
 In 1971, Intel developed 4-bit 4004 chip for ...
Evolution of Intel Microprocessors
1
10
100
1000
10000
1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000
8080
8088
80286
80386
...
Other Commercial Microprocessors
 PowerPC (IBM, Motorola)
 Athlon, Dulon, Hammer (AMD)
 Crusoe (Transmeta)
 SPARC, Ult...
Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems
 Computers
Block diagram of a computer
Memory
Timing &
control
Keyboard
Inte...
1.3 SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
System bus (data, address & control signals)
Memory
Interrupt circuitrySerial I/OParallel I/O
Tim...
THE PERSONAL COMPUTER
Processor
(8086
trough
Pentium
System bus (data, address & control signals)
System
ROM
Interrupt
log...
CPU
RAM ROM
Timer
Interrupt
I/O port
USART
A/D, D/A
OSC.
Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems
 Microcontrollers
B...
http://www.ti.com
Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems
 ASICs
 Microprocessors are embedded
into ASIC chips to i...
Overview
Overview
 Intel 8086 facts
8086
VDD (5V)
GND
CLK
20-bit
address
8-bit data
••
•••
control
signals
To 8088
control
signals...
Organization of 8086
AH AL
BH BL
CH CL
DH DL
SP
BP
SI
DI
ALU
Flag register
Execution Unit
(EU)
EU
control
Σ
CS
DS
SS
ESALU...
General Purpose Registers
15 8 7 0
AX
BX
CX
DX
AH AL
BH BL
CH CL
DH DL
Accumulator
Base
Counter
Data
SP
BP
SI
DI
Data Grou...
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
n bits n bits
A B
Y
F
Carry
Y= 0 ?
A > B ?
F Y
0 0 0 A + B
0 0 1 A - B
0 1 0 A - 1
0 1 1 A and...
Flag Register
 OF DF IF TF ZFSF  AF PF CF 
015
 Control Flags  Status Flags
IF: Interrupt enable flag
DF: Direction ...
Instruction Machine Codes
 Instruction machine codes are binary numbers
 For Example:
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 MO...
EU Operation
ALU Data bus
(16 bits)
AH AL
BH BL
CH CL
DH DL
SP
BP
SI
DI
General purpose
register
ALU
Flag register
EU
cont...
Generating Memory Addresses
 How can a 16-bit microprocessor generate 20-bit memory addresses?
Segment
(64K)
0000
+
16-bi...
Memory Segmentation
 A segment is a 64KB block of memory starting from any 16-byte
boundary
 For example: 00000, 00010, ...
Memory Address Calculation
 Segment addresses must be stored
in segment registers
 Offset is derived from the combinatio...
Fetching Instructions
 Where to fetch the next instruction?
CS
IP
1 2 3 4
0 0 1 2
1 2 3 5 2
12352 MOV AL, 0
8086 Memory
...
Accessing Data Memory
 There is a number of methods to generate the memory address when
accessing data memory. These meth...
Reserved Memory Locations
FFFFF
FFFF0
003FF
00000
Reset
instruction
area
Interrupt
pointer
table
 Locations from 00000H t...
Interrupts
 An interrupt is an event that occurs while the processor is executing a program
 The interrupt temporarily s...
Minimum and Maximum Operation modes
 Intel 8086 has two operation modes:
Minimum Mode Maximum Mode
 8086 generates contr...
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Introduction

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Introduction

  1. 1. Presented By: Shehrevar Davierwala Visit: http://sites.google.com/site/techwizardin http://www.authorstream.com/shehrevard Intel 8086 Microprocessor
  2. 2. Overview  Textbook: J. L. Antonakos, "An Introduction to the Intel Family of Microprocessors," Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999
  3. 3. What are microprocessor-based systems?  Microprocessor-based systems are electrical systems consisting of microprocessors, memories, I/O units, and other peripherals. Memory Output units Input units Bus Microprocessor Control unit Datapath ALU Reg.  Microprocessors access memories and other units through buses  The operations of microprocessors are controlled by instructions stored in memories  Microprocessors are the brains of the systems
  4. 4. What are microprocessors?  A microprocessor is a processor (or Central Processing Unit, CPU) fabricated on a single integrated circuit. X Y Control unit IR PC ALU ACC MAR Data bus Control bus Address bus A simple microprocessor architecture
  5. 5. Evolution of Computers  First generation (1939-1954) - vacuum tube  Second generation (1954-1959) - transistor  Third generation (1959-1971) - IC  Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor
  6. 6. Evolution of Computers Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html http://www.cs.virginia.edu/brochure/museum.html http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/650.html  First generation (1939-1954) - vacuum tube IBM 650, 1954
  7. 7. Evolution of Computers  Second generation (1954-1959) - transistor Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html http://www.computer50.org/kgill/transistor/trans.html Manchester University Experimental Transistor Computer
  8. 8. Evolution of Computers  Third generation (1959-1971) - IC Http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/computer1.html http://www.piercefuller.com/collect/pdp8.html PDP-8, Digital Equipment Corporation  Thanks to the use of ICs, the DEC PDP-8 is the least expensive general purpose small computer in 1960s
  9. 9. Evolution of Computers  Fourth generation (1971-present) - microprocessor  In 1971, Intel developed 4-bit 4004 chip for calculator applications. ALU Instruction decoder Reg. Program counter I/O Refresh logic System bus Control logic ROM/RAM buffer Timing Reset http://www.intel.com A good review article: The History of The Microprocessor, Bell Labs Technical Journal, Autumn, 1997 Block diagram of Intel 4004 4004 chip layout
  10. 10. Evolution of Intel Microprocessors 1 10 100 1000 10000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium P II P III P 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium P II P III P 4 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium P II P III P 4 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium P II P III P 4 Number of transistors Minimum transistor sizes (µm) Clock frequencies (MHz) MIPS
  11. 11. Other Commercial Microprocessors  PowerPC (IBM, Motorola)  Athlon, Dulon, Hammer (AMD)  Crusoe (Transmeta)  SPARC, UltraSPARC (Sun Microsystems)  ARM cores (Advanced RISC Machines)  MIPS cores (MIPS Technologies)  TI’s TMS DSP chips (Texas Instruments)  StarCore (Motorola, Agere)  • • • • • •
  12. 12. Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  Computers Block diagram of a computer Memory Timing & control Keyboard Interrupt control ... ... Monitor Micro- processor Disk Other peripherals Bus  System performance is normally the most important design concern
  13. 13. 1.3 SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM System bus (data, address & control signals) Memory Interrupt circuitrySerial I/OParallel I/O Timing CPU µP + associated logic circuitry: •Bus controller •Bus drivers •Coprocessor •ROM (Read Only Memory) (start-up program) •RAM (Random Access Memory) •DRAM (Dynamic RAM) - high capacity, refresh needed •SRAM (Static RAM) - low power, fast, easy to interface •Crystal oscillator •Timing circuitry (counters dividing to lower frequencies) At external unexpected events, µP has to interrupt the main program execution, service the interrupt request (obviously a short subroutine) and retake the main program from the point where it was interrupt. Simple (only two wires + ground) but slow. •Printer (low resolution) •Modem •Operator’s console •Mainframe •Personal computer Many wires, fast. •Printer (high resolution) •External memory •Floppy Disk •Hard Disk •Compact Disk •Other high speed devices
  14. 14. THE PERSONAL COMPUTER Processor (8086 trough Pentium System bus (data, address & control signals) System ROM Interrupt logic (8259) Keyboard logic (8253) DMA Controller (8237) Timer logic (8253) Coprocessor (8087 trough 80387 640KB DRAM Expansion logic Keyboard Speaker Extension slots Video card Disk controller Serial port ...
  15. 15. CPU RAM ROM Timer Interrupt I/O port USART A/D, D/A OSC. Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  Microcontrollers Block diagram of a microcontroller  In general, microcontrollers are cheap and have low performance  A microcontroller is a simple computer implemented in a single VLSI chip.  Microcontrollers are widely used in industrial control, automobile and home applications
  16. 16. http://www.ti.com Applications of Microprocessor-Based Systems  ASICs  Microprocessors are embedded into ASIC chips to implement complex functions  In general, it requires that the microprocessors have low power consumption and take small silicon area A TI baseband chip for cellular phone applications
  17. 17. Overview
  18. 18. Overview  Intel 8086 facts 8086 VDD (5V) GND CLK 20-bit address 8-bit data •• ••• control signals To 8088 control signals from 8088 8086 signal classification  20 bit address bus allow accessing 1 M memory locations  16-bit internal data bus and 8-bit external data bus. Thus, it need two read (or write) operations to read (or write) a 16-bit datum  Byte addressable and byte-swapping Memory locations 5A 2F18000 18001 Low byte of word High byte of word Word: 5A2F
  19. 19. Organization of 8086 AH AL BH BL CH CL DH DL SP BP SI DI ALU Flag register Execution Unit (EU) EU control Σ CS DS SS ESALU Data bus (16 bits) Address bus (20 bits) Instruction Queue Bus control External bus IP Data bus (16 bits) Bus Interface Unit (BIU) General purpose register Segment register
  20. 20. General Purpose Registers 15 8 7 0 AX BX CX DX AH AL BH BL CH CL DH DL Accumulator Base Counter Data SP BP SI DI Data Group Pointer and Index Group Stack Pointer Base Pointer Source Index Destination Index
  21. 21. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) n bits n bits A B Y F Carry Y= 0 ? A > B ? F Y 0 0 0 A + B 0 0 1 A - B 0 1 0 A - 1 0 1 1 A and B 1 0 0 A or B 1 0 1 not A • • • • • •  Signal F control which function will be conducted by ALU.  Signal F is generated according to the current instruction.  Basic arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, •••••  Basic logic operations: and, or, xor, shifting,•••••
  22. 22. Flag Register  OF DF IF TF ZFSF  AF PF CF  015  Control Flags  Status Flags IF: Interrupt enable flag DF: Direction flag TF: Trap flag CF: Carry flag PF: Parity flag AF: Auxiliary carry flag ZF: Zero flag SF: Sign flag OF: Overflow flag  Flag register contains information reflecting the current status of a microprocessor. It also contains information which controls the operation of the microprocessor.  
  23. 23. Instruction Machine Codes  Instruction machine codes are binary numbers  For Example: 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 MOV AL, BL MOV  Machine code structure Opcode Operand1  Opcode tells what operation is to be performed. (EU control logic generates ALU control signals according to Opcode)  Some instructions do not have operands, or have only one operand  Operands tell what data should be used in the operation. Operands can be addresses telling where to get data (or where to store results) Register mode Mode Operand2  Mode indicates the type of a instruction: Register type, or Memory type
  24. 24. EU Operation ALU Data bus (16 bits) AH AL BH BL CH CL DH DL SP BP SI DI General purpose register ALU Flag register EU control instruction 1011000101001010 1. Fetch an instruction from instruction queue 2. According to the instruction, EU control logic generates control signals. (This process is also referred to as instruction decoding) 3. Depending on the control signal, EU performs one of the following operations:  An arithmetic operation  A logic operation  Storing a datum into a register  Moving a datum from a register  Changing flag register
  25. 25. Generating Memory Addresses  How can a 16-bit microprocessor generate 20-bit memory addresses? Segment (64K) 0000 + 16-bit register 16-bit register 20-bit memory address 00000 FFFFF Left shift 4 bits Intel 80x86 memory address generation 1M memory space Offset Segment address Offset Addr1 Addr1 + 0FFFF
  26. 26. Memory Segmentation  A segment is a 64KB block of memory starting from any 16-byte boundary  For example: 00000, 00010, 00020, 20000, 8CE90, and E0840 are all valid segment addresses  The requirement of starting from 16-byte boundary is due to the 4-bit left shifting  Segment registers in BIU CS SS DS ES Code Segment Data Segment Stack Segment Extra Segment 015
  27. 27. Memory Address Calculation  Segment addresses must be stored in segment registers  Offset is derived from the combination of pointer registers, the Instruction Pointer (IP), and immediate values 0000 + Segment address Offset Memory address  Examples 3 4 8 A 0 4 2 1 4 8 A B 43 CS IP + Instruction address 5 0 0 0 0 F F E 0 F F E 05 SS SP + Stack address 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 2 2 2 3 6 21 DS DI + Data address
  28. 28. Fetching Instructions  Where to fetch the next instruction? CS IP 1 2 3 4 0 0 1 2 1 2 3 5 2 12352 MOV AL, 0 8086 Memory  Update IP — After an instruction is fetched, Register IP is updated as follows: IP = IP + Length of the fetched instruction — For Example: the length of MOV AL, 0 is 2 bytes. After fetching this instruction, the IP is updated to 0014
  29. 29. Accessing Data Memory  There is a number of methods to generate the memory address when accessing data memory. These methods are referred to as Addressing Modes  Examples: — Direct addressing: MOV AL, [0300H] 1 2 3 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 6 4 01 DS Memory address (assume DS=1234H) — Register indirect addressing: MOV AL, [SI] 1 2 3 4 0 0 3 1 0 2 6 5 01 DS Memory address (assume DS=1234H) (assume SI=0310H)
  30. 30. Reserved Memory Locations FFFFF FFFF0 003FF 00000 Reset instruction area Interrupt pointer table  Locations from 00000H to 003FFH are used for the interrupt pointer table  Locations from FFFF0H to FFFFFH are used for system reset code  Some memory locations are reserved for special purposes. Programs should not be loaded in these areas  It has 256 table entries  Each table entry is 4 bytes 256 × 4 = 1024 = memory addressing space From 00000H to 003FFH
  31. 31. Interrupts  An interrupt is an event that occurs while the processor is executing a program  The interrupt temporarily suspends execution of the program and switch the processor to executing a special routine (interrupt service routine)  When the execution of interrupt service routine is complete, the processor resumes the execution of the original program Hardware Interrupts Software Interrupts  Caused by activating the processor’s interrupt control signals (NMI, INTR)  Caused by the execution of an INT instruction  Caused by an event which is generated by the execution of a program, such as division by zero  Interrupt classification  8088 can have 256 interrupts
  32. 32. Minimum and Maximum Operation modes  Intel 8086 has two operation modes: Minimum Mode Maximum Mode  8086 generates control signals for memory and I/O operations  It needs 8288 bus controller to generate control signals for memory and I/O operations  Some functions are not available in minimum mode  It allows the use of 8087 coprocessor; it also provides other functions  Compatible with 8085-based systems
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