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Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
Artificial intel
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Artificial intel

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  • 1. Artificial Intelligence N.B.Mehta Science College By: Shehrevar . Davierwala. N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 2. CONTENTS Introduction To Artificial Intelligence History Of Artificial Intelligence Branches Of A.I What Knowledge I Need for Learning A.I ? Applications N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 3. Introduction To Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are creating systems which can mimic human thought, understand speech, beat the best human chess player, and countless other feats never before possible. Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. Artificial Intelligence, otherwise known as AI, is the study and development of intelligent machines capable of performing complex tasks that require thought and behavior normally associated with human intelligence. N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 4. The purpose of Artificial Intelligence research should not be misunderstood, though. It is not to replicate human beings, but rather to develop useful machines that can solve problems as well as humans. To such an end, researchers may employ methods that perform more computations than commonly achievable by human endeavor or methods that are not observed in people. Article from news-paper about A.I N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 5. History Of Artificial Intelligence The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. The attendees, including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, became the leaders of AI research for many decades. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field: Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do" and Marvin Minsky agreed, writing that "within a generation ... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved". The phrase “Artificial Intelligence” was coined by John McCarthy in 1956. at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 6. Algorithms originally developed by AI researchers began to appear as parts of larger systems. AI had solved a lot of very difficult problems and their solutions proved to be useful throughout the technology industry, such as data mining, industrial robotics, logistics, speech recognition, banking software, medical diagnosis and Google's search engine. A.I Lab at IBM N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 7. Branches Of A.I Logic What a program knows about the world in general the facts of the specific situation in which it must act, and its goals are all represented by sentences of some mathematical logical language. The program decides what to do by inferring that certain actions are appropriate for achieving its goals. search AI programs often examine large numbers of possibilities, e.g. moves in a chess game or inferences by a theorem proving program. Discoveries are continually made about how to do this more efficiently in various domains. pattern recognition When a program makes observations of some kind, it is often programmed to compare what it sees with a pattern. For example, a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face. More complex patterns, e.g. in a natural language text, in a chess position, or in the history of some event are also studied. These more complex patterns require quite different methods than do the simple patterns that have been studied the most. representation Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. pattern recognition N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 8. inference From some facts, others can be inferred. Mathematical logical deduction is adequate for some purposes, but new methods of non-monotonic inference have been added to logic since the 1970s. The simplest kind of non-monotonic reasoning is default reasoning in which a conclusion is to be inferred by default, but the conclusion can be withdrawn if there is evidence to the contrary. For example, when we hear of a bird, we can infer that it can fly, but this conclusion can be reversed when we hear that it is a penguin. It is the possibility that a conclusion may have to be withdrawn that constitutes the non-monotonic character of the reasoning. Ordinary logical reasoning is monotonic in that the set of conclusions that can the drawn from a set of premises is a monotonic increasing function of the premises. Circumscription is another form of non- monotonic reasoning. common sense knowledge and reasoning This is the area in which AI is farthest from human-level, in spite of the fact that it has been an active research area since the 1950s. While there has been considerable progress, e.g. in developing systems of non-monotonic reasoning and theories of action, yet more new ideas are needed. learning from experience Programs do that. The approaches to AI based on connectionism and neural nets specialize in that. There is also learning of laws expressed in logic. Programs can only learn what facts or behaviors their formalisms can represent, and unfortunately learning systems are almost all based on very limited abilities to represent information. N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 9. planning Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions), facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. From these, they generate a strategy for achieving the goal. In the most common cases, the strategy is just a sequence of actions. epistemology This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world. ontology Ontology is the study of the kinds of things that exist. In AI, the programs and sentences deal with various kinds of objects, and we study what these kinds are and what their basic properties are. Emphasis on ontology begins in the 1990s. heuristics A heuristic is a way of trying to discover something or an idea imbedded in a program. The term is used variously in AI. Heuristic functions are used in some approaches to search to measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal. Heuristic predicates that compare two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than the other, i.e. constitutes an advance toward the goal, may be more useful. On tol ogi cal Mo del N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 10. Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning Neural networks genetic programming Genetic programming is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random Lisp programs and selecting fittest in millions of generations. It is being developed by John Koza's group. Many problems in AI (in reasoning, planning, learning, perception and robotics) require the agent to operate with incomplete or uncertain information. AI researchers have devised a number of powerful tools to solve these problems using methods from probability theory and economics. A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain. Development of artificial Brain Neural Model Study of neurologyN.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 11. What Knowledge I Need for Learning A.I ? N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 12. Study mathematics, especially mathematical logic. The more you learn about sciences, e.g. physics or biology, the better. For the biological approaches to AI, study psychology and the physiology of the nervous system. Learn some programming languages--at least C, Lisp and Prolog. It is also a good idea to learn one basic machine language. Jobs are likely to depend on knowing the languages currently in fashion. In the late 1990s, these include C++ and Java. Model of Robot (robotics) Intelligent Telephone System N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 13. Applications Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys. However, many AI applications are not perceived as AI: "A lot of cutting edge AI has filtered into general applications, often without being called AI because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labeled AI anymore. Many thousands of AI applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry.“ In the late 90s and early 21st century, AI technology became widely used as elements of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. • 1 Computer science • 2 Finance • 3 Medicine • 4 Heavy industry • 5 Transportation • 6 Telecommunications • 7 Toys and games • 8 Music • 9 Aviation GPS System Computers N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 14. References www.wikipedia.com www.google.com N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College
  • 15. B y: Shehrevar . Davierwala N.B Mehta Science College E-mail: shehrevard043@gmail.com N.B.Mehta Science College N.B.Mehta Science College

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